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Everything posted by Ozzy

  1. It's just a quiz...

    Captain Henry Binmore It is said that a good leader surrounds himself with good people. And, as has been discussed, Benjamin Prentiss had a number of good people in his employ, following on his election as Brigadier General (by the troops he was to command), on May 8th 1861, in charge of the Illinois Brigade, with HQ at Cairo. And those individuals selected by Prentiss contributed to the success of their General; and in return saw their own careers go from strength to strength. One such individual, not yet discussed, is Henry Binmore. A native of London born in 1833, Henry migrated to Montreal Canada at age 16 and became a journalist, self-taught in the skill of shorthand notation. After moving to the United States, the young man worked as reporter for newspapers in Illinois and Missouri, and got caught up in the phenomena that was Stephen A. Douglas: a rising star on the National stage, whose debates in 1858 with chief contender for a Senate seat from Illinois -- Abraham Lincoln -- also propelled that man into the National spotlight. Reporter Binmore published articles from those debates, all conducted in Illinois, in the Chicago Times and the Missouri Daily Republican... and probably led to Binmore gaining the notice of Senator Douglas (who won the election). Henry Binmore was employed as Secretary to Stephen A. Douglas, and remained with that man until his untimely death in June 1861. Private Secretary Binmore was suddenly in need of employment; and Brigadier General Prentiss was in need of a competent record-keeper/administrator. Given the rank of Captain, Henry Binmore became Prentiss's Assistant Adjutant General, and followed General Prentiss from Illinois to Northern Missouri. And when Benjamin Prentiss was assigned to duty with Grant's Army in Tennessee in March 1862, prospective assignment as Commander of the new Sixth Division, it may have been Captain Binmore who went ahead and reported at Savannah (while General Prentiss was busy with tasks assigned by Henry Halleck, and completed at Cairo, Mound City and Fort Henry.) It may very well have been Henry Binmore to whom Colonel Madison Miller reported on or about March 31st 1862, and received camp assignment for the 18th Missouri Infantry. (Next day, Miller records meeting General Prentiss, in person, and being assigned as Commander of 2nd Brigade, of the Sixth Division.) As AAG for the Sixth Division, Captain Binmore applied skills learned and practiced in Missouri to write and disseminate orders, and keep the books for General Prentiss. It is unknown how successful was Captain Binmore on April 6th, suffering the same surprise as the rest of the Sixth Division; and forced to flee north before 9 a.m., where it appears he remained close to General Prentiss in the Hornet's Nest (likely keeping an account of the Day's happenings -- and probably employed to deliver orders to units, close by, especially while Prentiss' designated courier -- Edwin Moore -- was away delivering one of the many messages to General Grant.) Before 4:30 p.m., about the same time Benjamin Prentiss ordered north the artillery batteries belonging to Hickenlooper and Munch (Pfaender), the General also ordered Captain Binmore to the Landing... and so, General Prentiss was without Staff when he was taken prisoner before 5:30 (Surgeon Everett having been killed earlier in the day.) A Staff officer without a General to serve, Henry Binmore applied to Stephen Hurlbut, and found employment as volunteer Aide de camp. In December 1862, when Major General Hurlbut was put in Command of the new 16th Army Corps, with HQ at Memphis, Binmore was promoted to Major, and then Lieutenant Colonel, and became Hurlbut's AAG. At the conclusion of the War, Henry Binmore returned to Chicago and found employment as a Law Reporter (while studying law.) Passing the Illinois Bar before 1890, he continued to work in the legal profession, and the writing of law-related documents and papers, until his death in 1907. Just a bit more to the story of the Sixth Division... Ozzy References: http://archive.org/stream/lincolndouglas2184linc#page/n121/mode/2up/search/photograph Henry Binmore bio pages 80 - 81. OR 8, OR 10, OR 24 (various pages) Shiloh Report of General B. M. Prentiss http://archive.org/stream/cu31924022842433#page/n0/mode/2up/search/Binmore Henry Binmore's legal papers A Politician Turned General: the Civil War Career of Stephen A. Hurlbut by Jeffrey Norman Lash (2003) Kent State Press, page 110. http://newspapers.library.in.gov/cgi-bin/indiana?a=d&d=PT19071107.1.8 Plymouth Tribune 7 NOV 1907 page 8 col.4 "Reporter dies" SDG post March 2018 "The 18th Missouri Infantry" [Colonel Madison Miller] [Sketch by Robert Marshall Root] Lincoln - Douglas Debate of 18 SEP 1858 at Charleston Illinois before a crowd of 15000 people. Prominent on the Speaker's Platform are Abraham Lincoln, Stephen A. Douglas, and scribbling away below Lincoln's left arm, Henry Binmore. [From Scenic and Historic Illinois (1928) by Charles E. Brown.]
  2. It's just a quiz...

    Here are four questions to challenge your Shiloh/Civil War Knowledge: After Virginia, which State had the greatest number of Civil War military actions within its borders? Which Confederate officer wrote an after-action report for Fort Henry... and for Fort Donelson (present at both; captured at neither)? [Hint: he was wounded at Shiloh.] "Complete Victory" was claimed in General Beauregard's report of April 6th to Richmond, following on the First Day at Shiloh. But, in conjunction with "Manchester Bluff" and "Come Retribution," the phrase "Complete Victory" had another important usage within the Confederacy. What was that other usage? One of Ulysses S. Grant's little-recognized skills was his ability to identify talented men, and put them to work for him. Often, these "talented men" belonged to someone else at the time (for example, Surgeon John H. Brinton technically "belonged" to Major General John Fremont before joining General Grant's staff in September 1861; and James B. McPherson "belonged" to Major General Henry Halleck, before joining Grant's staff in February 1862.) The following officers: W. F. Brinck (acting Ordnance Officer at Shiloh); J. D. Webster (Grant's Chief of Staff); and Benjamin Grierson (conducted a cavalry raid for General Grant, as diversion during Vicksburg Campaign)... all worked for the same Brigadier General, before finding employment with U.S. Grant. Name that Brigadier General. Good Hunting Ozzy
  3. Full Hospitals

    An outcome... After Generals Strong and Prentiss inspected Mound City General Hospital, it appears action was taken: http://chroniclingamerica.loc.gov/lccn/sn82015672/1862-03-28/ed-1/seq-2/#date1=1862&sort=date&rows=20&words=Pittsburg&searchType=basic&sequence=0&index=15&state=Indiana&date2=1862&proxtext=Pittsburg&y=0&x=0&dateFilterType=yearRange&page=3 Evansville Daily Journal for 28 MAR 1862 page 2, col. 1, para 3 -- "The Louisiana has passed up from Mound City, full of sick and wounded from the General Hospital, to make room for those who may be wounded in a Battle likely to take place soon in Mississippi. The Louisiana is bound for Cincinnati." A bit more to the story... Ozzy
  4. Full Hospitals

