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  2. Albert Sidney Johnston’s Staff Officers The following lists the Staff Officers of General Albert Sidney Johnston at Shiloh: AAG Capt. H. P. Brewster (replaced W. W. Mackall) AAG Capt. Nathaniel Wickcliffe (or Wickliffe or Wyckliffe) Chief of Staff MGen Braxton Bragg Chief of Engineers Major Jeremy Gilmer Asst Engineer Lt. Joseph Dixon (killed at Fort Donelson) Chief of Commissary Capt Thomas K. Jackson AQM Capt W. L. Wickham AQM Major Albert Smith Asst Inspector General Capt. Theodore O’Hara Chief of Artillery (acting) BGen James de Berty Trudeau Medical Director Surgeon D. W. Yandell Aide-de-Camp Lt. George Baylor Vol. Aide-de-Camp Lt. Thomas M. Jack Vol. Aide-de-Camp Major D. M. Haydon (or Hayden) VADC Governor Isham Harris VADC Col. William Preston VADC Dr. E. W. Munford VADC Major Calhoun Benham Scout/ intelligence xxx Telegraph operator (unknown) Bodyguard/ orderly (mentioned Life of ASJ page 615, but not named) Clerk xxx In addition to the above (found in D. W. Reed’s Battle of Shiloh, page 41, and Preston Johnston’s Life of Albert Sidney Johnston, there are other possible Staff and support officers to consider. Major General Bragg, in his role as Chief of Staff, may have made use of members of his own staff to conduct activities in support of the Army of the Mississippi (Captain S. H. Lockett, Engineer, is mentioned as “responsible for finding the other Federal Division (Stuart’s Brigade) further to the east,” Captain H. Oladowski likely performed the role of Chief of Ordnance (acting) and Surgeons Foard and Nott and Lyle were employed to the benefit of all.) General Beauregard also had Staff officers who performed functions for the Army of the Mississippi: BGen Trudeau was actually attached to Beauregard as VADC; Captain E. H. Cummins performed the role as Signals Officer; and Colonel B. H. Helm seems to have coordinated Scout and reconnaissance activities to the east (observing Buell) while “civilian volunteers” are mentioned as providing valuable intelligence of the terrain and camps in vicinity of Pittsburg Landing. And, of course, Governor George W. Johnson was attached to the Army of the Mississippi and “acted in support of Kentucky troops.”
  3. Stan The importance of the Staff officers accompanying General Johnston's body back to New Orleans (and subsequent role of two men in providing information regarding the Battle of Shiloh directly to President Jefferson Davis) is to be found below: Regards Ozzy
  4. Yesterday
  5. Derrick

    17th Kentucky Diary-Lt. Sam Cox

    That is really interesting. I remember reading about the 14th Wisconsin fighting with a different brigade the next day, but I had no idea that some of the 18th made it out of the Hornet's Nest. That makes things really interesting when thinking about their lines now!
  6. Last week
  7. Stan Hutson

    Albert Sidney Johnston's Staff

    Interesting that so many accompanied the body back to Corinth and then to New Orleans.
  8. WI16thJim

    17th Kentucky Diary-Lt. Sam Cox

    The 18th WI fought with this brigade Sunday afternoon after relieving the 44th Ind. that had exhausted their ammo supply. They stayed with Lauman the rest of the day and the next.
  9. Derrick

    17th Kentucky Diary-Lt. Sam Cox

    Good luck on finding info! They really were moved all over the place it seems. In some of the reports they are said to have moved back to the fence along the Peach Orchard and the house, and in other reports they don't mention that at all, but moving straight back to the position east of the road.
  10. Stan Hutson

    Fort Donelson

    Soldiers killed and wounded at Fort Donelson
  11. Stan Hutson

    17th Kentucky Diary-Lt. Sam Cox

    One of my cousins was alongside the 17th. Captain Jesse Riley Dodd, Company F, 31st Indiana Infantry. Said to have been wounded at Shiloh, but still looking for paper proof that he was. I have often wondered how things might have transpired differently had Lauman's men not been moved around as they were, but rather just steadily fell back.
  12. Stan Hutson

