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  1. Today
  2. Confederate Firearms by Regiment for Shiloh

    OZZY-- Thank You for your input. You are correct that entire Regiments fell out of line for lack of ammunition. Federal and Confederate! The Confederates were each given 40 rounds of ammunition for their particular firearm and another 100? per man were carried in the ordnance trains that followed the Army as they advanced. These wagons, many were lost or abandoned by their teamsters throughout the day. There are some accounts of the Confederates finding ammunition stacks in the abandoned Federal Camps too! Ammunition was a problem-- even Grant and Sherman acknowledged the difficulty of supplying ammunition to the Army of different calibres. Tom
  3. The “troublesome” Jessie Scouts As we know, two of the Jessie Scouts (Union army intelligence collectors, who did their work dressed in Confederate uniform) got caught up in General Grant’s Purge of March, just prior to Battle of Shiloh. And these two – Carpenter and Scott – were accused of horse theft, arrested and sent away to St. Louis on March 29th under escort of Grant’s aide, Captain William Hillyer. Curiously, Captain Charles Carpenter had been in similar straits only a month before. After completing a personal reconnaissance of Fort Henry about February 4th (said to have included a visit inside the Rebel stronghold) Carpenter returned to Union lines, made his report... and then was ordered “sent away, along with the other irresponsible Scouts” by direction of U.S. Grant. Captain Carpenter, IAW Field Orders No.60 was placed under arrest and sent away “never to return” on 10 February 1862. (Of interest, Captain Hillyer departed at the same time.) Obviously, “never to return” Carpenter was with Grant’s forces at Crump’s/Pittsburg, so what was really going on? It is known that communications during the Civil War could be conducted by courier or telegram (and both types could be encrypted.) With wire tappers and unscrupulous telegraph operators in existence, the most secure messages were not sent by telegraph; they were personally delivered (and best if they were verbal, so no chance of paper copy that could end up in the wrong hands.) If it is assumed that Captain Carpenter was “arrested” so that Captain Hillyer could accompany him north without raising suspicion of some other purpose, where could they go? And what message could be delivered? On February 10th, General Grant had made up his mind to launch the attack against Fort Donelson (Lew Wallace, present at the War Council next day, said “it seemed to him as if General Grant had already made up his mind.”) Hillyer and Carpenter went to Cairo, where General Cullum had signature authority to approve “all actions” on Major General Halleck’s behalf. (Hillyer is afterwards reported as present at Fort Donelson; and Captain Carpenter is said to have conducted a reconnaissance of Fort Donelson.) As regards the March 1862 arrest of Carpenter, that arrest was ordered on the 25th, but Captain Carpenter (under escort of Captain Hillyer) was not sent away til March 29th. What information or request could Hillyer have passed to General Halleck at St. Louis on Grant’s behalf ? (Captain Hillyer returned to Savannah aboard steamer Minnehaha evening of April 5th near midnight… so if any “instructions” came from St. Louis, they were overtaken by events.) And what of the “horse thief” Captain Carpenter? On April 11th, Lew Wallace wrote that, “Captain Carpenter has returned from scout of Purdy, Bethel and the country around, and brings information that Purdy was evacuated last Saturday and has not been occupied [since the late Battle.]” Papers of US Grant vol.5 page 351. Ozzy References: Papers of US Grant vol. 4 pages 153, 167, 174 – 5 and 421 – 2. http://www.pddoc.com/skedaddle/058/exploits_of_capt_carpenter_of.htm Exploits of Captain Charles C. Carpenter Jessie.docx
  4. Yesterday
  5. Fort Henry is Ours!

    [from chroniclingamerica at Library of Congress] [Click on above and expand to find comprehensive details of the Capture of Fort Henry.] The following link presents clearer text for easier reading: http://chroniclingamerica.loc.gov/lccn/sn83030313/1862-02-08/ed-1/seq-1/#date1=1862&sort=date&date2=1862&words=McClernand&searchType=basic&sequence=0&index=9&state=New+York&rows=20&proxtext=McClernand&y=14&x=14&dateFilterType=yearRange&page=1 New York Herald of 8 FEB 1862 Page One.
  6. Confederate Firearms by Regiment for Shiloh

    Will look through my files and see what I can find as well.
  7. Confederate Firearms by Regiment for Shiloh

    25th Alabama Infantry account by Cpt. William P. Howell, Company I, 25th Alabama Infantry. He is referring to Pvt. Burton Jackson Waddell, Company I, 25th Alabama Infantry. I know this is just one account, but, pretty neat. I will here relate a little incident of a man in my company. In the summer of ’61 when the company was being raised at Oak Level one B.J. Waddell who had just returned from Texas joined our company and had a fine rifle gun which he had secured in the west and insisted that he must carry it to shoot yankees and in our first engagement which I have already described, having shot his rifle a few rounds and while on his knees trying to reload, a yankee bullet struck him in the heel, which disabled him in the balance of the war and while he is still living and resides near Anniston, Alabama. I don’t think he has ever recovered from that gun shot.
  8. Last week
  9. Confederate Firearms by Regiment for Shiloh