    As result of the campaign against Fort Donelson, the Union suffered 507 killed and 1976 wounded; and the Confederates lost 327 killed and reported 1127 wounded. And because the United States Forces were victorious, Federal forces were responsible for burying (or removing for burial) over 800 dead; and providing care for more than 3000 wounded. Many wounded Confederate soldiers were sent to Union hospitals in Louisville (which got General U.S. Grant off-side with Don Carlos Buell, who complained to Henry Halleck about wounded soldiers being deposited in his Military District without permission.) The remainder, Union and Rebel, mostly went to hospitals in Paducah, Mound City, St. Louis, and elsewhere. But, by the end of February 1862, many Union soldiers were still unaccounted for -- by their families back home. And the mostly full hospitals along the Ohio River and Mississippi Rivers were not emptying. (And there was concern that the 700-bed Hospital at Mound City was kept full due to incompetence of the Director, Doctor Franklin.) The people of Illinois expressed their dissatisfaction in newspapers; and in letters to their Representatives in Springfield. In response, at the end of February, Governor Yates of Illinois sent a Commission of Doctors to Cairo on a fact-finding mission [see Chicago Daily Tribune of 25 FEB 1862, page 1.] Doctors Curtis, Johns and Williams, and Major Starring, visited the most concerning facilities. As a result, the hospitals at Mound City and Paducah were found to be full because of the large numbers of recently admitted sick men (who added their numbers to the slowly departing Fort Donelson wounded.) Dr. Franklin at Mound City was determined to be doing his best: he had even sent 100 men home on furlough to complete their recoveries. And, at Fort Donelson, the Commissioners compiled more complete records of the dead; and discovered over 200 wounded men still in vicinity (many of these wounded Union soldiers had been captured by the Rebels during the Campaign, and placed in Nashville hospitals for care. And remained behind when the Confederates evacuated. ) About 100 of the worst cases were sent to St. Louis for hospitalization; 115 others were sent home on furlough. Governor Yates published his March 7th report in the 14 MAR 1862 edition of the Chicago Daily Tribune. A few days later, General Lew Wallace sent over 200 desperately sick men away from Crump's Landing aboard the steamer, Telegraph, for treatment that could not be acquired at Savannah, Tennessee... and unwittingly initiated friction between himself and General Grant (and infuriated the prickly Henry Halleck, who hated malingerers, and believed "his Furlough System" was being abused.) And, although this topic has been covered pretty thoroughly, it turns out... there is more to the story. Ozzy References: http://chroniclingamerica.loc.gov/lccn/sn84031490/1862-03-14/ed-1/seq-3/#date1=1862&sort=date&rows=20&words=FRANKLIN+Franklin&searchType=basic&sequence=0&index=16&state=Illinois&date2=1862&proxtext=Franklin&y=0&x=0&dateFilterType=yearRange&page=10 Chicago Daily Tribune for 14 MAR 1862 and 25 FEB 1862. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Fort_Donelson Fort Donelson casualty figures.
  5. Louisiana Diary

    Sarah Lois Wadley was not in Tennessee during the Fort Henry and Fort Donelson Campaign; she was living in a small town along the New Orleans, Jackson & Great Northern R.R. in northern Louisiana. And in a diary she had kept since 1859, now 18-year old Sarah recorded her own thoughts and news reports in regard to the fight at Fort Donelson on pages 61 and 62: "February 17, 1862 -- Bad news comes in from Tennessee..." and "March 2, 1862 -- We have heard nothing but reverses: Fort Donnelson was taken by the 17th last month. And since that, Nashville has been surrendered. And now, Fort Columbus is threatened..." Sarah Wadley's Diary is available online via the Louis Round Wilson Special Collection at University of North Carolina, at the link attached below. She covered the entire Civil War (the last diary page available is for May 1865); and some of the other "items of interest" for those of us at SDG include: Sunday March 16, 1862 -- "General Price has defeated the yankees in Arkansas [Pea Ridge] and our battering ram, Virginia, sunk one of the blockading ships last week..." April 13 -- "Oh! what a time this is, the past week has been one of feverish excitement. Tuesday we received news of a great battle, near Corinth..." Easter Sunday, April 20 -- "The battle near Corinth was another added to our Victories [but it is said we had to move the army south to avoid a reinforcing army...]" Other events included in Sarah's Diary: the Fall of New Orleans; the struggle to maintain Vicksburg; and "the work of her Father (William Morrill Wadley)" who was a Railroad Superintendent in Louisiana, but who appears to have taken on a more powerful role, over time (his frequent visits to Richmond expanding into conferences involving forty other Confederate Railroad superintendents, those meetings led by Wadley, and often taking place in Georgia.) The Civil War Diary of Amite, Louisiana resident Sarah Lois Wadley is worth a read, to get a Southern civilian's take on significant events; to appreciate "the spin" provided by Southern newspapers; and to get a better understanding of "the Southern experience on the Home Front" during the war years. Cheers Ozzy References: http://docsouth.unc.edu/imls/wadley/wadley.html [scroll down to Sarah Wadley's Diary] http://www.csa-railroads.com/Essays/Biography_of_William_M._Wadley.htm Bio of Railroad Superintendent Wadley at "Confederate Railroads" http://www.csa-railroads.com/ Confederate Railroads [best site available for Civil War railroads operated in the South].
  6. Louisiana Diary

    A Grand Tour Besides reporting on the Battles at Fort Donelson and Shiloh, there are other gems to be found in this journal, one of which is the record (beginning page 4) of a Grand Tour that commenced from Vicksburg Mississippi in August 1859, and involved rail and steamboat travel. In company with her Father and other family members, the tour commenced aboard the Capitol, paddling in comfort up the Mississippi River, with stops at Memphis, St. Louis, Columbus Kentucky and Cairo. By train, the party continued to Chicago, Detroit, Niagara Falls, and Montreal Canada. A stop was made in the ancestral home of the Wadley Family (New Hampshire) before continuing south by rail, to Boston, New York City, Baltimore and Washington D.C. Then on to Richmond; across the Carolinas to Savannah Georgia (where the party remained a few days.) Rail west across Georgia to the head of navigation on the Alabama River, for a two day cruise downriver, pausing at Selma Alabama, before arriving at Mobile. After a few days on Mobile Bay, another steamer was boarded for the one-day passage to New Orleans. Another brief stay, and the train took the party back home to Amite Louisiana, arriving November 19th after two full months of travel. But, what is truly striking: all of the places visited (that were to play key roles in the conflict that commenced just over a year later.) If someone were to "concoct a list of important places to visit, prior to initiation of the Civil War," it would resemble Sarah's list of places visited... Just coincidence? Ozzy
  7. T. Hurst remembers...

