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Everything posted by Ozzy

  1. Signal Corps at Shiloh?

    On pages 465-6 of The Signal Corp in the War of the Rebellion, JW Brown (1896), is recorded the following: "While the army was encamped between Pittsburg Landing and Corinth, General George H. Thomas had occasion to visit the HQ of General William Tecumseh Sherman, near Monterey. A portion of the command occupied a prominent hill three or four miles in the advance. As it was desirable to maintain close communications with this exposed force, General Thomas inquired of General Sherman, 'Where is your Signal Corps? Why do you not have it working from here to the troops before Monterey?' 'A Signal Corps?' asked Sherman. 'What is that?' 'Well,' said General Thomas, 'I have one, and will send it to you to-morrow to work from here to there.' True to his promise, General Thomas sent Lieutenants Taylor, Kelly, Bachtell and Hollopeter to establish the desired line. A clump of trees was found to interfere with the view. A detail of men soon cut through the woods and enabled the officers to open communications. The working of the system brought together a large body of officers and men to watch this novel method of [flag] telegraphing, the crowd ultimately becoming so large that a fence had to be constructed to prevent interference with the operators. This line continued in operation while the troops remained in vicinity." However, in a 28 May 1862 letter of Private Thomas Keen (1st Nebraska Infantry, on detached duty at Paducah for Signal training), he writes: "We have our horses now, but no saddles. I do not know when we will leave [Paducah]." Corinth was entered two days later (before the newly- trained signallers had opportunity to join the Army of the Tennessee.) And Henry Halleck disbanded the Signal Corps in the West in June, claiming "the nature of the terrain made use of that organization ineffective." The trained signallers from Paducah, upon arrival at Corinth, were ordered: "Return to your units." What was really going on? During the creation of the Signal Corps, it was determined that a "signal station" would consist of three members: an officer (to code and decode the messages); a flag-man (to send coded messages; and acknowledge receipt of messages from other stations); and an assistant (to help in sending messages; and identify/interpret signals sent from other stations.) Unfortunately, a team of three signallers usually came from three different regiments. And when their services were not immediately required, these men were physically with their regiments, performing whatever duties they were there assigned. The time required to gather up parties of signallers and send them where they were required was found to be excessive. Then, there is the claim, "the nature of the terrain prevented effective use of the Signal Corps" (which many interpret as, "the trees were too thick.") Yet, towers, and "crow's nest" in tree tops had always been possible (and considering the slow nature of Halleck's advance, plenty of time was available for constructing towers.) Unknown to many, Henry Halleck extended a telegraph line with him during the Crawl to Corinth. Most often, U. S. Grant's headquarters were close by the southern end of that line (see Papers of US Grant vol.5, pages 110-1, 117 and 125. As early as 6 May 1862, General Grant sent a telegram "from near Monterey" to McClernand, regarding Captain Hawkins needing to "come forward and provide Commissary support.") It is my belief that Halleck, "couldn't be bothered" with Flagmen, when mounted couriers and the telegraph line "suited his needs, just fine." [Although Halleck ordered the Signal Corps disbanded, Buell continued to use his trained signallers after he departed Corinth, heading east.] Always more to the story... Ozzy References: http://archive.org/stream/signalcorpsusain00brow#page/468/mode/2up (see pages 460-466.) http://www.nebraskahistory.org/publish/publicat/history/full-text/NH2000MyDuty.pdf Letters of Thomas Keen (see page 12) http://penelope.uchicago.edu/Thayer/E/Journals/MOLLUS/Kansas_Commandery/The_Acting_Signal_Corps*.html Signal Corps operation http://www.civilwarsignals.org/lessons/sigmethod/cushing.html Signal Corps lessons http://digital.library.msstate.edu/cdm/compoundobject/collection/USG_volume/id/17896/rec/1 Papers of US Grant (see pages 110, 117, 125 & 112.)
  2. UDC Monument Rededication

    Just to illustrate how "connections are to be found in the most unexpected places..." On page 55 of the Minutes of the 24th Annual Convention of the UDC (mentioned above), among the names of office-holders of the different chapters of the organization, is "Mrs. Augusta Inge -- Honorary President of the Corinth Chapter No.333." It turns out, Mrs. Inge had quite a story to tell... Residing in Corinth at the commencement of the Rebellion, her husband, William Murphy Inge, joined the 12th Mississippi Infantry, and was away "fighting for Southern Independence" ...when the Confederate Army from Bowling Green -- what was left of it after the disaster at Fort Donelson -- arrived in town; and the Commanding General needed a place to stay. Major Inge returned to Corinth on furlough, and offered use of his home to General Albert Sidney Johnston; and the General accepted. In gratitude, General Johnston offered Major Inge a position on his Staff; William Inge politely declined, explaining he had already accepted a position on the Staff of Brigadier General Charles Clark (see DW Reed's, The Battle of Shiloh and the Organizations Engaged, page 42.) Mrs. Inge acted as hostess to the visiting General; and later recalled: "It was a sad moment when the boys from the South moved out of Corinth, with bands playing, "Then You'll Remember Me" and "The Girl I Left Behind Me." General Johnston had a parting word of comfort for Mrs. Inge, before he rode away: "Madame, I am going out to fight for the protection of your home." But, the story does not end there. For the rest (including Augusta Evans Inge's role in collecting funds for the UDC Monument at Shiloh) read pages 73-77 of Otto Eisenschiml's booklet, The Story of Shiloh http://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=uiug.30112047583494;view=1up;seq=85 (courtesy of hathitrust). Ozzy
  3. Signal Corps at Shiloh?