    Thomas Astute description of a 12-gauge shotgun loaded with 00 slugs: "a one-inch pipe firing marbles." One aspect of the Confederate operation at Shiloh remains puzzling: "How effective was the ammunition re-supply?" If John K. Jackson's experience in the final attempt against Grant's Last Line is any indication.... Regards Ozzy Reference: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Combat_shotgun OR 10 page 555 (Jackson's report: indicates his men were out of ammunition) OR 10 page 550 (Chalmers' report: indicates he "distributed ammunition to his men before advancing for the final assault of Day One")
  10. Confederate Firearms by Regiment for Shiloh

    Stan, still having trouble finding arms issued to the different Alabama units. I have scanned the Alabama files and found nothing. Can you help. Tom
  11. Confederate Firearms by Regiment for Shiloh

    Picking up any ammunition on the Battlefield, .54 or .577, or .58 pr .52 minnie balls would be like firing marbles out of a 1 inch pipe-- ZERO ACCURACY-- your smoothbore was good with the proper .69 issued buck and ball cartridge to only 50 to 75 yards at best... with an undersized slug you might get away with 25 to 40 yards and your percent of hits would be less than 30%. The whole idea with smoothbores was the use of Napoleonic tactics in Battle. Move forward to 50 to 80 yards- firing a volley or volleys, charge bayonets and push the enemy back-- at the risk of tremendous casualties to your side. Rifles negated Napoleonic tactics. They were effective at 150 yards up to 300 yards with a trained marksman. They could shoot you down before you could get in reach of your bayonets-- Cannons would help silence a position and stealth and courage on your side. The casualties at Shiloh were horrific for the CSA. Smoothbores and their lack of range contributed to that outcome.
  12. Confederate Firearms by Regiment for Shiloh

    Thomas Excellent accumulation of data... and it cannot be helped noticing that, "There were a lot of Rebel .69 calibre weapons." Implication: as long as a man in Confederate service, armed with .69 calibre weapon continued to move forward (and had a substantial quantity of caps on hand) he could make use of any ammunition found and fire it from his smoothbore. In the close-quarters fighting that took place at Shiloh, undersized slugs fired from fifty feet will do the job just as effectively as "proper sized" ammunition. (And this could also help explain the "delays in Union camps to eat breakfast" ...perhaps ammunition and caps were also being snatched up?) Thoughts? Ozzy
  13. Confederate Firearms by Regiment for Shiloh