    Grant's Shiloh Report

    When I refer to "green troops", I mean basically civilians. Basically no drill, never fired their weapons. Putting troops THAT green on the front lines is just insane. By sheer luck, they stood their ground. But, say had those green troops all run when the first shots were fired. The Confederates would have readily destroyed the other veteran units due to sheer weight of numbers. But, what if's. When looking at the Federal perspective it can't be said that "no attack was expected at Pittsburg Landing" AND ALSO say, "we were not surprised on April 6th". Those statements totally contradict one another. The Federals were surprised, plain and simple. Having said that, I think the Confederates were actually surprised when the dawn patrol came along. Hard to know if the Confederates were expecting it, or if when it happened they thought the weight of the whole Federal Army was about to come crashing down. Lastly, yes, Lew Wallace. I believe it simply is smoke and mirrors. Watch what the left hand is going while the right hand is actually at play. You hit the nail on the head Ozzy. By distracting the masses with Wallace being lost and late, the questions that really needed to be answered were swept under the rug. Point 5 is spot on.
  13. Stan Hutson

    General Support

    I think the soldiers serving in the position of orderly were the unsung heroes of the battle. Most of us know, well, largely, Shiloh and it's terrain, where we are at, and how to get from point A to point B. Put it this way, we have a better understanding of the battlefield than the Confederates did. I can't imagine being sent, as an orderly, to go find "General so and so and give him this message and then return back to me". Simply finding someone out in that large vast tract of battlefield acreage seems impossible alone, much less then finding ones way back. I think the orderlies did a good job of it, to say the least.
  14. Derrick

    17th Kentucky Diary-Lt. Sam Cox

    Thanks for the link Ozzy! That cemetery is only about 30 minutes from where I live, so I will definitely have to check it out! I wonder why Cruft returned to command the 31st Indiana instead of continuing to command the brigade...I haven't looked too closely for it, but have wondered why they made the switch to Jacob Lauman. Terrible timing too as he took command of the brigade the day before the battle!
  15. Derrick

    17th Kentucky Diary-Lt. Sam Cox

    It is strange that he doesn't mention it. In his Fort Donelson entries he writes about how he counted each shot from the gunboats and hated the sound. I'm wondering if he was just too exhausted to even care after the day they had, or perhaps he was on a steamer like Ozzy said.
  16. Ozzy

    Grant's Shiloh Report

    Mona Having written this report on 9 April 1862, General Grant was aware of the attempted pursuit by Sherman (and Dickey's cavalry) on Tuesday. But, instead of recording that, "The attempted pursuit by Sherman was a failure," the effort was "spun" into the story incorporated in paragraphs 14 & 15 (in such a way that Sherman emerges as a heroic figure.) A fore-runner to a more fantastic report submitted by General Grant, just a few months later, in which Edward Ord is accorded credit for a battle -- in which he did not even participate -- this written commendation of Sherman by Grant provides proof that, "The pen is mightier than the sword." Cheers Ozzy Reference: https://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=hvd.hwanm2;view=1up;seq=78 OR 17 part 1 pages 64 - 69 (Iuka).
  17. Ozzy

    17th Kentucky Diary-Lt. Sam Cox

    Derrick Remarkable diary, telling the story of an under-reported participant in Battle of Shiloh: Cruft's Brigade (original 13th Brigade of Buell's Army of the Ohio.) Thanks for sharing this Sam Cox diary with us! https://www.findagrave.com/memorial/38618423/preston-morton Captain Preston Morton, 17th Kentucky, Co. A All the best Ozzy
  18. Ozzy

    17th Kentucky Diary-Lt. Sam Cox

    Mona Good observation... it is interesting, what details are included (or omitted) from participant accounts. Perhaps Lieutenant Cox was so focused on attempting to save Captain Morton (and may have spent some of the evening aboard the steamer) that the gunboat firing just became part of the background noise? Regards Ozzy
  19. mona