    Transylvania Thanks for sharing that anecdote IRT the Signal Corps at Pittsburg Landing... According to The Signal Corps in the War of the Rebellion, pages 460-1, Lieutenant Ludwick, Sergeant Kelly "and their party" arrived at Pittsburg Landing on April 6th, "and found General Grant was too much occupied to give them much attention. They made earnest efforts to open communication with General Buell, but without success. In the afternoon, General Nelson's [signal] officers came over and Lieutenant Ludwick offered them the assistance of his party." [Underline is mine -- Ozzy.] We know Tigress arrived at Pittsburg Landing after 8:30 a.m. and General Buell arrived at Pittsburg Landing at, or just before 2 p.m. Without knowing how long it would take for General Nelson to complete his march through the swamp, or where along the East bank Nelson's 4th Division would strike the river, U. S. Grant may have attempted to use Ludwick's party of signallers to find out where to send transport to carry Nelson's men across. Based on Lieutenant Ludwick's recollection, his party, "was without success" ...and must have abandoned their efforts with the arrival of Buell. This is unfortunate, and illustrates the teething problems encountered by the Signal Corps in the West, this early in the war. General Nelson, meanwhile, led a party of mounted men ahead of his marching troops, and appears to have reached the East bank of the Tennessee River between 4 - 4:30 p.m. Using the first available steamer, the Signal Corps was sent across (recorded as Lieutenants Hinson and Hart, and flagmen Henry Baker, Joseph Rush, John Stains and George Zecher.) "And in a few minutes, General Nelson and General Buell were communicating with each other." In summary, both the Army of the Ohio and the Army of the Tennessee had access to a Signal Corps on April 6th ...but it was too early in the war for either army to make efficient use of their teams of signalmen. Ozzy http://archive.org/stream/signalcorpsusain00brow#page/460/mode/2up The Signal Corps in the War of the Rebellion, JW Brown (1896) pages 460-1.
  4. Signal Corps at Shiloh?

    Even though the Signal Corps played only a minor role at Shiloh, it must be asked: "How did Buell's Army of the Ohio acquire their signallers?" The Civil War service of the U. S. Army Signal Corps may be said to have begun with General Orders No.32 of 15 June 1861; the ability to perform the roles required was further enhanced by General Orders No.21 of 26 February 1862 (which appropriated funds for training and equipment.) The Signal Corps originated "back East," and began work with the Army of the Potomac (with its own HQ at Georgetown, near Washington, D.C.) and Major Albert J. Myer -- who devised the flag system, including use of a turpentine torch for communicating at night -- acted as Senior Signal Officer of the organization. In December 1861, Don Carlos Buell, already alert to the practical uses of the telegraph and mounted couriers, sent a communication to Major Myer, requesting a detail of signallers be sent to him. A few weeks after Fort Donelson, five officers and ten men (under command of Lieutenant Jesse Merrill) arrived at Union-occupied Nashville for employment by the Army of the Ohio. Early on, it was envisioned that the Signal Corps would expand into an organization that controlled flag signals, light signals, coded messages, and the development of cryptographic keys. As well, there was talk of incorporating "artillery direction" (gunfire spotters)... and the balloon service. So, why did U. S. Grant not have a Signal Corps detachment assigned to the Army of the Tennessee? On March 10th 1862 it was decided to send two parties of trainers west: one went to General Benjamin Butler, Department of the Gulf, then at Ship Island Mississippi; the other party of three officers and six men went to Henry Halleck at St. Louis. This detachment, under Lieutenant J. B. Ludwick, was directed to set up a Signals School at Paducah; and orders went out to Halleck's District commanders to identify suitable candidates from across their commands for Signals Training. On April 6th, Lieutenant Ludwick and Signals-Sergeant James H. Kelly arrived aboard a steamer at Pittsburg Landing. [James Kelly later wrote a paper IRT his experience at Battle of Shiloh, and it is on file with University of North Carolina, Special Collections.] At some point, shortly after arrival, General Grant was informed of Halleck's orders; and Grant responded as quickly as the situation allowed. On April 8th, Ludwick and Kelly departed aboard a steamer, in company with two dozen officers and men who would spend the next five weeks in training at Paducah. Cheers Ozzy References: http://finding-aids.lib.unc.edu/05406/#d1e201 Papers of James H. Kelly at UNC Special Collections http://archive.org/stream/signalcorpsusain00brow#page/818/mode/2up The Signal Corps USA in the War of the Rebellion, J.W. Brown (1896). http://www.nebraskahistory.org/publish/publicat/history/full-text/NH2000MyDuty.pdf Private Thomas Keen, 1st Nebraska (one of the men selected for Signals) OR 5 pages 69-76: Report of Signal Corps Major A. J. Myer, detailing operations from June 1861 to October 1862.
  5. Signal Corps at Shiloh?