    Great stuff! More comments after I read all this!
  14. Notes on Firearms used by the different Confederate Regiments and Brigades at the Battle of Shiloh April 6-7th 1862. Note* The results posted here is a work in progress to be updated when new research is found. The results are not final. This is a simple compilation of what has been discovered. The footnotes are not included here, but will be part of a final paper or report to be given to the Shiloh NPS. For the record, sources used were RG 109 Regimental Papers NA., The Wyckoff analysis done by the Shiloh NPS on firearms, Frederick Todd’s book on American Military Equipage, Official Records of the Civil War, and several other State and written sources from Civil War Study Groups, letters, papers, photographic evidence of original Confederate soldiers posing with their issued firearms, Regimental Histories, Confederate Veteran Magazine and memoirs. 1st Corp Major General Leonidas Polk Clark’s Division Russell’s Brigade 11th Louisiana- evidence to the use of cap and ball .69 caliber smoothbores 12th Tennessee-evidence to the use of cap and ball and flintlock .69 caliber smoothbore muskets 13th Tennessee-evidence to the use of flintlock .69 caliber smoothbores, “we had old flintlocks, muzzle loaders with buck and ball.” 22nd Tennessee- initially flintlock .69 caliber smoothbores, early British smoothbores .70 caliber—possible issue of Enfield Rifles, before or picked up during the Battle. Total—for the Brigade 2,650 smoothbores and a possible 800 with Enfield Rifles—research continues. Stewart’s Brigade 13th Arkansas- evidence to use of cap and ball .69 caliber smoothbores 4th Tennessee-evidence to use of cap and ball .69 caliber smoothbores and an assortment of “old guns.” 5th Tennessee [35th Tennessee]-evidence to the use of cap and ball .69 caliber smoothbores, some Companies with civilian Rifles, Mississippi Rifles or 1855 Rifles, research continues- 33rd Tennessee- initially “shotguns, civilian hunting rifles”-issued flintlock .69 caliber smoothbores prior to Battle. Total—for the Brigade 1,706 smoothbores, maybe 100 rifles, research continues. Cheatham’s Division Johnson’s Brigade Blythe’s Infantry Mississippi, 7 Hall’s Rifles returned after the Battle— Co A. Sharp’s Rifles, Co B. shotguns, Co I. Civilian Rifles .32 caliber, and he rest old flintlock and cap and ball .69 caliber muskets. 2nd Tennessee Infantry, J. Knox Walker—UNKNOWN 15TH Tennessee Infantry, initially 744 men with flintlocks .69 caliber—mixed flintlock and cap and ball .69 caliber muskets during the Battle of Shiloh. 154th Tennessee Senior Infantry, Co. L armed with Maynard Rifles, the rest unknown. 2, 052 men in the Brigade—we know of 500 with smoothbores and 50-100 with Maynard Rifles .32 or .50 caliber. Stephen’s Brigade 7th Kentucky Infantry, evidence to being armed with new Enfield Rifles prior to Battle. 1st Tennessee Infantry Battalion, some Companies with 1855 rifles, and the rest .69 caliber smoothbores 6th Tennessee Infantry, flintlock .69 caliber smoothbores and some cap and ball .69 caliber smoothbores. 9th Tennessee Infantry, flintlock .69 caliber smoothbores 1,620 men in the Brigade, estimated 600 with rifles, Enfield’s and Maynard’s, the rest 1020 with smoothbore muskets. 2nd Corp Major General Braxton Bragg Ruggle’s Division Gibson’s Brigade 1st Arkansas Infantry, Fagan’s, Co. B with smoothbores 4th Louisiana, photo evidence to cap and ball .69 caliber smoothbores 13th Louisiana Infantry, evidence to the issue of 700 muskets, smoothbores, type unknown. 19th Louisiana Infantry, photo evidence to cap and ball .69 caliber smoothbores. 2,560 men with most smoothbores. Anderson’s Brigade 1st Florida Infantry, “upon the Regimental formation…the Franklin Rifles received 1855 rifled muskets, [drilled initially with flintlock muskets], Confederate Government issued Model 1842 .69 caliber muskets, Pensacola Guards armed with a mixture of muskets.” 9th Texas Infantry, evidence to .69 caliber smoothbore muskets, some with shotguns. 17th Louisiana Infantry, evidence to some carrying .54 rebored civilian rifles, the rest UNKNOWN 20th Louisiana Infantry, UNKNOWN Confederate Guards Response Battalion, 1,000 .58 caliber rounds issued- some had 1855 rifles, the rest UNKNOWN 1,633 men, 50-100 1855 rifled muskets, possible civilian rifles bored to .54 caliber, low numbers issued, estimated 426 with smoothbores, the rest UNKNOWN Pond’s Brigade 16th Louisiana Infantry, photo evidence some Companies with Mississippi Rifles, and .69 caliber cap and ball muskets. 18th Louisiana Infantry, flank companies armed with rifles and the rest smoothbore muskets. 38th Tennessee Infantry, “I have armed Looney’s with Shotguns, Country Rifles, and old muskets [flintlocks?].” Crescent Infantry, “5 Companies with 1819 Hall’s rifles .52 caliber, 2 Companies with smoothbore muskets, and 1 with shotguns.” Orleans Guards Infantry Battalion, flank Companies with 1855 rifles and the rest Model 1842 .69 caliber cap and ball muskets. 2,644 men, 150-250 with Mississippi rifles, [250 with Hall’s Rifles .52 caliber], 100 with shotguns, and the rest approximately 2,044 with smoothbores. Wither’s Division Gladden’s Brigade 1st Louisiana Regulars, flank Companies .58 caliber 1855 rifled muskets, the balance .69 caliber smoothbore muskets 21st Alabama Infantry, UNKNOWN 22nd Alabama Infantry, armed with private purchase Enfield two band rifles and sword bayonets. 25th Alabama Infantry, issues of caps 2,000 and photo evidence to cap and ball .69 caliber muskets, and some shotguns. 26th Alabama Infantry, photo evidence to some Companies, flank, Mississippi Rifles and the balance .69 caliber cap and ball muskets smoothbores. 2,156 men, maybe 500-600 with rifles, and the rest approximately 1600 with .69 caliber smoothbore muskets. Chalmer’s Brigade 5th Mississippi, issue evidence, 9,000 musket ball cartridges and 1,000 musket caps, and photo evidence smoothbore musket—Armed with .69 caliber cap and ball smoothbore muskets. 7th Mississippi Infantry, Co. F armed with Hall’s Rifles .52 calibler. 9th Mississippi Infantry, Co. D armed with Mississippi Rifles .54 caliber, other sources list Enfield Rifles issued prior to Shiloh. 10th Mississippi Infantry, evidence to all Rifles, Mississippi’s and 1855 Rifled muskets. 52nd Tennessee Infantry [plus segments of the 51st Tennessee], armed with shotguns and the 51st men, armed with Hall’s .52 caliber rifled muskets. 2,236 men estimated 1,000 Rifles, 400 shotguns, and 700-800 smoothbore muskets and UNKNOWN’s. Jackson’s Brigade 2nd Texas Infantry, evidence to smoothbore muskets [more research forthcoming] 17th Alabama Infantry, UNKNOWN 18th Alabama, photo evidence to cap and ball conversion .69 caliber smoothbore muskets and Mississippi Rifles. 19th Alabama, photo evidence to Mississippi Rifles and conversion .69 caliber smoothbore muskets. 2,127 men, unknown number of Mississippi Rifles .54 caliber, maybe 200 to 300 and 1,500 smoothbore muskets. The 17th Alabama is an UNKNOWN. 3rd Corp Major General William J. Hardee Hindman’s Brigade 2nd Arkansas Infantry, initially issued smoothbores and Flintlock Hall’s Rifles .52 caliber. Issued new Enfield Rifles in November of 1861. 