    Grant's Shiloh Report

    On #15--"Nothing but hospitals and dead bodies--as long as Sherman pursued"....there was the "pursuit order" so this part of the report "overlooks" the fighting at fallen timbers.on the 8th.
  20. mona

    17th Kentucky Diary-Lt. Sam Cox

    i would have thought he would have mentioned the gunboats firing all nite of the 6th..a very interesting account..
  21. Derrick

    17th Kentucky Diary-Lt. Sam Cox

    I forgot to mention in the original post, but when I was there in April for the anniversary hike, I went to all of the 17th's locations for both days and took pictures of each spot. If you would like to see the spots that Lt. Cox mentions, and a post war sketch of the man himself, feel free to head to my site where I have them posted.
  22. Below I have shared the Diary of Samuel K. Cox, a young lieutenant in the 17th Kentucky Infantry, while the regiment was at Pittsburg Landing. Cox and the 17th fought at Fort Donelson, and so, were some of the veteran troops Grant had at Shiloh. He offers key details that are corroborated by other accounts, which helps understand the complex movements of Lauman's brigade on April 6th and 7th, 1862. The combined 17th/25th Kentucky Infantry regiments are the only Kentucky regiments that fought both days for the Union, as the rest were marching with Buell's army. The 17th was from my town, so I have loved diving into what Lt. Cox says he experienced. His Fort Donelson entries are also very interesting and I will post those some day soon! Lauman's brigade was the 3rd Brigade in Hurlbut's division, so they were encamped by the "information shelter" on the Mounds and the parking lot adjacent to that. Their first line was facing west on the edge of Larkin Bell's Cotton Field, and they then moved back to the fence near the house and Peach Orchard, and then just north and east of Bloody Pond where they made a 5 hour stand before falling back toward the siege guns. I really wish there was more on these guys!29 MarchThis is again Sunday. How time flies by. We had Sunday inspection. I received some cigars and tobacco today, sent me from home, and also received a letter from Sister Jennie which I answered immediately.We had new jackets issued today. 5 AprilLast night about 7 o'clock, we heard for the first time the "long roll" and our boys immediately responding to the call and were formed in line in ten minutes. We were then informed that our lines had been attacked some two miles from here, to which point we marched immediately. We did not reach the scene of action as it was only a skirmish and lasted only a few minutes. We then returned to camp and slept one more night in peace. 6 AprilWe have heard today that the enemy intended to attack us at this point. How true the report is we will soon know. We were brushing up for Sunday morning inspection when, to our very great surprise, the cannon and small arms opened not a mile distant and in ten minutes that everlasting long roll was beaten and we gathered our guns and formed in line. In a few minutes we were seen winding our way to the point from whence the music of musketry came.We arrived there in a few moments, and found our forces falling back gradually. Our Brigade, consisting of the 17th Kentucky, 44th Indiana, 31st Indiana regiments were formed in line of battle close to the edge of a field. We had been there but a few moments when the enemy opened a "G" and wounded several. While this was going on, a continual roar of musketry both on our right and left proved the battle was raging at every point. In a few moments, the enemy attacked the 31st and 44th Indiana, which was on our right. We could easily see the fight, it being but a few rods away, but not close enough for us to participate. We had to wait but a short time, however, as they appeared in front of us in the field spoken of above. Our order was not to fire until the command was given, which was obeyed almost to the letter. They had probably gotten halfway across, when General Hurlbut gave the command, "Now, boys, give it to them." Our regiment opened and "Great God!" I never saw men lie down faster when not skirmishing than they did. It seemed to me that the whole line fell. Every man in forty yards of the flag was either killed or wounded. The flag bearer, however, walked coolly across the field waving his color. He excited the admiration of all for bravery and coolness. I suppose he had at least five hundred shots fired at him, but Providence seemed to be on his side as no person touched him. At this point, we had one or two of Company A wounded. One ball struck Captain Morton squarely in the breast, but being a spend ball, it did no damage. We remained at that place some two hours and the Brigade which was fight on our left, from some cause or other, gave way and we had to leave our position which we had so nobly held to hold them in check at that point.Soon arriving on the ground, the enemy made its appearance and a most desperate struggle ensued. For five long, weary hours, did we stand under a terrific fire both