    Mona "Timing is everything." And this may help explain why leaders (like U. S. Grant) were keen to get on with things. Wait too long, and you must factor: Drought or Flood (such as occurred at Fort Henry) Heat or Snow (such as happened at Fort Donelson) Rain... (probably led to Albert Sidney Johnston delaying Shiloh by one day) Establishment of "artificial barriers" ("Wait for Buell ...and do nothing to bring on general engagement" or "You do not have permission, or authority, to conduct that operation" or "You are not the desired commander to be put in charge of that expedition.") Military operations have always been subject to Uncertainty and Chance. Which is why phrases such as, "The Gods smiled upon you," and "Strike while the iron is hot" became associated with successful military operations, in times past. Ozzy N.B. As regards operations at Pittsburg Landing, the receding flood waters led to Lick Creek being easily fordable; the crossing of Snake Creek (via Wallace Bridge) being possible; and the inability of Sherman's April 1st Expedition proceeding any further up the Tennessee River than Chickasaw Bluff (to hunt down that pesky Confederate gunboat, rumored to be operating in vicinity of Florence Alabama.)
  8. T. Hurst remembers...

    Thomas Hurst grew up on a farm just outside Savannah, on the east side. His father, 35-year-old Daniel R., worked as both farmer and mill wright; his mother, 32-year-old Elizabeth Black Hurst, mostly looked after Thomas's young brothers and sisters. With the excitement of the attempted Confederate-sponsored State conscription of early March 1862, disrupted by the landing at Savannah of Colonel Worthington's 46th Ohio Infantry, then 13-year-old Thomas Hurst appears to have spent a lot of time in town, acting as witness to all that was taking place. Years later (at the time he wrote this article) he remembers, "the Tennessee River was full to overflowing in March 1862. And the roads were a muddy mess, especially during the first week of April." He knew that "General Buell was to make a junction at Hamburg." And he knew "that the steamer Tigress was General Grant's flagship." On Sunday morning, April 6th, "wild staccato of the blazing musketry, accompanied by the sullen roar of thundering artillery" drew him to the waterfront, just behind the Cherry Mansion, where he, "witnessed General Grant lead a cream-colored horse aboard Tigress (despite claims years later that General Grant required the use of crutches, at that time.)" Some of the other gems remembered by Thomas Hurst: Paymaster Douglas Putnam, on Grant's staff, "gave up his horse about 2 p.m. for use of LtCol McPherson." [McPherson would ride this horse north across Snake Creek, in company with John Rawlins, to meet and hurry forward Major General Lew Wallace.] He saw the steamer Henry Fitzhugh, one smokestack all shot up, making its way downriver carrying the first wounded soldiers away from the battle; He was told by Paymaster Douglas Putnam, who accompanied Grant on the battlefield, that "after dark on Sunday, he went with General Grant to the Tigress and slept aboard." [This is interesting, and does not appear far-fetched, because we know Grant and Rawlins attempted to seek shelter from the rain Sunday night and sleep in the makeshift Hospital. U.S. Grant records that he was unable to rest there, with all the cries from the wounded, and returned outside. Rawlins, on the other hand (in his biography) records that "he slept like a baby in that Hospital." -- Did General Grant really sleep in the rain, under the tree, with Tigress close at hand?] Thomas Hurst remembers the steamer Glendale (and only the Glendale) as having a calliope on board; Hurst recalls the steamer Dunleith (sometimes spelled Demleith) as being the steamer Governor Harvey was leaving (after visiting wounded soldiers of the 16th Wisconsin) when he slipped and fell into the Tennessee River and drowned. After the war, Thomas Hurst married Mary Smith and moved to Pennsylvania (where Reverend T. M. Hurst became Pastor of the Presbyterian Church at Arnot.) Cheers Ozzy References: http://www.jstor.org/stable/42637415?loggedin=true&seq=1#page_scan_tab_contents Battle of Shiloh by T.M. Hurst, pages 82-96. http://www.findagrave.com/memorial/68880126 Reverend T. M. Hurst http://www.findagrave.com/memorial/179882598/Daniel-Robinson-Hurst Thomas Hurst's father, Daniel, of Savannah Tennessee
  9. Scientific American

    Sometimes it's nice to know, "How did they do that during the Civil War?" How did they mass produce the thousands upon thousands of uniforms needed? What was the method used for preserving meat? When did the battery become available (so useful for remote torpedo detonation and telegraph operation)? Scientific American, first published in 1845, rose to the challenge presented by the American Civil War, and quickly adjusted to advocate "home remedies" for food storage; explaining the operation (and importance) of steam engines; revealing new uses for old devices... such as the battery, which had been around for centuries (used for electroplating silver onto base metal), but was now required for other operations. Of course, the weekly magazine, usually 16 pages in length continued operating as a forum for brand-new ideas; and promoted patents for those new ideas. But, by early 1862 it also began including "news reports, and items of interest relating to conduct of the War," biographies of important leaders; and outcome of important battles. New inventions with war-specific use gained prominence (such as rifled cannon; iron-clad ships; industrial-grade sewing machines; screw propellers.) Battle of Shiloh. Mostly referred to as Battle of Pittsburg Landing, there are one-column articles in Volume 6 on page 242 {April 19th 1862) first report; page 258 (April 26) "explaining the importance of Buell and Navy gunboats" and page 274 (3 May)"Following onto our previous report, we believe there was, "lack of due vigilance" and "lack of care" demonstrated by the leadership at Pittsburg Landing... In fact, the management of our forces during the initial hours could not have been worse." [Underline is mine -- Ozzy.] The HathiTrust reference site makes use of "Search Box" at top of each page, allowing for search of any specific word desired (within each Volume.) "Shiloh" and "Pittsburg" recovered the above results within Volume 6. Reference link below. Ozzy Scientific American: http://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/000505081 [for access to every Volume] http://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=coo.31924080787702;view=1up;seq=246 Volume 6 of Scientific American
  10. ( Confederate Veteran Magazine, March 1895.) Much deserving credit is accorded Major D. W. Reed in helping make Shiloh NMP what it is today. But, "unrecognized others" were just as necessary to the creation of, "the wondrous preserve that is Shiloh NMP and Cemetery" (including the survey team, pictured above.) In Confederate Veteran (volume 3, edition of March 1895, pages 75 - 77) begins an extensive article that details work of some of the other men (and provides photographs): Colonel E T. Lee and Captain J. W. Irwin, just two mentioned. Others include Colonel Cornelius Cadle (Park Commissioner), General Don Carlos Buell (Park Commissioner -- page 104), and Captain James Williams (Assistant Secretary of Shiloh Battlefield Association, former member of Brewer's Cavalry Battalion, then living in Savannah Tennessee.) The article begins with an "invitation to attend the Second Reunion at Shiloh, to be held April 5 and 6 1895 at Pittsburg Landing," and flows into a description of the work done by Colonel E. T. Lee of Monticello Illinois (Secretary of the Shiloh Battlefield Association.) E. T. Lee also wrote a four column article on Battle of Shiloh (included in references at bottom.) On page 77 the details of Captain J. W. Irwin are revealed (former member of Confederate Cavalry that was absorbed into N. B. Forrest's command.) A two-page article detailing service with General Forrest is included. Much additional information is to be found in volumes 3 and 4 of Confederate Veteran, but the Index does not allow effective searching. [Best to click on the "Catalog Record," below; select the desired volume; and in Search Box at top of that volume, insert "Shiloh" for references IRT the creation of the Military Park.] Regards Ozzy References: http://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=hvd.32044035882372;view=1up;seq=104 Confederate Veteran, volume 3. http://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/000528187 Catalog Record for Confederate Veteran Magazine (all issues, 1893 - 1922.) http://newspapers.library.in.gov/cgi-bin/indiana?a=d&d=INN18950302-01.1.11 Indianapolis News of 2 MAR 1895, page 11, "Shiloh Memorial Park" by E. T. Lee. N.B. Did anyone else notice the steamboat in the background? Might be the Edgar Cherry.
  11. See you in Memphis