3rd Confederate Infantry, [18th Arkansas Infantry], armed with Enfield Rifles. 6th Arkansas Infantry, went into Battle with Model 1819 Hall’s flintlock rifled muskets, .52 caliber. 7th Arkansas Infantry, went into Battle with Model 1819 Hall’s flintlock rifled muskets, .52 caliber. 2,290 men, all armed with Rifles, Hall’s and Enfields, but the Hall’s “flint and steel muskets put the men at a great disadvantage.” Cleburne’s Brigade 2nd Tennessee Provisional Bate’s, mixed civilian rifles and flintlocks initially. 6th Mississippi Infantry, two flank companies Enfield Rifled muskets, and the rest “mixed” 15th Arkansas Infantry, poor arms, but picked up new Enfield Rifles from Peabody’s camps. 23rd Tennessee Infantry, Flintlock .69 caliber smoothbore muskets. 24th Tennessee Infantry, some 1841 Model Mississippi Rifles and the balance flintlock .69 caliber smoothbores. 2,537 men, maybe 500 rifles, and approximately 1,258 smoothbore muskets. Wood’s Brigade 3rd Mississippi Infantry Battalion, UNKNOWN 8th Arkansas Infantry, Conflicting evidence, one source says Enfield Rifles and the original ordnance records show 24,000 Flintlock cartridges issued post Shiloh, April-May, 1862. 9th Arkansas Infantry Battalion, Model 1819 Hall’s Rifled muskets and a mix of civilian guns. 16th Alabama Infantry, cap and ball .69 caliber smoothbore muskets. 27th Tennessee Infantry, issued new Enfield Rifles in December of 1861. 44th Tennessee Infantry, UNKNOWN 55th Tennessee Infantry, only two Companies armed with flintlock .69 caliber smoothbore muskets. 1,996 men, 3rd Mississippi Battalion and 44th Tennessee UNKNOWN- 490 rifles known and 580 smoothbores. Reserve Corp Brigadier General John C. Breckenridge Trabue’s Brigade 3rd Kentucky Infantry, evidence to mix cap and ball .69 caliber smoothbores and flintlock .69 caliber smoothbores. 4th Alabama Infantry, evidence to Enfield Rifles and smoothbores 5th Kentucky Infantry, “Ragamuffins’ armed with long-rifles [civilian].” 6th Kentucky Infantry, went into the Battle armed with smoothbores, traded them for Enfield Rifles on the 6th. 31st Alabama Infantry, evidence to part Enfield Rifles and smoothbore muskets. Crew’s Infantry Battalion, “poorly armed.” 2,678 men. Second Brigade Brig. Gen. JOHN S. BOWEN (wounded) Col. JOHN D. MARTIN 9th Arkansas, mix of Hall’s Rifles, cap and ball .69 caliber muskets and civilian rifles and shotguns. Col. Isaac L. Dunlop 10th Arkansas, Model 1819 Hall’s flintlock Rifles .52 caliber Col. Thomas H. Merrick 2d Confederate Infantry [25th Mississippi Infantry], UNKNOWN Col. John d. Martin Maj. Thomas H. Mangum 1st Missouri Infantry, evidence to Enfield Rifles Third Brigade Col. WINFIELD S. STATHAM, 15th Mississippi 15th Mississippi Infantry, Co. G Maynard Rifles and Mississippi Rifles, the rest flintlock .69 caliber smoothbores. 22d Mississippi Infantry, evidence to all Enfield Rifles. 19th Tennessee Infantry, initially flintlock .69 caliber smoothbore muskets, days before Shiloh, cap and ball .69 caliber smoothbore muskets and 97 Mississippi Rifles .54 caliber. Col. David H. Cummings 20th Tennessee Infantry, initially with flintlock .69 caliber smoothbore muskets, in March of 1862, all new Enfield Rifles and accoutrements. Col. Joel A. Battle (captured) 28th Tennessee Infantry, “615 flintlock smoothbore muskets for 915 men October of 1861.” Possibility of Enfield Rifles for the balance. 45th Tennessee, Mix of cap and ball .69 caliber smoothbore muskets, some Enfield Rifles and Mississippi Rifles. Notes on Firearms used by the different Confederate Regiments and Brigades at the Battle of Shiloh April 6-7th 1862. Note* The results posted here is a work in progress to be updated when new research is found. The results are not final. This is a simple compilation of what has been discovered. The footnotes are not included here, but will be part of a final paper or report to be given to the Shiloh NPS. For the record, sources used were RG 109 Regimental Papers NA., The Wyckoff analysis done by the Shiloh NPS on firearms, Frederick Todd’s book on American Military Equipage, Official Records of the Civil War, and several other State and written sources from Civil War Study Groups, letters, papers, photographic evidence of original Confederate soldiers posing with their issued firearms, Regimental Histories, Confederate Veteran Magazine and memoirs. 1st Corp Major General Leonidas Polk Clark’s Division Russell’s Brigade 11th Louisiana- evidence to the use of cap and ball .69 caliber smoothbores 12th Tennessee-evidence to the use of cap and ball and flintlock .69 caliber smoothbore muskets 13th Tennessee-evidence to the use of flintlock .69 caliber smoothbores, “we had old flintlocks, muzzle loaders with buck and ball.” 22nd Tennessee- initially flintlock .69 caliber smoothbores, early British smoothbores .70 caliber—possible issue of Enfield Rifles, before or picked up during the Battle. Total—for the Brigade 2,650 smoothbores and a possible 800 with Enfield Rifles—research continues. Stewart’s Brigade 13th Arkansas- evidence to use of cap and ball .69 caliber smoothbores 4th Tennessee-evidence to use of cap and ball .69 caliber smoothbores and an assortment of “old guns.” 5th Tennessee [35th Tennessee]-evidence to the use of cap and ball .69 caliber smoothbores, some Companies with civilian Rifles, Mississippi Rifles or 1855 Rifles, research continues- 33rd Tennessee- initially “shotguns, civilian hunting rifles”-issued flintlock .69 caliber smoothbores prior to Battle. Total—for the Brigade 1,706 smoothbores, maybe 100 rifles, research continues. Cheatham’s Division Johnson’s Brigade Blythe’s Infantry Mississippi, 7 Hall’s Rifles returned after the Battle— Co A. Sharp’s Rifles, Co B. shotguns, Co I. Civilian Rifles .32 caliber, and he rest old flintlock and cap and ball .69 caliber muskets. 2nd Tennessee Infantry, J. Knox Walker—UNKNOWN 15TH Tennessee Infantry, initially 744 men with flintlocks .69 caliber—mixed flintlock and cap and ball .69 caliber muskets during the Battle of Shiloh. 154th Tennessee Senior Infantry, Co. L armed with Maynard Rifles, the rest unknown. 2, 052 men in the Brigade—we know of 500 with smoothbores and 50-100 with Maynard Rifles .32 or .50 caliber. Stephen’s Brigade 7th Kentucky Infantry, evidence to being armed with new Enfield Rifles prior to Battle. 1st Tennessee Infantry Battalion, some Companies with 1855 rifles, and the rest .69 caliber smoothbores 6th Tennessee Infantry, flintlock .69 caliber smoothbores and some cap and ball .69 caliber smoothbores. 9th Tennessee Infantry, flintlock .69 caliber smoothbores 1,620 men in the Brigade, estimated 600 with rifles, Enfield’s and Maynard’s, the rest 1020 with smoothbore muskets. 2nd Corp Major General Braxton Bragg Ruggle’s Division Gibson’s Brigade 1st Arkansas Infantry, Fagan’s, Co. B with smoothbores 4th Louisiana, photo evidence to cap and ball .69 caliber smoothbores 13th Louisiana Infantry, evidence to the issue of 700 muskets, smoothbores, type unknown. 19th Louisiana Infantry, photo evidence to cap and ball .69 caliber smoothbores. 