from musketry and shell. We advanced inch by inch on the enemy and man a poor soldier "bit the dust" trying to maintain his position. We gained on them gradually until nearly every cartridge in the regiment had been sent on his mission of death, when we were outflanked by ten times our number and compelled to fall back, which was done, thank God, in good order. At this point, a few minutes before our ammunition gave out, our gallant Captain Morton fell, mortally wounded. I was close by his side and took him on my back and started for the landing which was a mile distant. By the time I had arrived, the Regiment had taken a position behind some heavy siege guns, which had been mounted as a last resort to hold Pittsburg Landing. In a very short time, they were belching forth their missiles of death which held the enemy in check until night closed and put a stop to the butchering of human lives.I have no idea of the number killed and wounded but know the loss was heavy on both sides. I was of the opinion that we would never see a harder fight that we had at Donelson, but that was nothing in comparison to this. There has been one continual roar of musketry and big guns ever since the commencement this morning. I will now quit and hope for the best. General Buell's forces are now crossing the river by the thousands so we may expect war times tomorrow morning.7 AprilLast night it rained all night and the men were compelled to lie down on the cold, wet earth while they enemy had possession of our camps and were sleeping comfortably. Our boys, being very tired and hungry, went to sleep, notwithstanding the rain, which was descending in torrents. They lay anxiously awaiting the return of daylight so that they might know the result. At last it came. The rain, however, had held up and directly after day light, General Buell's forces opened the fight. They crossed all night; soon afterwards, General Grant's command went in. The firing was tremendous, I believe equal to yesterday, although the artillery was not so heavy. Our brigade, at least the remainder, was ordered on the right a distance of three miles where we arrived and soon were engaged. We fought at this point until about four o'clock in the afternoon when the enemy gave way, and soon afterwards was in full retreat toward Corinth. Our soldiers sent up cheer after cheer.I firmly believe that General Hurlbut's Division saved the day on yesterday and gained it today. They outflanked the enemy which caused them to retreat in great disorder. Our troops were too much exhausted to follow up their retreat and consequently, did not capture a great many prisoners.After the battle closed, I took a stroll over the field. It was horrible. The men were thick, some wounded and some in the cold arms of death. I could tell from the dead where the battle had raged more fiercely. Federal and Confederate soldiers were lying in the agonies of death.8 AprilWe area again in camp, but how changed the scene! Only two days ago we were in high spirits and confident of getting home soon without any more hard fighting; but alas, we were mistaken and many brave man in that short time has found a grave in the soil of Tennessee. Among the killed is our brave and kind Captain Morton. He died that night at 9:30 PM. It is useless for me to undertake to do him justice for I cannot. My pen is inadequate to the task. He was, however, a brave, cool man, always at his post and more especially when danger was high. He fell while leading his company gallantly on to battle. He was kind to his men and they all loved him and were willing to obey his command. They stood by him like heroes during the day when he fell. They seemed to fight more desperately to avenge his death. I cannot force his words to me when he fell. He put his arm around my neck and said, "Well, Sam, they have killed me at last." I immediately took him on my back and carried him through a perfect shower of cannon balls. I was determined to take him from the field or perish in the attempt, and, had the enemy overtaken me, I was resolved to remain a prisoner with him. But kind Providence seemed to favor me, and I arrived at the Landing where I had his wound dressed and immediately moved him on a steamer which was at the Landing. He talked to me freely on the road and told me what disposition he wanted to make of his property. He also remarked that "Many a better man had fallen that day." I told him that a better man never lived, and I am sure there was never a better man.This regiment has lost its brightest ornament, and one, too, that can never be replaced. His remains started home today in charge of his faithful servant, Horace. He will be buried in the church yard of the village of Hartford, Kentucky, his home. There, he will repose amid the scenes of his early labors and triumphs, away from the busy hum of life far away from the thunder and conflict and not clarion note will ever more disturb his slumbers or call him forth to battle. Peace to his ashes, and may the undying laurel of glory grow green over his grave.
  23. Ozzy