    Perhaps the reason we don't think too much about Memphis is because the surrender took place "over there, to the west of Pittsburg Landing and Corinth" (seemingly out of Grant's jurisdiction, with its "limits not defined" -- but not out of Halleck's jurisdiction.) In addition, there were so many different men given credit in some way for the Fall of Confederate Memphis, and her return to Federal control: there was the Flag-officer that conducted the river-borne operation; there was the Commander of the Federal Ram Fleet; there was the Army lieutenant who strode into Memphis after the Confederate Naval Force was destroyed, accepted the Surrender from the Mayor, and then restored the Star Spangled Banner to the flag-staff atop the Post Office... And there was the Indiana colonel, given Command of the Federal Post of Memphis... [But, without peaking at wikipedea, most of us would be challenged to come up with the name of ANY of those men.] Quiz question: Who was the first Union General to enter Memphis after the Surrender of the City in June 1862? Of interest to us at SDG, because this individual has a Shiloh-connection. Cheers Ozzy A hint: http://civilwarmonths.com/2017/06/06/the-fall-of-memphis/ Memphis Story by Walter Coffey
  12. See you in Memphis

    In a letter dated March 24, 1862 from WT Sherman to General WK Strong, Sherman let slip that he 'hoped to meet General Strong in Memphis' (which may have been Henry Halleck's next objective after the anticipated capture of Corinth.) In the meantime, Shiloh happened... and the Crawl to Corinth dragged on... and a Federal Navy operation, featuring the unlikely 'ram fleet' of Colonel Charles Ellet, resulted in destruction of a Confederate Navy Flotilla, and surrender of the City of Memphis -- to the Navy -- on June 6th. Following the surrender, a Colonel of the 47th Indiana Infantry was temporarily installed as 'Military Governor of Memphis.' The question: Who was the first Union General to enter Memphis after its surrender to the Federal Navy in June 1862?
  13. questions about colonels

    The Generals of Shiloh by Larry Tagg As everyone knows, "You can't tell the players without a program." The originator of this topic, Larry Tagg, has published a book (2017) on all of the officers who were Brigade commanders (or above) during the two days at Battle of Shiloh. Army of the Tennessee, Army of the Ohio, and Confederate Army of the Mississippi are included; each entry is two or three pages long (and most include photographs.) About 250 pages, and includes bibliographical references (to allow more comprehensive details to be found) this book is a great resource, if only to refresh your memory of some of the more obscure characters at Shiloh. The Generals of Shiloh: Character in Leadership, April 6 - 7, 1862, by Larry Tagg. Published 2017 at El Dorado Hills, Calif. (Savas Beatie, LLC). Cheers Ozzy Additional Reference: http://cwba.blogspot.com.au/2018/03/review-of-tagg-generals-of-shiloh.html
  14. T. Hurst remembers...

    Captains of Steamboats There are two great resources: http://www.riverboatdaves.com/ Riverboat Dave's site, for boats, companies that built and owned them, Captains... The Missouri Daily Republican (a St. Louis newspaper) http://digital.shsmo.org/cdm/search/collection/dmr/searchterm/1862-02/field/date/mode/exact/conn/and/order/date/cosuppress/1/page/2 (Available, free, at State Historical Society of Missouri.) The Missouri Daily Republican published a listing (usually page 3, center column) every day, under "Boats Leaving this Day" that provided the steamboats departing and the name of the Captain or Pilot in command (as we know, the captains and pilots frequently changed.) For any particular voyage, if the boat stopped at St. Louis, these details are recorded. http://digital.shsmo.org/cdm/compoundobject/collection/dmr/id/14846/rec/24 Page 3 of 25 March 1862, provided as example. Cheers Ozzy
  15. T. Hurst remembers...

    Another interest of T. M. Hurst: Steamboats. In particular, steamboats that were involved in transporting troops and armaments to Savannah and Pittsburg Landing in the build-up of Federal force during March and April 1862; those steamers present April 6th; and those that arrived (and departed) shortly after Battle of Shiloh commenced: (Found in Confederate Veteran, vol.1 page 180.)
  16. Full Hospitals

    Yes, it is a shame "what could have been" if the Civil War had occurred just a decade later. But at the same time, it must be recognized that the Civil War provided impetus for many of those necessary improvements. Florence Nightingale is recognized "for getting the ball rolling," providing female nursing during the Crimean War of 1850's. Dorothea Dix provided a similar service in America (replaced by Clara Barton as Administrator of Nurses.) Clara Barton's work was essential (initiated a "tracking program" to determine locations and ultimate fate of "missing soldiers" ...the precursor (with elements of Sanitation Commission) of American Red Cross (officially commenced 1881. The International Red Cross began during the Civil War, but in Europe.) The surgeons and medical practitioners of the 1860's did the best they could, with what was known at the time. Ozzy References: http://www.bestnursingmasters.com/10-greatest-nurses-of-the-american-civil-war/ Civil War Nurses http://www.biography.com/people/florence-nightingale-9423539 Florence Nightingale http://www.nps.gov/clba/learn/kidsyouth/chron2.htm Timeline of Clara Barton activities
  17. Did someone lose their dentures at Shiloh?