    Tim As you suggest, Northern intelligence collection and the use of secure communications was evolving at the time of Battle of Shiloh, the Union having experimented with Hungarian as a coded language, and the Jessie Scouts as an instrument of intell collection. By the time of the Vicksburg Siege, the North had caught up to the South in this arena: Grenville Dodge was in place as "intelligence coordinator" in the West; and the "black arts" (along with their gray cousins) continued to evolve and improve over the course of the Civil War. Regards Ozzy References: http://shilohdiscussiongroup.com/topic/1711-grenville-dodge-spy-master/?tab=comments#comment-11492 Grenville Dodge http://www.civilwarsignals.org/pages/spy/pages/dodge.html Grenville Dodge at Signal Corps Association http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JY9afJ3moxg Civil War Signals, produced by NSA, runs for eight minutes and provides an introduction to the importance of the telegraph, signal flags (and nighttime lights), signal codes and cipher wheels, used in various forms by both sides during the Civil War. "and if the trees are in the way..." [Above image taken from The Signal Corps in the War of the Rebellion, J. W. Brown (1896).]
  6. Signal Corps at Shiloh?

    A Signal Corps at Shiloh? Upon a close reading of that April 24th report (submitted to Lieutenant Samuel Tobey Cushing, leading Signal Corps instructor, then attached to the District of the Ohio) it appears that flag signals were used during the Battle of Shiloh, Day One, in the following way: Major General Buell steamed to Pittsburg Landing from Savannah, arriving just before 2 p.m. on April 6th. Following a brief meeting aboard Tigress with U. S. Grant, the Commanding General disappeared up the bluff, riding west; and General Buell was left behind in vicinity of the steamboat Landing (not knowing how long it would take Bull Nelson to forge his way across the swamp, to reach the eastern bank of the Tennessee River.) On horseback with a force of cavalry and "other essential staff officers," General Nelson rushed ahead of his marching 4th Division, and gained the bank of the Tennessee River before 5 p.m. And using the first available steamer, sent a team of Signal Corps Officers across to Pittsburg Landing, to set up a Signal Station (allowing General Buell to communicate directly via Signal Flags with General Nelson... and any other commanders attached to Army of the Ohio who struggled through the swamp.) What information could Buell have passed to Nelson? He had met General Grant. Grant told him Lew Wallace was expected on the battlefield "momentarily." Grant had sent Captain Hillyer with "a fleet" of steamboats to Savannah to bring up Crittenden's Division, by transport. Most importantly, Buell could have advised Bull Nelson that it was safe to bring his division across the river. (The first elements of Ammen's Brigade arrived at Pittsburg Landing in vicinity of 5:30 p.m.) The Army of the Ohio signal stations were maintained until Monday morning (probably to be ready, in case any further elements belonging to Buell found their way through the swamp.) Once it was determined that all subsequent arrivals were coming by steamer, the Signal Station on the East Bank (manned by Lieutenants Butler and Leonard) was shut down. And the Station on the Bluff overlooking Pittsburg Landing (Lieutenants Merrill and Hart) was shut down, and the personnel assigned to other duties. Of course, the loss of light following sunset would have put a halt to use of signal flags until dawn, next day. But "flag men" were also trained in use of "flashing lights." Would be interesting to find out if "burning torches" substituted for signal flags... or something else (similar to the nighttime lights used by Beauregard and Jordan when communicating with their spies at Washington, D.C. in 1861.) As for "trees being a problem," trees were common everywhere. And Signal Towers were erected... or heights occupied... or balloons put to use "back East." In the West, Henry Halleck put all his faith in the Telegraph, and the mounted courier. Short answer: "Yes. There was a Signal Corps, attached to the Army of the Ohio. And it found limited application at Shiloh." Ozzy References: OR 11 pages 295-6. http://www.civilwarsignals.org/lessons/sigmethod/cushing.html The Acting Signal Corps (with bio of Samuel T. Cushing and J. B. Ludwick). N.B. Thanks to Manassas1 for introducing this topic. It helps explain "what Buell was doing" during those hours that Grant left him alone, Sunday afternoon. [And although there is no monument, the Signal Corps Association recognizes the contribution of the "flag-men."]
  7. Letter from the 6th Iowa