    Grant's Shiloh Report

    How “green” is Green? A number of interesting points are introduced by Stan in the above post: 1) Green troops; 2) the siting of the Sixth Division; 3) lack of preparation for attack by Confederates; 4) General Grant away at Savannah; and 5) the Lew Wallace brouhaha. 1) Although historians have attempted to brand all of the participants (North and South) at Shiloh as “green troops,” there was no one-size-fits-all in that contest. Some of Bragg’s troops had participated in the Battle of Santa Rosa Island (and others had been under fire from artillery during two prolonged gunnery duels at Pensacola.) The Sixth Division, as confirmed by Bjorn Skaptason, possessed both green troops (61st Illinois, 18th Wisconsin, 15th Michigan) and experienced regiments (25th Missouri, which fought at Lexington as 13th Missouri; 21st Missouri, which fought Battle of Athens and was involved in operations versus guerrillas; and 18th Missouri, which was involved in operations against guerrillas.) In addition, the artillery batteries belonging to Hickenlooper and Munch appear to have been knowledgeable in the operation of their equipment (unlike Myer’s Battery, belonging to Hurlbut’s Division.) 2) William Tecumseh Sherman, acting as Campground commander (in absence of General Charles F. Smith) made the assignments of camp sites, based upon supposed intention to commence a march, and conduct offensive action against Rebel troops in vicinity of Corinth: there was no serious contemplation of Rebel attack upon the campground at Pittsburg Landing. 3) Contributing to “false sense of security” at Pittsburg Landing: I believe that General Grant considered his frequent and differently-targetted raids against the Memphis & Charleston R.R. and Mobile & Ohio R.R. as sufficiently concerning to Beauregard and Johnston to “keep those Rebel commanders rooted in place, on the defensive.” Grant entertained no serious thought of Rebel attack; believed “action would only take place when he (Grant) ordered it” and used his abundant spare time, while waiting for Buell, to relax at the Cherry Mansion, and “instill discipline” in his commanders. 4) The more I study the lead-up to Shiloh, the less I find support for General Grant remaining at Savannah: nothing good came of his remaining at Savannah. 5) Lew Wallace brouhaha. Newspaper readers were told that, “Lew Wallace spent all day marching within sound of the battle, only six miles away, yet never arrived in time to take part” – Why? Soldiers belonging to Prentiss and Hurlbut and WHL Wallace were told that “Lew Wallace was coming to reinforce them,” but he never showed up – Why? General Grant believed he’d ordered Lew Wallace to do one thing; but Lew Wallace stated that his orders directed him to do something else. Both Generals had witnesses that supported their versions of the Truth. How can that be? [But, truth be known, the Wallace Wrong Road Controversy was useful in shunting attention away from other matters… like, “When did Grant arrive at Pittsburg Landing?” and “Why were the Federal troops surprised?” and “How did Grant and Buell conduct (and coordinate) their activities on Day Two?” and “Why were there so many Federal casualties?” ] If you can make it appear that “everything bad happened because of incompetent Lew Wallace,” then the real answers never have to be found.
  24. Ozzy