    Stan It is said that, "If you put half a dozen 50-year old men in a room together in 1860, you'd get a full set of teeth." It was common practice (and least expensive option) during the 19th Century to simply remove teeth that were causing problems. Those with means, got dentures. When speaking of "a man with missing teeth at Shiloh," I ran across a newspaper article some time ago that claimed, "Bishop and General Leonidas Polk only had a couple of teeth in his mouth." Although I have been unable to track down that newspaper, the attached link seems to confirm "the poor condition of General Polk's teeth." Regards Ozzy http://bullyforbragg.blogspot.com.au/2008/05/general-appearance-part-2.html?m=0 Army of Tennessee: General Facts
  18. Review of Badeau

    Sometimes it is good to return to a reference you have not paid attention to in a while, if only to realize "how much your own knowledge has grown." Sometimes, unexpected revelations are uncovered that were, somehow, missed "the first time around." Such is the case with the attached work (only that portion detailing the period between Fort Donelson and start of Battle of Shiloh subjected to scrutiny. But for our purposes, that is enough.) The original work was released in time for the Presidential Campaign of 1868. http://archive.org/details/militaryhistory02badegoog 1885 edition of U. S. Grant Biography by Adam Badeau Review of Adam Badeau’s “Lead-up to Battle of Shiloh” (contained in pages 58 – 76 of The Military History of Ulysses S. Grant: April 1861 to April 1865, Volume One, published 1867) Adam Badeau (1831 – 1895) was an author and essayist working in New York when the Civil War erupted. In 1862 he decided to “throw in with the Union” and was incorporated onto the Staff of T. W. Sherman (the other General Sherman, Thomas, who until May 1862 was mostly involved “back East.”) To be part of Henry Halleck’s Crawl to Corinth, General T. W. Sherman was called west and placed in command of a Division; and Adam Badeau came, too. Badeau was later wounded during the Siege of Port Hudson (1863) and was sent home to recover. Finally healed in early 1864, and at the urging of John Rawlins, Adam Badeau was “brought into the Staff Family” of U. S. Grant (and served as “Military Secretary.”) LtCol Badeau developed and maintained a close connection to General (and soon-to-be President) Grant that continued until the end of Grant’s life. Late in 1867 Adam Badeau published a book (that might be called, “the Authorized Biography of U.S. Grant”) but was instead titled, The Military History of Ulysses S. Grant: from April 1861 to April 1865, Volume One. Because Adam Badeau intended to cover Grant’s entire Civil War career, Volume One did end with Lee’s Surrender at Appomattox (but the extent of material that became available caused Badeau to rework “Grant’s Military History” into a two-volume set, released in 1881 and 1885.) In meantime, “other things” got in the way: Grant ran for President in 1868; and Adam Badeau accepted one official posting after another, putting the “extended version” of Grant’s Authorized Biography on hold, for a while. Despite the Preface to Volume One claiming, “I have not meant to state one fact unless it came under my own personal observation, or has been told to me by the General or one of his important officers, or unless I know it from Official Papers,” there is evidently a lot of “massaging” that took place before Adam Badeau released this work to the public in 1867. Grant’s “Military Secretary” was a strong supporter (and promoter) of the General: wherever possible, Badeau placed Grant in a favourable light. That being said, it is still worth reading this Biography (if for nothing else, to find out the original source of many of the “Grant claims” that persist to the present day.) Also consider: Badeau was not at Shiloh; so the information presented likely came direct from U.S. Grant and John Rawlins. [This review covers only the period following Success at Fort Donelson, until commencement of Battle of Shiloh, and is available for free use – Ozzy.] Beginning Page 58 is to be found, “On February 21st, C. F. Smith took Clarksville.” [Grant had authorized Smith to take Clarksville on 21 FEB 1862, but Smith may not have completed establishing his force there, drawn from the Second Division at Fort Donelson, until the 23rd. Why is this important? Because of the timing of Grant’s trip to Nashville: if the reader assumes Grant inspected Smith’s force at Clarksville on or about February 21st, then General Grant has time to return to Fort Donelson before making the voyage to Nashville, some date closer to the 27th – see OR 7 page 649. ] [The presentation of the Nashville Visit is of interest because it introduces many of the “tools of massage” made use, later, by Badeau; to include time compression or time extension (as required); sequence of events out of order; omission of inconvenient facts; obfuscation. Outright lies are only resorted to rarely, and usually presented in a cloak of “possibly being true.”] [See SDG “The Real Story of Nashville” for comparison of two versions of the same Visit to Nashville, remembering it was 100 river miles from Nashville to Fort Donelson.] Page 59 relates the reaction of U.S. Grant to being “caught in the act” of visiting Nashville without authority: Badeau attempts to persuade the reader that Grant “did nothing wrong” in going to Nashville; he had simply “asked for permission in a novel way” (if permission was not specifically withheld, Grant assumed he had authority to go.) Badeau conveniently leaves out the 25 FEB telegram (recorded in Sherman’s Memoirs) in which Henry Halleck directed General Grant to “move across to Fort Henry and establish your HQ there.” Grant takes the stance of “wronged party” and states that “his intentions were simply misunderstood” and the unreliable telegraph system delayed receipt of orders, and the sending of his own reports… and, besides, the new District of West Tennessee had no defined boundaries (conveniently ignoring that whatever those boundaries were, they were