    Oliver Boardman was a 21 year old from Albia, Iowa who enlisted as a Private in the 6th Iowa Volunteer Infantry, Co. E at Burlington in July 1861; and spent the next several months guarding trains in northern Missouri. On 14 March 1862, the Crescent City touched at Savannah Tennessee, and two days later the 6th Iowa disembarked at Pittsburg Landing. On April 24th, Private Boardman wrote a letter to his brother and sister back in Albia, and in eight pages describes his activity "on the far right of the Army, under General Sherman." Boardman recalls "just getting out of a trap" and hurrying with his regiment to the north; being engaged, while continually falling back; and "being supported" by one regiment after another, "which would fire two or three shots, then disappear." Eventually reaching "the tight pocket of our Army, on the bluff," Private Boardman identifies the arrival of Buell; the Siege guns; and the gunboats as crucial in warding off Rebel success {"They finally gave up on taking the Landing, and left us alone til morning.") Day Two, Private Boardman went with a company of the 6th Iowa, attached to "another regiment," and joined Sherman in fighting "in a westerly direction" during which Boardman's company was assigned as support to a battery. During the course of an artillery duel, Boardman describes, "there being so much smoke, it was hard to see anything. But eventually we took that Rebel battery." In the aftermath, Private Boardman contemplated "what went wrong" at Shiloh, and put it down to "believing too much in our own strength," and "the scattered nature of the camps." [In a later letter, written May 11th, Oliver Boardman also remarked that, "He believes the generals will do right, this time. Grant is not with us; Halleck has our confidence."] The 24 April 1862 Letter from Oliver Boardman is one of more than a dozen letters, covering July 1861 through the Vicksburg Campaign of 1863. Each letter is written in a legible cursive handwriting (with typed transcript at bottom of each page.) The collection is on file with Iowa Heritage Digital Collection (associated with Universities of Iowa): Private Oliver Boardman Letter from Shiloh, 24 April 1862 Cheers Ozzy
  8. On September 13th 1861, Corporal Jacob Harrison Allspaugh began this diary (and managed to record the drunken party of the night before.) On this day, the 31st Ohio Infantry moved south, out of Ohio and into Kentucky, where it set up tents at Camp Dick Robinson. And almost immediately, misfortune strikes Corporal Allspaugh: while showing a friend a revolver, he shot himself in the hand. For the next several weeks, the diary entries revolve around attempts to "extract the bullet," until finally Jacob Allspaugh was sent away for specialist care, and the bullet removed (in November.) Recovering quickly, Corporal Allspaugh rejoined his regiment, in time for the Battle of Mill Springs (but the 31st OVI was late getting orders, and missed the fight.) Marched to Louisville, the 31st Ohio boarded a steamer and cruised up the Cumberland River to Nashville (where Allspaugh witnessed one American flag, many looks of contempt, and too many "hissing women.") From Nashville, the 31st Ohio Infantry began "that march" south and west to join Grant's Army at Savannah. Corporal Allspaugh describes the small, neat towns passed; the former cotton fields (now planted in wheat); and the mostly friendly country people (despite their politics.) Being near the tail-end of the line, the 31st Ohio was only delayed briefly by the rebuilding of "that bridge" over Duck River; but seriously delayed by baggage wagons of the divisions ahead of the 1st Division. The 31st OVI arrived at Pittsburg Landing on April 20th (Allspaugh describes the appearance of the battlefield, two weeks after the contest; and sketched the "grave" of Albert Sidney Johnston.) On April 24th, Corporal Allspaugh recorded hearing the sound of a skirmish in the direction of Corinth; he recorded hearing "firing in the direction of Corinth" again on the 28th. On April 29th, "the expedition of 90,000 men started for Corinth." And for the next several pages, Corporal Allspaugh records the daily, distant sounds of skirmishes; advancing short distances (followed by picket duty or digging); and the rumors... (On April 29th, they heard about the Capture of New Orleans, but nobody believed it.) On May 1st, they "heard that McClellan was dead." And on May 8th, the rumor circulated "that Corinth had been evacuated." Despite the daily skirmishes somewhere on the line, the 31st Ohio managed to avoid contact... until May 21st (when Corporal Allspaugh records "taking his first shot at a Rebel (but without knowing the result.") Continuing to close the distance to Corinth, Allspaugh records the arrival of Jacob Thompson under flag-of-truce to exchange prisoners; the sudden shortage of fresh water (beginning May 17th); and the daily rumor: "The attack is tomorrow." Finally, there were the sounds of explosions on the morning of May 30th, announcing that Corinth had been evacuated. The 31st Ohio was marched to Farmington, and joined the pursuit of the fleeing Rebels south -- as far as Rienzi, Mississippi -- before being recalled to Corinth in early June. The diary of Corporal Allspaugh is mostly legible, cursive handwriting (with a typed transcript at bottom of each page.) Every-other page begins a new series of diary entries (with the pages in-between devoted to "more in-depth details of the events found on the previous page.") The observations of Smithland, Fort Donelson (under Union occupation), Clarksville and its bridge, Nashville and Columbia are perceptive and precise. Conditions of roads, the country marched over, and the weather each day are described. In all, this diary offers a good summary of the march from Nashville to Savannah; and a detailed description of one Ohio soldier's March to Corinth. Cheers Ozzy Diary of Corporal Allspaugh, 31st Ohio, courtesy Iowa Digital Heritage Collection.
  9. On the morning of the 6th of April, Sergeant Seymour Thompson was a twenty-year old member of 3rd Iowa, Company F, eating breakfast with his messmates, when the growing sound and increasing frequency of musket fire to the south and southwest became concerning. But with the booming of not-so-distant artillery, there was no mistake: the Federal camp at Pittsburg Landing was under attack. The long roll trilled and SGT Thompson joined his fellows in ranks for the march south to aid General Prentiss' 6th Division... but General Stephen Hurlbut halted his men well short of Prentiss' camps -- made aware of that Division's disintegration by the swelling stream of wide-eyed skeddadlers racing north -- and Sergeant Thompson and the rest of the 3rd Iowa found themselves arranged in a line of blue, stretching roughly east-west across a cotton field. And not long after the stragglers thinned out a bit, Thompson caught his first sight of the enemy: "The Rebel regiments with their red banners flashing in the morning sun marched proudly and all undisturbed through the abandoned camps of Prentiss. To the enemy's surprise, suddenly appeared our line of blue, widely deployed upon the open field, the ground sloping towards him, and not a brush to conceal us from his view: a single blue line, compact and firm, crowned with a hedge of sparkling bayonets, our flags and banners flapping in the breeze. And in our center a battery of six guns, whose dark mouths scowled defiance at him. "The enemy's infantry fronted towards us and stood. Ours kneeled and brought their pieces to the ready... Thus for some moments, the antagonists surveyed each other... until a regiment on our left opened fire, and the other regiments got caught up, and the fire was carried along the entire line..." Thus relates Seymour Thompson his initiation into the Battle of Shiloh in his 1864 book, Recollections with the 3rd Iowa Regiment. Nearly forty pages of this 400-page history are devoted to arrival at Pittsburg Landing and subsequent battle. The first hundred pages relate the forming of the regiment (and trouble arising from the political "selection" of Colonel from outside the regiment, in opposition to the usual practice of vote of members); and everything one could ever want to know about guarding railroads in northern Missouri. The book concludes with Thompson's discussion of 3rd Iowa's disastrous participation in the Battle of Jackson, Mississippi in July 1863. Because only two years passed between Battle of Shiloh and publication of the book, many unexpected insights and revelations are included IRT how that battle was fought; what chance the Confederates had of winning; and observations of early-career U.S. Grant, W.T. Sherman and John Pope. And Stephen Hurlbut comes in for criticism early on (during operations in Missouri); but over the course of Days 1 and 2 at Shiloh, Hurlbut experiences a transcendence in the view of the author, and most of the men of the 4th Division. Available at archive.org (free site for out-of-copyright books). Ozzy http://archive.org/stream/recollectionswit00thomp#page/n3/mode/2up N.B. SDG member, Hank, first made mention of this work by Lieutenant Thompson several months ago... but I only just got around to it.
  10. Shiloh Visit - April 29, 2017