    General Support

    Stan First of all, thanks for tracking down the information on McClernand's orderly, James Matthews (the identity of Staff Officers and support members is important to fully understanding the actions and decisions taken by commanders at all battles.) And, I believe your comment in regard to Sherman's orderly, Holliday, is well-stated; and I agree that Holliday would likely have been "lost to History," were it not for the unexpected tragedy that took place, Sunday morning, April 6th. Captain W. S. Hillyer commented in his 11 April 1862 Letter that "General Grant sent his Staff "flying across the battlefield" shortly after arriving at Pittsburg Landing from Savannah on Sunday morning." Obviously, those Staff Officers were delivering orders from General Grant, allowing for multiple actions to occur simultaneously (or nearly simultaneously.) Hillyer, himself, was sent mid-afternoon by General Grant "with a fleet of steamers" to Savannah to bring up Crittenden's Division. And Grant sent no fewer than four Staff Officers and one support member (the support member, Cavalry officer Frank Bennett, sent twice) in an effort to bring up Lew Wallace from vicinity of Crumps Landing. Knowledge of Staff Officer movements helps in understanding the General's decision-making and priorities. All the best Ozzy The above links to many of the members of General Albert Sidney Johnston's Staff (those who accompanied his body to New Orleans.) More members of Johnston's Staff remain to be revealed.
  25. Stan Hutson

    Grant's Shiloh Report

    I agree with Bjorn and his observation, in relation to points 3 and 4, that by placing green troops to encamp in your most advanced positions, some who had never fired their muskets, and likewise sending forward troops into line with no ammunition, was, well, a major mistake. How any military officer can allow such a tactical faux pas to take place is mind boggling. Not entrenching, Point 22, is one thing, but putting rookies in the front line of your army as your first defense, again, that placement of troops was not thought out to any extent. Either it was done on purpose, and whoever issued the orders for such a camp layout is an idiot, or it was not thought out, and still someone is an idiot, because it should have been thought out. The buck stops at Grant. It is hard enough to maintain control of an Army when you are with the Army, much less when you are hanging out at the Cherry Mansion and not “in the field”. I think you are right Ozzy. Grant was sly on this account. Praise your friends and those you want to see shine, barely mention others, again, to leave room for scapegoats, say nothing to shed blame on yourself (Grant’s late arrival). I, for one, have never thought much of Lew Wallace’s arrival in any shape, form, or fashion. His absence had no influence on the first day of battle. But, his arrival did influence the 2nd day, much more than he gets credit for IMHO. Was Wallace going to come in on the first day and somehow single handedly deliver a crushing blow to the Confederates? Looking back is hindsight 101. We know the number of troops involved. At the time, the combatants did not. Wallace was not going to go blindly plowing in not knowing what was ahead of him. So, the whole, “when did Wallace get his orders, why the counter-march, how did he get lost”, all the blah blah blah associated with Wallace has always puzzled me as to why modern historians are so engulfed by it.
  26. Stan Hutson

    General Support

    Pvt. James S. Matthews, Company C, 4th Illinois Cavalry (his rank at Shiloh was Private it appears). Matthews served as orderly for Gen. John A. McClernand at Shiloh. Residence Joliet IL; a 17 year-old Clerk. Enlisted on 10/7/1861 at Camp Hunter, IL as a Private. On 10/7/1861 he mustered into "C" Co. IL 4th Cavalry He was discharged for promotion on 10/31/1863 On 10/31/1863 he was commissioned into "A" Co. US CT 3rd Cavalry He was Mustered Out on 1/26/1866 Promotions: * 2nd Lieut 10/31/1863 (As of Co. A 3rd USCT Cavalry) * 1st Lieut 8/26/1865 He was described at enlistment as: 5' 7", light complexion, brown eyes, brown hair Other Information: born in New Jersey Sources used by Historical Data Systems, Inc.: - Illinois: Roster of Officers and Enlisted Men - Index to Compiled Military Service Records - Official Army Register of the Volunteer Force 1861-1865 - Illinois State Archives @ http://www.ilsos.gov/isaveterans/civilmustersrch.jsp (c) Historical Data Systems, Inc. @ www.civilwardata.com
  27. Stan Hutson

    General Support

    Interesting that the names of Grant's telegraph operator and Bodyguard/orderly are unknown for the Shiloh time period. Many General's would have more than one orderly, however, so that various messages could be carried at various times. Having said this, I imagine that if Thomas D. Holliday would not have been killed at Shiloh, that his service as Sherman's orderly would have been lost to history. His name is, probably, only remembered because he was killed while serving as Sherman's orderly.
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