completely contained within Halleck’s Department of the Missouri... and subject to Halleck’s oversight.) [Halleck was yet to be awarded expansion of his Department; and he needed to keep on friendly terms with Buell. But Grant and Badeau would both know that the average reader was not familiar with the specifics of Army Command Structure.] [On 11 MAR 1862 Henry Halleck gained “promotion” to an expanded area of responsibility – the Department of the Mississippi. This expanded department incorporated everything Halleck desired west of the Mississippi; and included the absorption of Buell’s District (and continued control over Grant’s District.) This expanded authority gave Henry Halleck ability to formulate and launch operations into southwest Missouri; down the Mississippi River; and along the Cumberland and Tennessee River valleys. And this huge development is simply not mentioned by Badeau (page 62 is where the reader should find this.)] [Instead, from page 63 there begins a number of pages of seemingly endless exchanges between Halleck and senior officials “back East” which ends with Badeau asserting that “General Grant’s new District had undefined boundaries” ( ...so order is delivered from chaos).] On page 66, after implying that “General Grant was unjustly removed from command of the Tennessee River Expedition,” Badeau relates Halleck’s reinstatement of Grant to command on March 13th, with the direction, “Do not bring on a general engagement at Paris.” Badeau goes on to relate “conditions and situation at Savannah, Crump’s and Pittsburg,” as Grant found them, upon his arrival March 17th: · Pittsburg Landing had been selected by C. F. Smith; · C. F. Smith had been unsuccessful at cutting the railroad (and the introduction of Corinth as “a position of first strategic importance” is made known to the reader); · Badeau seems to indicate “fore-knowledge” that Grant possessed IRT the Confederate build-up at Corinth being ultimately aimed at an attack against Pittsburg Landing. [The intention is to portray Buell as “tardy” in his arrival at Savannah; but leaves the unintended question: “If Grant suspected they were coming, why no entrenchments?”] · Also, if Buell was unnecessarily tardy, why did General Grant tell General Bull Nelson to “expect transport to Pittsburg Landing on Monday or Tuesday, at the earliest” and to General Buell’s request for a meeting on April 5th, reply to that officer “He would be at Savannah to meet him April 6th?” (see OR 10 pages 330 – 331 Jacob Ammen’s Diary; and OR 11 page 91 and Papers of US Grant vol.5 page 16. ) Beginning page 69 is the “difficulty presented by John McClernand,” first by not following orders “issued within two hours of Grant’s arrival at Savannah” for McClernand’s Division to move to Pittsburg Landing. [The reader is left wondering, “How could obviously incompetent McClernand spend a week moving nine miles?”] Next, John McClernand is introduced as the “initiator” of Rank and Seniority problems at Pittsburg Landing. [Never mind that Grant attempted to deny McClernand his rightful position as “acting commander” at Pittsburg in Grant’s absence; or that McClernand was senior to C.F. Smith… and McClernand was responding to an injustice performed by his commander. Or that McClernand’s Division was delayed getting to Pittsburg due to Grant’s own decisions (including the Pinhook Expedition, which had to be authorized by General Grant or General Smith.)] On page 70 U.S. Grant (through Badeau) provides reasons why he remained at the Cherry Mansion: he had to organize arriving troops; he had to be able to communicate with General Buell. The situation “was on its way to being resolved” (according to Badeau) when Grant released a communication on March 27th indicating his intention to move to Pittsburg Landing; and Grant especially meant to go when John McClernand started causing problems… but something always came up. And then, he had to wait for Buell… B. M. Prentiss gets his share of massaging [but why?] “March 26th is when the Sixth Division was formed” [but Prentiss was not there until March 30th, at the earliest.] The first reported interaction of Benjamin Prentiss with anyone at Pittsburg Landing occurred on April 1st when Prentiss tasked Madison Miller with command of the 2nd Brigade. [Why was it necessary to artificially extend Prentiss’s time in the field at Pittsburg Landing?] On page 71, Badeau massages “Do not bring on a general engagement” into “Do not bring on an engagement until Buell arrives.” [Henry Halleck had had communications with both Buell and Grant in which he indicated intention to take personal command and lead the combined Army of Grant and Buell towards Corinth – see OR 11 pages 64, 66, 94 and SDG “Not just pictures” post of 5 July 2017 “Halleck to come after Island No.10 agony is over” – Agate. ] Also on page 71, Badeau claims, “In accordance with Halleck’s orders, General Grant remained strictly on the defensive…” [without realizing the obvious question that generates: “Then why no defensive works?”] As to “the surprise” of April 6 – “The frequent skirmishes, beginning April 2nd, kept the men on alert” [found on page 72.] On April 4th Lew Wallace reported “a big force of Rebels at Purdy and at Bethel” [which is obviously an attempt to justify the orders that came later, at Crump’s Landing on April 6th.] “From Lew Wallace’s report, General Grant notified WHL Wallace to be ready to support Lew Wallace.” On page 73, Bull Nelson is recorded as having reported to General Grant on April 5th “and Grant marched Nelson south of Savannah in order to be across from Pittsburg Landing, only five miles away, in the event of trouble.” [It gets better…] “Since Lew Wallace’s troops rebuilt the Wallace Bridge over Snake Creek, they should have been familiar with [that route leading to Pittsburg Landing.]” [McPherson restored that bridge, but did not finish the job.] After issuing orders to Lew Wallace on the morning of April 6th, General Grant “hurried on to Landing at Pittsburg, arriving there at about 8 o’clock” [p. 76.] References as cited.
  19. Spoils of War