    Sketch of A. S. Johnston's tree (April 1862). Ran across an interesting diary belonging to then-Corporal Jacob H. Allspaugh, 31st Ohio Infantry, Co.H... and in it (entry for May 12th 1862) was the above sketch. When the 31st OVI arrived on the battlefield (April 20th, part of General George H. Thomas' 1st Division, Army of the Ohio) the "general wisdom" indicated General Albert Sidney Johnston was not only killed at Shiloh, but buried there. A "protective fence" had already been installed around "the Johnston tree" when Corporal Allspath visited "the grave" (recorded in his diary, entry for April 21st.) Cheers Ozzy N.B. Corporal Allspaugh's Diary is on file with Iowa Digital Heritage Collection.
  11. As we know, the 2nd Iowa Volunteer Infantry gained credit along with General C. F. Smith and Colonel James Tuttle for "that charge" on the afternoon of February 15th 1862 (which was ordered by General U. S. Grant.) Attached is a letter from Lieutenant James Baird Weaver, Company G, written to his wife back in Iowa three days later. In the six pages, Lieutenant Weaver describes Fort Donelson and its "wild abatis" of felled trees; rushing forward with uncapped muskets and fixed bayonets, while a hail of missiles streaked from every direction; witnessing comrades struck down to left and right (and records names several of those men.) The letter describes the intensity, uncertainty, and raw emotion of battle as vividly as it is possible to portray in writing. Letter of LT James B. Weaver (digitized by Iowa Heritage Collection, in association with Iowa Universities.) Cheers Ozzy N.B. For those interested, there are other letters written by James Weaver in this collection... including one from April 9th 1862...
  12. Diary from the 3rd Iowa

    Tim One can only wonder at the number of maimed and disfigured men, produced by four years of Civil War, that remained in evidence afterwards as constant reminders of that horrific contest. The fact that so many continued with productive endeavors after incurring their injuries is testimony to the human spirit, and to the generally positive nature of society. Thanks for posting this example of one attempt by society to acknowledge those who sacrificed so much. Ozzy
  13. Diary from the 3rd Iowa