2,560 men with most smoothbores. Anderson’s Brigade 1st Florida Infantry, “upon the Regimental formation…the Franklin Rifles received 1855 rifled muskets, [drilled initially with flintlock muskets], Confederate Government issued Model 1842 .69 caliber muskets, Pensacola Guards armed with a mixture of muskets.” 9th Texas Infantry, evidence to .69 caliber smoothbore muskets, some with shotguns. 17th Louisiana Infantry, evidence to some carrying .54 rebored civilian rifles, the rest UNKNOWN 20th Louisiana Infantry, UNKNOWN Confederate Guards Response Battalion, 1,000 .58 caliber rounds issued- some had 1855 rifles, the rest UNKNOWN 1,633 men, 50-100 1855 rifled muskets, possible civilian rifles bored to .54 caliber, low numbers issued, estimated 426 with smoothbores, the rest UNKNOWN Pond’s Brigade 16th Louisiana Infantry, photo evidence some Companies with Mississippi Rifles, and .69 caliber cap and ball muskets. 18th Louisiana Infantry, flank companies armed with rifles and the rest smoothbore muskets. 38th Tennessee Infantry, “I have armed Looney’s with Shotguns, Country Rifles, and old muskets [flintlocks?].” Crescent Infantry, “5 Companies with 1819 Hall’s rifles .52 caliber, 2 Companies with smoothbore muskets, and 1 with shotguns.” Orleans Guards Infantry Battalion, flank Companies with 1855 rifles and the rest Model 1842 .69 caliber cap and ball muskets. 2,644 men, 150-250 with Mississippi rifles, [250 with Hall’s Rifles .52 caliber], 100 with shotguns, and the rest approximately 2,044 with smoothbores. Wither’s Division Gladden’s Brigade 1st Louisiana Regulars, flank Companies .58 caliber 1855 rifled muskets, the balance .69 caliber smoothbore muskets 21st Alabama Infantry, UNKNOWN 22nd Alabama Infantry, armed with private purchase Enfield two band rifles and sword bayonets. 25th Alabama Infantry, issues of caps 2,000 and photo evidence to cap and ball .69 caliber muskets, and some shotguns. 26th Alabama Infantry, photo evidence to some Companies, flank, Mississippi Rifles and the balance .69 caliber cap and ball muskets smoothbores. 2,156 men, maybe 500-600 with rifles, and the rest approximately 1600 with .69 caliber smoothbore muskets. Chalmer’s Brigade 5th Mississippi, issue evidence, 9,000 musket ball cartridges and 1,000 musket caps, and photo evidence smoothbore musket—Armed with .69 caliber cap and ball smoothbore muskets. 7th Mississippi Infantry, Co. F armed with Hall’s Rifles .52 calibler. 9th Mississippi Infantry, Co. D armed with Mississippi Rifles .54 caliber, other sources list Enfield Rifles issued prior to Shiloh. 10th Mississippi Infantry, evidence to all Rifles, Mississippi’s and 1855 Rifled muskets. 52nd Tennessee Infantry [plus segments of the 51st Tennessee], armed with shotguns and the 51st men, armed with Hall’s .52 caliber rifled muskets. 2,236 men estimated 1,000 Rifles, 400 shotguns, and 700-800 smoothbore muskets and UNKNOWN’s. Jackson’s Brigade 2nd Texas Infantry, evidence to smoothbore muskets [more research forthcoming] 17th Alabama Infantry, UNKNOWN 18th Alabama, photo evidence to cap and ball conversion .69 caliber smoothbore muskets and Mississippi Rifles. 19th Alabama, photo evidence to Mississippi Rifles and conversion .69 caliber smoothbore muskets. 2,127 men, unknown number of Mississippi Rifles .54 caliber, maybe 200 to 300 and 1,500 smoothbore muskets. The 17th Alabama is an UNKNOWN. 3rd Corp Major General William J. Hardee Hindman’s Brigade 2nd Arkansas Infantry, initially issued smoothbores and Flintlock Hall’s Rifles .52 caliber. Issued new Enfield Rifles in November of 1861. 3rd Confederate Infantry, [18th Arkansas Infantry], armed with Enfield Rifles. 6th Arkansas Infantry, went into Battle with Model 1819 Hall’s flintlock rifled muskets, .52 caliber. 7th Arkansas Infantry, went into Battle with Model 1819 Hall’s flintlock rifled muskets, .52 caliber. 2,290 men, all armed with Rifles, Hall’s and Enfields, but the Hall’s “flint and steel muskets put the men at a great disadvantage.” Cleburne’s Brigade 2nd Tennessee Provisional Bate’s, mixed civilian rifles and flintlocks initially. 6th Mississippi Infantry, two flank companies Enfield Rifled muskets, and the rest “mixed” 15th Arkansas Infantry, poor arms, but picked up new Enfield Rifles from Peabody’s camps. 23rd Tennessee Infantry, Flintlock .69 caliber smoothbore muskets. 24th Tennessee Infantry, some 1841 Model Mississippi Rifles and the balance flintlock .69 caliber smoothbores. 2,537 men, maybe 500 rifles, and approximately 1,258 smoothbore muskets. Wood’s Brigade 3rd Mississippi Infantry Battalion, UNKNOWN 8th Arkansas Infantry, Conflicting evidence, one source says Enfield Rifles and the original ordnance records show 24,000 Flintlock cartridges issued post Shiloh, April-May, 1862. 9th Arkansas Infantry Battalion, Model 1819 Hall’s Rifled muskets and a mix of civilian guns. 16th Alabama Infantry, cap and ball .69 caliber smoothbore muskets. 27th Tennessee Infantry, issued new Enfield Rifles in December of 1861. 44th Tennessee Infantry, UNKNOWN 55th Tennessee Infantry, only two Companies armed with flintlock .69 caliber smoothbore muskets. 1,996 men, 3rd Mississippi Battalion and 44th Tennessee UNKNOWN- 490 rifles known and 580 smoothbores. Reserve Corp Brigadier General John C. Breckenridge Trabue’s Brigade 3rd Kentucky Infantry, evidence to mix cap and ball .69 caliber smoothbores and flintlock .69 caliber smoothbores. 4th Alabama Infantry, evidence to Enfield Rifles and smoothbores 5th Kentucky Infantry, “Ragamuffins’ armed with long-rifles [civilian].” 6th Kentucky Infantry, went into the Battle armed with smoothbores, traded them for Enfield Rifles on the 6th. 31st Alabama Infantry, evidence to part Enfield Rifles and smoothbore muskets. Crew’s Infantry Battalion, “poorly armed.” 2,678 men. Second Brigade Brig. Gen. JOHN S. BOWEN (wounded) Col. JOHN D. MARTIN 9th Arkansas, mix of Hall’s Rifles, cap and ball .69 caliber muskets and civilian rifles and shotguns. Col. Isaac L. Dunlop 10th Arkansas, Model 1819 Hall’s flintlock Rifles .52 caliber Col. Thomas H. Merrick 2d Confederate Infantry [25th Mississippi Infantry], UNKNOWN Col. John d. Martin Maj. Thomas H. Mangum 1st Missouri Infantry, evidence to Enfield Rifles Third Brigade Col. WINFIELD S. STATHAM, 15th Mississippi 15th Mississippi Infantry, Co. G Maynard Rifles and Mississippi Rifles, the rest flintlock .69 caliber smoothbores. 22d Mississippi Infantry, evidence to all Enfield Rifles. 19th Tennessee Infantry, initially flintlock .69 caliber smoothbore muskets, days before Shiloh, cap and ball .69 caliber smoothbore muskets and 97 Mississippi Rifles .54 caliber. Col. David H. Cummings 20th Tennessee Infantry, initially with flintlock .69 caliber smoothbore muskets, in March of 1862, all new Enfield Rifles and accoutrements. Col. Joel A. Battle (captured) 28th Tennessee Infantry, “615 flintlock smoothbore muskets for 915 men October of 1861.” Possibility of Enfield Rifles for the balance. 45th Tennessee, Mix of cap and ball .69 caliber smoothbore muskets, some Enfield Rifles and Mississippi Rifles.
  15. The real story about Nashville