    While researching the 18th Missouri Infantry, ran across an interesting article in the St. Joseph Morning Herald for 22 May 1862 (page 2 col.4, about halfway down): "The steamer Gladiator arrived at St. Louis with seven thousand damaged guns aboard, recovered from Battlefield of Shiloh." That's a lot of damaged guns... Ozzy Reference: http://digital.shsmo.org/cdm/compoundobject/collection/stjoemh/id/424/rec/21 St. Joseph Morning Herald for 22 May 1862.
  20. Full Hospitals

    Jim Thanks for sharing the story of your 16th Wisconsin Grandfather. Other "successful recuperations" that spring to mind: Sergeant Edward Spalding, 52nd Illinois (wounded at Shiloh) taken home to Rockford Illinois; Colonel Jacob Lauman, 7th Iowa (wounded at Belmont) recovered at home in Burlington Iowa; BGen John McArthur, 2nd Brigade of Smith's Division (wounded at Shiloh) recovered at home in Chicago; Colonel John Logan, 31st Illinois (wounded at Fort Donelson) recovered at home in Chicago; Private-elect Thomas Clendenin. Trained with the Governor's Greys at Dubuque; failed muster into 1st Iowa Infantry, due having contracted measles in camp (along with seven other men.) Sent home to Dubuque; recovered from illness and joined 12th Iowa, Co.H Probably the most notorious example of a man not recovering from a minor injury (while remaining "in Hospital"): General C. F. Smith. His upstairs bedroom at the Cherry Mansion became de facto Private Hospital (after first seeking treatment aboard steamer, Hiawatha.) Would General Smith have recovered if he had been sent home? Always more to the story... Ozzy
  21. W. James Morgan, a grocer from Brunswick Missouri, with experience involving militia organizations "back East," began recruiting Morgan's Rangers in mid-1861. Originally a mounted infantry battalion, the decision was made authorizing the expansion of Morgan's Rangers into a full-sized infantry regiment (and James Morgan was appointed Colonel.) In December 1861, the 18th Missouri Infantry completed its formation; and James Morgan continued operating in Northern Missouri (where his "unsavory practices" soon came to the attention of higher authority.) Colonel Morgan was removed from command, and replaced by Madison Miller. Madison Miller was a 50-year old "man of many talents," originally from Pennsylvania, who found himself "moving progressively westward" over the course of his life. In Illinois when the Mexican War broke out in 1846, Miller joined the 2nd Illinois Infantry Regiment and became Captain of Company I. Mentioned in Despatches at Buena Vista, Captain Miller mustered out with his regiment at the end of that war... and with nothing better to do, Madison Miller got caught up in Gold Fever and joined the Rush to California (where he spent three years: first as prospector; then as supplier of goods; finally, active in politics.) Done with California, Miller returned to Missouri and settled in Carondelet, a suburb of St. Louis along the Mississippi, and set up a steam ferry. Returning to politics, Madison Miller was elected Mayor of Carondelet (and also served in the State Legislature at Jefferson City.) And, going from strength to strength, Miller was appointed to the Board of Iron Mountain Railroad. In Jefferson City when the Rebellion broke out (and caught up in the pro-North/South-leaning chaos that was Missouri Politics) Madison Miller made his way to Washington, D.C., and offered his services in raising "a pro-Union militia company." Permission was granted, and "Captain" Miller returned to St. Louis, raised the company (which was incorporated into Frank Blair's 1st Missouri Infantry) and saw service at Battle of Wilson's Creek in August 1861. Partly due to the attrition at Wilson's Creek, and partly due to men refusing to reenlist after their three-month term of service expired, Madison Miller took those stalwarts that remained and established a new organization: Battery I of the 1st Missouri Light Artillery. His efforts in organizing the new organization and drilling the men caught the attention of former artillery officer, now Brigadier General John Schofield. So when a "change of command was needed" for the 18th Missouri Infantry, Captain Madison Miller was tapped to replace the in-disgrace James Morgan. Colonel Miller took command of the 18th Missouri effective 31 January 1862. It was deemed best to remove the 18th Missouri from Northern Missouri, so the regiment was assigned duty at Bird's Point. According to Madison Miller, on the way to that new duty station, the 18th Missouri was "re-tasked" with securing the transport by steamer of two enormous siege guns (see M. Miller bio, page 66). The siege guns were eventually delivered to Foote and Buford's forces in vicinity of Island No.10 and the 18th Missouri complied with their original orders and reported to Bird's Point. On 11 March 1862, IAW Special Orders No.220 issued at St. Louis, "the 18th Missouri and 81st Ohio are ordered to proceed to the District of West Tennessee and report to Major General Grant." The 81st Ohio showed up; but the 18th Missouri was diverted to Smithland Kentucky, near the mouth of the Cumberland River, and briefly occupied that post. On March 24th, IAW instructions sent from Henry Halleck to Brigadier General W. K. Strong at Cairo, "the Post at Smithland is to be disestablished: the Waterhouse Battery and the 18th Missouri are to be sent to U. S. Grant." There is evidence that Waterhouse's Battery reported to General Grant on March 30th. But, according to Madison Miller (Bio page 67) "he and his 18th Missouri did not report until seven days before the Battle of Shiloh" [which would be March 31st.] Colonel Miller continues: "I was ordered to report for duty with General Prentiss. But, no one knew where General Prentiss was... Eventually, I found a wagon and driver (the driver agreed to carry me to the Sixth Division, for a fee) and I was hauled two or three miles out, to Sixth Division Headquarters. An Adjutant directed me to a site, east of the HQ, where the 18th Missouri was to go into camp." "Next day [April 1st] I was approached by General Prentiss, and assigned as Commander of the 2nd Brigade of the Sixth Division... which shortly consisted of the 18th Missouri, 61st Illinois and 18th Wisconsin (and the 15th Michigan attempted to become part of the Brigade.)" Colonel Miller spent the next few days attempting to "organize his brigade," and hacking clear a parade ground (piling the shrubs, branches and stumps along one edge of the field.) On the morning of April 6th, Colonel Miller formed his 2nd Brigade along the north side of the cleared field, "behind the line of piled debris" ...but he was told by General Prentiss to "Move forward, [and engage the enemy..."] Ozzy References: wikipedia (for Madison Miller and W. James Morgan) http://www.trailsrus.com/civilwar/region1/smithland.html Smithland Kentucky http://cdm.sos.mo.gov/cdm/compoundobject/collection/nwmo/id/2569/rec/6 Personal Recollections of the 18th Missouri (including Madison Miller bio) http://www.findagrave.com/memorial/18469 Madison Miller at find-a-grave OR 52 pages 222 and 229.
  22. 156th Battle Anniversary

    WI16thJim and Mona Thanks for the offer of hospitality. If I can swing a trip to USA, will most definitely let you know my travel itinerary. All the best Ozzy
  23. Full Hospitals

    Rbn3 Thanks for adding a bit more background, to help expand on the Hospital System topic. Some of the other "beliefs" of that time period: mosquitoes did not cause Yellow Fever or Malaria (they could actually help cure it, by "sucking out" the toxin -- which was the result of breathing "bad air") flowing water "purified itself" after about ten feet of flow; no need to wash your hands before preparing food (except to get rid of "obvious dirt") Calomel was "a household remedy" used by everybody (and a trusted cure-all used by U. S. Army.) It was a difficult task, almost impossible, to get the Army to stop making use of the Mercury compound (and its abolition is likely the cause of forward-thinking Surgeon Hammond being fired from his job.) Henry Halleck, W. T. Sherman and many other commanders shared the belief that, "A sick man has a better chance of recovering from his illness if left at camp, than if removed to anywhere else." This may have been marginally true (if sick men left in the fresh air of camp were compared to sick men languishing in the stagnant-air, germ-incubators of Hospital.) But, there are too many cases of "sick men on death's door" recovering fully when removed to their pre-war homes (i.e., loving care) to ignore. Half-rations. Upon any extended reading of Civil War records, a mention of the use of "half-rations being given to men who were doing nothing" is to be encountered... even advocated. This practice killed most of the men, North and South, who were confined in Prisoner of War Camps: the strength and resilience of the body would decline, making it more susceptible to infection or diarrhea-type conditions, especially if the food making up the half-ration was improperly handled or otherwise contaminated. The weakened man, often made under-weight by prolonged exposure to half-rations, had no strength reserves to fight simple illnesses that could be overcome in any other setting. (And, amazingly, after the Civil War concluded, both sides denied they made use of "half-rations.") We've come a long way... Ozzy
  24. School Field Trip