    Available online from the University of Iowa Library are these three diaries (for years 1861, 1862 and 1863) written by 20-year-old schoolteacher, Turner S. Bailey. Working in Epworth, Iowa (about three miles west of Dubuque) at the start of 1861, his diary for that year focuses on teaching classes, the weather, and local issues... until April 15th. "Considerable excitement about war. Fort Sumter taken by the South." Beginning with that entry, Turner indicates growing preoccupation with "war fever" until enlisting in the 3rd Iowa Co. A at Dubuque on May 22nd; travelling with the regiment to Keokuk in June; and duty in Missouri (guarding railroads) beginning in July. In March 1862, it was decided to add the 3rd Iowa to the growing Federal force on the Tennessee River; Private Bailey arrived opposite Pittsburg Landing on the 15th. On the 17th the 3rd Iowa went ashore at Pittsburg Landing and went into camp near "their friends in the 12th Iowa." Each subsequent day is faithfully recorded -- the weather, the skirmish on April 4th -- and of course, the Battle of April 6/7. On the attached link, click on the desired diary... a new page will open... click on the diary again for access to every page. [University of Iowa adds another diary, or collection of Civil War letters, about every 3-6 months, so worthwhile to check back every once in a while to see what's been made available.] http://www.iowaheritage.org/items/browse?advanced[0][element_id]=49&advanced[0][type]=is+exactly&advanced[0][terms]=Infantry Cheers Ozzy
  14. While investigating the actions of Ulysses S. Grant during the early hours of Sunday 6 April 1862 at Savannah, ran across this interesting letter, written by Annie Cherry [in March 1862 the 30-year-old wife of William Harrell Cherry (39) and residing with two children at "the brick house" in Savannah.] Written 6 December 1892 to amateur historian Thomas M. Hurst (formerly of Hardin County, but living in Nashville), the letter recalls General Grant's actions upon hearing the sound of distant artillery fire that morning; and details Grant's personal conduct during the weeks the General was a guest of the Cherry Family: December 6th, 1892 Mr. T. M. Hurst Dear Sir: Your letter of inquiry concerning "General Grant's physical condition the morning the battle of Shiloh began," was received several days ago. You will please pardon my seeming negligence, and accept my assurance, gladly given, that on the date mentioned, I believe General Grant was thoroughly sober. He was at my breakfast table when he heard the report from a cannon. Holding untasted a cup of coffee he paused in conversation to listen a moment at the report of another cannon. He hastily arose, saying to his staff officers: "Gentlemen, the ball is in motion, let's be off." His flag ship (as he called his special steamboat) was lying at the wharf, and in fifteen minutes he, staff officers, orderlies, clerks and horses had embarked. During the weeks of his occupancy of my house he always demeaned himself as a gentleman; was kind, courteous, genial and considerate, and never appeared in my presence in a state of intoxication. He was uniformly kind to citizens, irrespective of politics, and whenever the brutality to citizens, so frequently indulged by the soldier, was made known to him he at once sent orders for the release of the captives or restoration of the property appropriated. As a proof of his thoughtful kindness I mention that during the battle on Sunday he wrote and sent to my mother a safeguard to prevent her home being used for a hospital. Yielding to the appeals of humanity she did, however, open her home to the wounded and sick for three months in succession, often administering to their wants and necessities in person. In such high esteem did General Grant hold such magnanimity, under the most aggravating circumstances, that he thanked her most heartily, assuring her that considering the great losses and gross indignities she had received from the soldiers, her nobility of soul was more to be admired than the fame of a general leading an army of victorious soldiers. On one occasion he asked to be introduced to my mother and family, saying: "If you have no objections to introducing me, I will be much pleased." I replied: "Not because you are a great general, but because I believe you to be a gentleman I will introduce you to them unhesitatingly." In deference to the fact that I was a Southern lady with Southern proclivities, he attired himself in a full suit of citizen's clothes, and touching himself on the shoulder said: "I thought you would like this best," evincing delicate courtesy and gentlemanly instincts of which the honors of war, nor merited promotion had not deprived him. I feel that it is due the surviving members of General Grant's family to mention some evidences of his greatheartedness as shown in kindness to Southern people. "Military necessity" was not to him a term synonymous with unlicensed vandalism or approval of terrorism. He was too great and too true to his manhood to be fettered by prejudice. I am pleased that I can give these reminiscences of a man who as a soldier and statesman received and merited the homage of a nation -- for they are testimonies to his inner life and innate characteristics, worthy to be recorded with the magnanimity of "kingship over self" as manifested on the day of General Lee's surrender. Respectfully, (signed) Mrs. W. H. Cherry
  15. Shiloh Sources

    Frequently, people wanting to read more about Shiloh, the people involved, and the military units engaged, request "lists of references" that may be studied at leisure, to find out specific information. What follows is a significant list of references, provided courtesy of the Tennessee Secretary of State (scroll about halfway down): http://sos.tn.gov/products/tsla/bibliography-tennessee-local-history-sources-hardin-county Shiloh Bibliography. And although already posted someplace else on SDG site, below is the Tennessee Interactive Map: http://sos.tn.gov/products/tsla/tennessee-civil-war-gis-interactive-map Skirmish and Battle locations in Tennessee. Regards Ozzy
  16. Larger than Life

    There are a number of figures, both North and South, that are iconic: they seem to encapsulate the essence of the American Civil War. For me, these include Grant and Sherman; Beauregard and Bragg; Robert E. Lee; Andrew Foote; George H. Thomas; N.B. Forrest and J.H. Morgan; and, of course, Jefferson Davis and Abraham Lincoln. Perhaps you look at my list of eleven names, and feel "someone important is missing" ...maybe David Farragut, or Raphael Semmes, or Stonewall Jackson. Regardless, if you accept that six-and-a-half of the "iconic figures" (Thomas arrived late), were present at Shiloh; can you think of another battle that featured as many icons, or more? Just another reason why the Battle of Shiloh is so remarkable... Ozzy
  17. Larger than Life

    Rbn3 I take your point... and here is an attempt at explanation: the eleven names listed in my original post "came off the top of my head." After a few minutes of additional consideration, I thought of Semmes, Farragut and Stonewall Jackson... and Mother Bickerdyke. I decided to stick with the original eleven; but also recognize that any list of Civil War icons is open to debate. Thanks for adding another important facet to the discussion... Ozzy
  18. Maysville, Kentucky and Shiloh Generals