    One more curiosity about Grant's trip to Nashville... As we all know, U. S. Grant was promoted to Major General on account of his Victory at Fort Donelson: President Lincoln recommended Grant for promotion, with the higher rank to be effective Date of the Surrender (16 February 1862). Of course, Grant had no way of knowing the President's actions, and so continued to sign his correspondence as "Brigadier General Grant" for over a week after Fort Donelson fell. Of interest: the very first use by Grant of his new rank was on a memo left for "General Buell" at Nashville on 27 February 1862. Grant had attempted to meet Buell in Nashville, and left the memo at Buell's HQ and then returned to his flagship, the W.H.B. That memo was signed "U. S. Grant, Major General Commanding." [See Papers of US Grant volume 4 pages 293 - 4.] Ozzy
  16. Grant and McClernand

    The question, "When did the bonds of friendship begin to fray?" http://chroniclingamerica.loc.gov/lccn/sn84031490/1862-02-08/ed-1/seq-1/ Chicago Daily Tribune of 8 FEB 1862 page 1 col.5 "Capture of Ft. Henry" "Only 54 prisoners taken" "The land force [Grant and McClernand] did not reach the fort in time to take part in the action." "Tilghman surrendered to the Navy." The above report would have been curious to the general reader ("How come so few prisoners?" and "Surrendered to the Navy... where was the Army?") But the serious questions would come from Henry Halleck: "Why was McClernand so late getting to Fort Henry?" was likely followed by "How come no pursuit?" A victory that should have been welcomed by the North was questioned by the North... and something (or someone) must be responsible for the unsatisfying results.
  17. Sgt. Enos Beecher Chatfield, Company D, 11th Iowa Infantry