    Derrick I envy you: I have never been to Shiloh NMP, but hope -- one day -- to make the visit. [In the meantime, I have concocted a Route that I would follow, if I had the opportunity to take family members, so they would get an appreciation for the vast expanse of Shiloh Park.] During the drive up, I would provide details of the units we were going to focus on (in my case, five family members of the 12th Iowa Infantry, Co.H). I would bring pictures, stories, make them "as real and alive" as possible. (Your ability to "dress in costume" and have other props, is good idea.) On arrival: my focus changes. "Here we are, at Pittsburg Landing. A big expanse of woodland, cut by a few isolated farms. And it was just a big camp ground, from here, all the way to the river: both sides of the road. Big, white canvass tents, each one holding ten men; over 3000 tents scattered in small clusters, from here, to the river: it looks like a circus, or carnival, but on a grand scale. Men can be seen marching; some are playing baseball; on rainy days, they stay in their tents and write letters, play cribbage or euchre or chess. And there were not just men here: some of the men brought their wives. And, there were wagons full of supplies, and food and ammunition; there were big artillery pieces -- (just point at any random gun you happen to pass) -- and there were horses... four horses to pull each wagon; 12 horses to pull each gun. And all the senior officers rode horses; and hundreds of cavalrymen rode horses... Hundreds of horses, perhaps thousands of horses, here to service over 35,000 men." First stop: the bluff overlooking the Tennessee River (ignore the visitor center until the end.) "The men who setup their tents in that camp ground we've just driven across arrived by boat, from over 200 miles away, in that direction (north). In early April 1862, there were a dozen steamboats here, every day: some coming, some going, a few that stayed (one for each of the five Union divisions here, and these acted as "floating warehouses," full of ammunition, supplies and food.) Also on the river was the U.S. Navy: two, and sometimes three, armored steamers, bristling with guns. Here to protect the steamers full of men making the voyage from St. Louis and Cairo and Paducah. Up that way, to the north, is where General Grant, commander of the Federal Army here, had his headquarters: Savannah, about eight miles away. Also five or six miles away was another camp of Federal soldiers, at Crump's Landing. Lew Wallace and his division of 7000 troops (you may have heard of Lew Wallace, and how he got lost. We can talk more about that, later.) Across the river, another big Union Army, belonging to Don Carlos Buell, was marching over 130 miles from Nashville, along mud-affected roads, and delayed by burned bridges that had to be rebuilt. That eastern bank of the Tennessee River was a swamp in 1862, five miles wide. Buell's Army had to wade through that swamp, to get to steamers; climb aboard those steamers and ferry across... to here, the Landing, just below the bluff. And, once Buell joined his 30,000 soldiers to Grant's 35,000 soldiers, they were all going to march 20 miles that way. southwest to Corinth Mississippi, and engage the Confederate Army commanded by Albert Sidney Johnston and PGT Beauregard. And they expected to fight the battle -- there, at Corinth -- that would end the War in the West." Still near the first stop, but if possible, reveal the Dill Branch Ravine. What can be said, about this ground we are standing on? [High... elevated... can see for miles (when the trees don't block your view)... and this Dill Branch Ravine (and another one, not quite as deep, called Tilghman Branch, just off to the west)... All of these features made this Bluff a strong position. If the Confederate Army was going to win the Battle of Shiloh on April 6th, they had to knock the Union Army off this bluff (and the Rebel plan was to push the Federal soldiers west, into swampy ground adjacent to Owl Creek and Snake Creek, and destroy the Union army, there.) On the drive: if possible, drive slowly to reveal the extent of Grant's Last Line (and explain "this came later," and point out Tilghman Branch Ravine.) Perhaps indicate the general directions that the five Union division commanders had their camps, as you proceed "to where it all began," Fraley Field. Fraley Field: the first shots of Battle of Shiloh occurred here, pre-dawn April 6th 1862. The Confederate Army had camped just a mile or two to the south -- most without tents, and most went to bed April 5th hungry, having run out of food during the march from Corinth. Albert Sidney Johnston had planned to launch his attack on April 5th, but nuisance rain made the road muddy. And soldiers had to help push and pull wagons and artillery pieces through the muddy bottoms, through waist-deep mud. The plan: Johnston (and Beauregard) wanted to attack Grant's Army before Don Carlos Buell completed his march from Nashville (because it is a lot easier to defeat a force of 35,000 green troops, than it is to defeat an army of 65.000). And the size of the Confederate Army is estimated at 35,000 men. And they hoped that by fighting on their ground, familiar to many; and by taking Grant's Army by surprise, they could overwhelm and Defeat Grant's Army. And then confront Buell (possibly run him back to Nashville.) But, here at Fraley Field, it came unstuck. An unsuspected patrol sent out by Colonel Peabody, 25th Missouri (now acting as Brigade Commander in General Prentiss's Sixth Division) had encountered Rebel troops, and the fight was on... while General A.S. Johnston was still in process of readying his men to make their attack. The Federals under Peabody and Moore and Prentiss, believed they were just engaging a Rebel Patrol, not the whole Confederate Army. So as A.S. Johnston completed his preparations, and sent his Army forward, the Federals added more and more troops from the Sixth Division... but 4000 Federals were never going to defeat an Army of 35,000. Peabody was killed; and Prentiss was pushed away to the north... but before he left the vicinity of his Camp, General Prentiss did the most important thing he could have done: he asked for help. He sent a messenger north to General Hurlbut, to ask for help from his Fourth Division; and he sent a messenger, asking for help from the Second Division; and he let Colonel Stuart know (Stuart was in command of a Brigade belonging to Sherman, away to the East, on the left side of Prentiss's Camp). Prentiss sent a messenger to tell Stuart that he was under attack. So, what do we see? The surprise that General Johnston was hoping for evaporated pretty quickly." Now, drive to Cloud Field, and continue your lesson. And follow your "Regiment of interest" in its moves during the course of the day. Finish: if following a Confederate regiment, end on the south side of Dill Branch Ravine (or west side of Tilghman Branch Ravine). Because these natural barriers, with Federal troops lined along the north of Dill and east of Tilghman, are what the Rebel soldiers had to overcome to win the Battle. Finish: if following a Union regiment, end on the north side of Dill Branch (or east of Tilghman Branch, where Sherman had his Final Line aligned north/south, protecting Snake Creek Bridge). Visitor Centre: now go inside, view the movie, have a look at artifacts and buy souvenirs. (By conducting your tour in this order, the movie is used to reinforce what you explained during course of your lesson.) More than happy to answer any questions... Ozzy
  25. Full Hospitals

    To sum up, Brigadier General W. K. Strong departed St. Louis (where he had spent the last several months in charge of Benton Barracks) and arrived at Cairo Illinois on March 21st 1862... just in time to get caught up in the "Hospital Crisis" and "Possible Misuse of Donated Sanitation Stores Scandal" then gripping Illinois. Back at St. Louis, it appears that Henry Halleck realized he had thrown General Strong into the Lion's Den; and determined to send a man east who could help Strong "sort out the mess." That man was Benjamin Prentiss, former Commander at Cairo and familiar with the facilities in vicinity. It is known that Brigadier General Prentiss inspected Mound City General Hospital (in company with General Strong), and likely examined the situation at Cairo Hospital (called "the Brick House") as well (see Chicago Daily Tribune of 26 March 1862, page 2, "Latest from Cairo.") After General Prentiss departed to join Grant's Army of West Tennessee, he left General Strong in good shape, with a solid grasp of the situation IRT the Hospital System. (General Strong appears to have continued giving priority to the operation of the Hospital System, as evidenced by the Letters of Appreciation he received for his efforts in expediting care to the sick and wounded at Pittsburg Landing after Battle of Shiloh.) Ozzy N.B. Both Henry Halleck and Benjamin Prentiss thought they were readying District Hospitals to receive wounded men from the upcoming Operation against Corinth; they had no idea that those hospitals (and about twenty more, along with a dozen Hospital Boats) would be required, and so soon. Which is why General W. K. Strong presents as an under-appreciated star: it was his decisions and actions that resulted in over 7,000 wounded Federals (and, perhaps, a thousand wounded Rebels) finding their way into available -- empty -- Hospitals.