    Rbn3 Thanks for posting this quiz question. In the course of studying the Civil War careers of Ulysses Grant and William Nelson, there appeared to be "some bond" of friendship between them (until the falling out over "Who gets credit for Shiloh?") And with Nelson attending Norwich Academy 1837-1839, there may have been overlap of attendance with Grant at Maysville Academy during the term 1836-7. Transylvania, my guesses for "original name" of Maysville: either Kenton Station or Washington... or maybe even "Limestone." Regards Ozzy References: http://www.maysvilleacademy.com/about Brief History of Maysville Academy http://www.maysvilleacademy.com/images/Prospectus.pdf Prospectus for today's Maysville Academy http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Simon_Kenton Brief wikipedia bio of frontiersman, Simon Kenton (aka Simon Butler)
  19. West Point at Shiloh

    Here is a test of your knowledge of West Point alumni present at Battle of Shiloh: Who were the three highest-ranked graduates in their USMA Class, present at Shiloh? (Hint: it wasn't U.S. Grant, ranked 21st in USMA Class of 1843; and it wasn't William Tecumseh Sherman, ranked 6th in his USMA Class of 1840... but these three graduates were ranked one, two and three in their respective USMA classes.) Which two U. S. Military Academy graduates, present at Shiloh, wrote books prior to Battle of Shiloh on military tactics, or military procedures? Name five of the six Military Academy graduates, present at Shiloh, who served as instructors, Superintendent, or Commandant of Cadets at West Point. (Hint: although George H. Thomas served as Instructor of Cavalry Tactics at West Point, he arrived too late to take part in Battle of Shiloh.) Which Federal officer at Shiloh graduated from the same USMA Class as Leonidas Polk? Who was the youngest West Point alumnus at Shiloh (Class of 1861, but resigned before graduation to join the Confederacy)? Which institution of higher learning had more alumni present at Pittsburg Landing/Crump's/Savannah on 6-7 April 1862: West Point ? or Upper Iowa University ? All the best Ozzy Another hint: all answers can be found through reference http://penelope.uchicago.edu/Thayer/E/Gazetteer/Places/America/United_States/Army/USMA/Cullums_Register/ and following the cues.
  20. West Point at Shiloh

    Mona First a confession: the reason for introducing this particular quiz was merely to associate everyone with the existence of Cullum's Register (now available online http://penelope.uchicago.edu/Thayer/E/Gazetteer/Places/America/United_States/Army/USMA/Cullums_Register/Classes/1827.html as a sample for USMA Class of 1827). Cullum's Register provides an index to all graduates of West Point; and offers details of Military Academy graduates, according to their Class Year. I tend to access information via "graduate -- usma -- penelope" (for example, Halleck usma penelope) in order to find information not easily found anywhere else. Of course, one of the failings of Cullums is it does not provide details of alumni who did not graduate (and many resigned before graduation to join the Confederate Cause.) As for the quiz answers you provided: 1) All correct (and the Number 3 ranked graduate could also be Joseph J. Woods, Colonel of the 12th Iowa Infantry, USMA Class of 1847 -- who was wounded and "captured" during capitulation of the Sunken Road defenders, but "re-captured" next day.) In the same graduating Class of 1839, ranked 4th (next behind Henry Halleck) was Major Jeremy Gilmer, Confederate Engineer, who was involved at Fort Henry, Fort Donelson... and was wounded (Day 2) at Shiloh. 4) Correct: Thomas Worthington did indeed graduate from the same class (1827) as Leonidas Polk... along with Napoleon B. Buford, William Maynadier (both at Island No.10), and Gabriel J. Rains (who headed the Confederate Torpedo Bureau.) All of these men would also have known Albert Sidney Johnston (USMA Class of 1826). And Thomas Worthington actually took a "demotion" in order to become involved with the 46th Ohio Volunteer Infantry (and possibly because of his former standing in Ohio, had friction with William Tecumseh Sherman in the weeks prior to Shiloh.) 5) Not only correct, but Thanks for pointing out John Kelly of the 9th Arkansas. The other non-graduate of USMA Class of 1861, present at Shiloh, was Felix Robertson (who commanded the Alabama/Florida Battery, attached to Adley Gladden's Brigade) http://www.findagrave.com/cgi-bin/fg.cgi?page=gr&GRid=11064 Regards Ozzy
  21. West Point at Shiloh

    Mona It's an "open book" quiz. Answer-by-installment is perfectly fine. Looking forward to your answer(s)... Ozzy
  22. "They also serve, who stand and wait..."