    Chatfield post war.
  18. Grant and McClernand

    Grant & McClernand It was initially believed possible to address the relationship that existed involving military leader U.S. Grant and Congressman John A. McClernand during 1861, and include discussion of that “friendship” in the Pop Quiz item, “We Meet Again,” but there is too much material. And to understand why the relationship became strained before Battle of Shiloh, and how that strain affected the state of readiness at Pittsburg Landing, it must first be understood how the initial friendly relationship between the two men eventuated. On the face of it, the successful politician, McClernand, ten years more senior, with origins in a Southern state, and with limited experience as a Private during the Black Hawk War, has little in common with the West Point trained, but struggling since his resignation from the Army, Grant. And there does not appear to have been any pre-Civil War contact between the two men (Grant lived in Missouri until 1860) so it is safe to assume that their first encounter occurred June 1861, when finally-a-Colonel Grant permitted Illinois Congressmen Logan and McClernand to address his 21st Infantry Regiment outside of Springfield [Memoirs pages 244 – 5]. The next meeting between Grant and McClernand appears to have taken place after the Disaster at First Manassas, after McClernand had been granted permission to raise his brigade of infantry regiments (and was accorded rank of Brigadier General, junior to Brigadier General Grant.) The relationship appears to have evolved as a “friendship of convenience.” Grant needed assistance in his seniority dispute (September 1861) with Benjamin Prentiss; and McClernand – recently arrived at Cairo – was available to take command of in-arrest Prentiss’s troops in Missouri (this arrangement was suggested by Grant, but not actioned by Fremont – see Papers of USG vol.2 pages 173 – 4). With Prentiss out of the way, Grant relocated to Cairo and established his Head Quarters, District of S.E. Missouri (and benefited from Brigadier General McClernand’s presence when the opportunity to occupy Paducah presented on September 5th). While Grant took the 9th Illinois and 12th Illinois to Kentucky, McClernand remained behind with his brigade and provided defense of Cairo. Upon return from Paducah, about September 7th, District commander Grant and Post of Cairo commander McClernand had ample time to get to know each other (Grant would remain at Cairo until 21October) and during that time the communications between the two generals is cordial, supportive and frequent… in keeping with a letter sent from McClernand to U.S. Grant dated September 4th: “I will be happy to co-operate with you in all things for the good of the service” (Papers of USG vol.2 page 184). No doubt during this period of close interaction, fellow Democrats Grant and McClernand would have shared “war stories” and may have realized their similar experience as “dispatch riders” (Grant at Monterey during the Mexican War and McClernand during the recent Bull Run Campaign.) McClernand would also have details of that campaign (and Irwin McDowell) not available anywhere else. From the tone and content of the communications, it appears that Grant was “grooming McClernand to become the best Brigadier he could be” (see Papers of USG vol.2 pp. 184 – 353 and vol.3 pages 67, 88 and 123 – 125). Reports were requested by Grant, the preparation for movement of troops ordered, recommendations provided for establishment of Provost Marshal and other measures (at all times with Grant addressing McClernand as “General” or “Gen.”) The hands-on training with Grant in close proximity culminated with Grant’s brief departure on October 21st for a visit to St. Louis, leaving McClernand in acting-command of the District HQ at Cairo (Papers of USG vol.3 page 67). McClernand obviously passed that test, for on Grant’s return to Cairo he began planning for the Observation of Belmont (and put McClernand to work in helping organize transport and equipage for that expedition – Papers USG vol.3 pp. 98, 103 and 108 – 109). Papers of US Grant vol.3 pages 123 – 126 details the final preparations and orders for the Expedition against Belmont (with Brigadier General McClernand’s given pride of place as lead brigade.) Following successful completion of the raid, General Grant provides a glowing report of McClernand’s participation (page 142) and McClernand’s own report of Belmont can be read: Papers of US Grant vol.3 pages 196 – 201. After Belmont, General Grant next left McClernand in acting-command District HQ on November 18th when Grant departed on an inspection tour of Bird’s Point and Cape Girardeau and the frequent communications between the two generals remain cordial and supportive through early February 1862. Ozzy References: Personal Memoirs of U. S. Grant, volume one Papers of US Grant volumes 3 & 4 (pages as sited) Papers of US Grant vol.4 pages 4 (notes: Letter of 12 JAN 1862 from Hillyer) and 6, 38 49 through to page 132 typical of cordial correspondence, Grant and McClernand Personal Memoirs of John H. Brinton, Major and Surgeon
  19. We Meet Again