    Rbn3 Well done on providing the correct answer, and furnishing one of the possible Bonus Answers! There is more to this cavalry regiment than meets the eye... and I first encountered mention of Curtis Horse and the 5th Iowa Cavalry when researching Shiloh prisoners and their experience in Southern prisons (one day, Captain William Haw of Company F marched inside Montgomery Cotton Shed Prison at the head of a line of soldiers from Curtis Horse, having all been captured in a skirmish at Lockridge's Mill, Tennessee on May 5th 1862.) So, the natural question: who did Curtis Horse belong to? Named for General Samuel Curtis, the cavalry regiment was ordered into existence on 20 December 1861, courtesy of Special Orders No. 70 and No.74, which assigned the organization to the Department of the Missouri (Henry Halleck) to carry out special instructions from the Secretary of War. W.W. Lowe (until this assignment, a Captain in the regular U.S. Army) was appointed Colonel; and M.T. Patrick assigned as Lieutenant-Colonel. And for the most part, Curtis Horse was cobbled together from pre-existing Cavalry Companies that had been organized in Iowa, Nebraska, Missouri and Minnesota; brought together on 4 January 1862 at Benton Barracks, and shortly afterwards, assigned to report directly to General U. S. Grant. During the Siege of Fort Donelson -- as Rbn3 mentioned -- one hundred men from the 5th Iowa Cavalry were tasked with destroying the railroad bridge on the Tennessee River, up stream from Fort Henry (and previously "disabled" by the U.S. Navy) in order to prevent any possibility of forces from Fort Columbus coming to the rescue of the Confederates at Fort Donelson. On March 11th, Curtis Horse was sent by General Grant to Paris Tennessee to "disrupt conscription under State-authority taking place in vicinity." There were shots exchanged; and several members of Curtis Horse listed afterwards as "Missing." The Federal cavalry, having achieved the goal of the raid, withdrew to the east, and set up camp in vicinity of Paris Landing (called Camp Lowe.) On 27 March 1862, General Grant ordered Companies C, I and M to Savannah, where that battalion reported March 29th. For the next several weeks, this force belonging to Curtis Horse helped secure the Post of Savannah; and put through the telegraph line from Savannah to Waynesboro (which completed the line from Nashville to Savannah. On March 31st, in accordance with verbal orders, seventy-five mounted troopers belonging to Curtis Horse set out from Camp Lowe in the direction of Paris (terminus of the Memphis, Clarksville & Louisville Railroad.) On the same day, Colonel Napoleon B. Buford (attached to the Island No.10 operation) launched a raid involving infantry and artillery into Union City (a significant station on the Mobile & Ohio Railroad, fifty miles west of Paris.) Colonel Buford destroyed stores belonging to Confederates at Union City, drove Rebel defenders away, and safely withdrew to his transports at Hickman, Kentucky. The Expedition of Curtis Horse, under command of Captain William Haw, conducted a reconnaissance of properties along the way to Paris; raised the Stars and Stripes over the Courthouse at Paris; and continued west towards Humboldt, before looping back through Coynesville; and returned to Camp Lowe on April 2nd. Credit was accorded this Expedition for "disrupting the third attempt at conscripting soldiers in vicinity of Paris." Presented as proof that General Grant had more on his plate than Savannah, Pittsburg Landing, and Crump's Landing; cutting the rail line east of Corinth and (perhaps) cutting the Mobile & Ohio; waiting for Buell; trying to neutralize the "Rebel gunboat threat;" maintaining control of Forts Heiman, Henry and Donelson... and dealing with Henry Halleck. Ozzy References: OR 10 pages 79 - 83. http://iagenweb.org/civilwar/books/logan/mil605.htm Guy Logan's History of the 5th Iowa Cavalry http://www.scriptoriumnovum.com/c.html 5th Iowa Cavalry (Curtis Horse): rosters and history.
  23. We're all familiar with Federal units that were "off the grid" -- not directly involved with the Battle of Shiloh. Some were "on their way" (such as George Thomas' 1st Division, Army of the Ohio); others were guarding the Post of Savannah (53rd Illinois and 53rd Indiana... and for a while, the 14th Wisconsin Infantry); and others were further afield (such as the 31st Illinois, acting as garrison for Federal-controlled Fort Donelson.) But, what about the Cavalry organization most often referred to as "Curtis Horse" ? Although not at Pittsburg Landing, this unit was assigned directly to Major General Grant, and performed a useful role during the Siege of Fort Donelson; and was involved in significant operations during build up of force in vicinity of Crump's and Pittsburg Landing. Name the State affiliation and number of this Cavalry organization. Ozzy Bonus: 1) What was the significant mission accomplished prior to surrender of Fort Donelson? 2) Name a date and location (prior to Shiloh) that any of the three significant operations involving Curtis Horse occurred? (Someone clever can list all three.)
  24. My New Book

    SJ Wells Congratulations on completing your latest work! No easy feat, to remain focused and exercise self discipline required to finish a work, once begun, that may require years to bring to fruition. All the best Ozzy
  25. Hi from Chattanooga

    Tim, welcome to Shiloh Discussion Group; and wishing you every success with completing and publishing your Father's work. The 3rd Iowa had a proud history, and made a substantial contribution to General Prentiss's stand in the Hornet's Nest at Shiloh (maintaining the northeast end of Prentiss's line, after General Hurlbut departed.) And later, in July 1863, obeyed orders but suffered mightily in assaulting the Confederate left at Jackson -- to this day, unknown whether General Ord was "punishing" Jacob Lauman; or if General Lauman merely misunderstood his orders from Ord. But, there is a lot interesting about the 3rd Iowa's Civil War experience, from its "unofficial" organization at Davenport in April/May 1861, to its muster out in July 1865. All the best Ozzy N.B. I know you are familiar with these references, but am posting them for benefit of others interested in the 3rd Iowa Volunteer Infantry Regiment: http://iagenweb.org/civilwar/regiment/infantry/03rd/history.htm History of 3rd Iowa Infantry http://iagenweb.org/civilwar/regiment/infantry/03rd/co-go.htm Roster of 3rd Iowa Infantry http://andspeakingofwhich.blogspot.com.au/2013/07/the-siege-of-jackson.html "That incident" at Jackson, Mississippi in July 1863.