    I was unable to place McClernand there, so I appreciate the clarification. I thought that perhaps he was one of the congressmen who went out to watch the battle. Knowing that Sherman commanded a brigade at First Manassas, my initial thought, back when you posed the question, was that battle, but I said to myself, "Self, there is no way that Alexander McDowell McCook and Rodney Mason were there." When you gave the hint of July, 1861, then the answer became pretty obvious, and a quick check of the Order of Battle found that McCook commanded the First Ohio and Mason commanded the Second Ohio in Schenk's Brigade. James Barnet Fry served as chief of staff to Irvin McDowell.
  20. Maj. William R. Goddard, 15th Illinois Infantry

    https://www.findagrave.com/memorial/60695926/william-r.-goddard
  21. 1st Lt. James Baird Weaver, Company G, 2nd Iowa Infantry

  22. Fort Donelson

    Soldiers killed and wounded at Fort Donelson
  23. The View at 100

    The billboard in the parking lot in front of the VC has a notice that drones are prohibited.
  24. We Meet Again

    Transylvania "Close enough for Government work." You are the winner. In OR 2 the Bull Run Campaign (Manassas Campaign) is given as including the period 16 - 22 July 1861. Wikipedia expands this period to mid-June to end of July. This is important because on 18 July 1861 the Northern newspapers were reporting that "the Battle at Bull Run" had been fought -- and won -- by McDowell's forces. A major result of Irwin McDowell's push to the west on about 18 July was that he occupied previously Rebel-held Centreville, and established Headquarters there. As is commonly known, many civilians from Washington, D.C. followed McDowell's Army west and engaged in a rolling picnic during the Manassas Campaign. Members of Congress were part of this picnic; even Vice President Hamlin was in attendance. But most noteworthy was Congressman John A. Logan, who during the fighting on July 21st attached himself to the 2nd Michigan Infantry, grabbed a musket, and blasted away. So, what about Congressman John A. McClernand? There is no mention in official records that McClernand was present during the Bull Run Campaign (OR 2 pages 323 - 4 lists all of General McDowell's staff officers). But numerous Northern newspapers mention Colonel McClernand as "riding back to Washington City, morning of July 19th with McDowell's Report of the Battle of Bull Run, arriving at Washington in the afternoon." It is apparent that Congressman McClernand had "attached" himself to McDowell at Centreville (likely as VADC) and acted as courier on July 19th. (And I believe this "involvement at Bull Run" had implications, to be discussed later.) Of course, the Battle of Bull Run (First Manassas) was fought 21 July 1861. And the action on July 18th became known as "Probe at Blackburn's Ford" or "Skirmish at Blackburn's Ford." The report delivered by "Colonel" McClernand from Centreville to Washington can be found OR 2 page 307. Cheers Ozzy References: OR 2 pages 307, 310, 323 - 324, 331, 721, 738, 744 and 746. http://chroniclingamerica.loc.gov/lccn/sn83030313/1861-07-19/ed-1/seq-1/#date1=1861&index=1&rows=20&words=Mcdowell+McDOWELL+McDowell&searchType=basic&sequence=0&state=New+York&date2=1861&proxtext=McDowell&y=16&x=12&dateFilterType=yearRange&page=1 New York Herald of 19 July 1861 http://chroniclingamerica.loc.gov/lccn/sn83030313/1861-07-20/ed-1/seq-1/ New York Herald of 20 July 1861 (see Page 1 top of column 6 for McClernand.) http://www.loganmuseum.org/index.php/logan-s-life/civil-war-record John Logan at Bull Run Order of Battle for Bull Run provides all the other names listed in this Quiz Question.
  25. The View at 100

    Yes they are, prohibited that is.
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