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Everything posted by Ozzy

  1. Three Letters from Fort Donelson

    Part of why these three letters from Fort Donelson are special, is that they help "flesh out" two of the significant Federal leaders of the Western Theatre; and these letters reveal details not included in the Official Records. Colonel Lauman's Fort Donelson report (OR 52 pages 9- 11) : http://ebooks.library.cornell.edu/cgi/t/text/pageviewer-idx?c=moawar;cc=moawar;idno=waro0109;node=waro0109%3A2;view=image;seq=17;size=100;page=root Colonel Tuttle's Fort Donelson report (OR 7 pages 229- 231): http://ebooks.library.cornell.edu/cgi/t/text/pageviewer-idx?c=moawar;cc=moawar;q1=Tuttle;rgn=full text;idno=waro0007;didno=waro0007;node=waro0007%3A2;view=image;seq=245;page=root;size=100 Ozzy
  2. The first letter is dated 17 FEB 1862, and is from Colonel Jacob Lauman: "Dear Wife, I am again safe. My life is still prolonged. Let me hope it is for some good purpose. We have had a great battle, the fight lasting for three days, but you will hear of it, and the great result to flow out of it long before this reaches you. I commanded the Fourth Brigade of the Second Division and my command made their mark... Poor Jack Slaymaker was killed, gallantly leading his men to the charge on the last day -- indeed, the only day the Second Iowa were in the engagement. Captain Cloutman fell, also bravely doing his duty. Harry [Doolittle] was wounded very severely, but the surgeons say he will recover. I left my command to see him and poor Jack last evening -- I have ordered Jack's remains to be properly cared for, to send home to his parents, and will see that it is done properly, although my time is so occupied I have scarcely time to write this note, nor do I know when or how it will leave here. I am now in command of Fort Donelson, and my brigade are quartered in the fortifications. We will be ordered forward soon, I hope, and I sincerely hope our success will be the harbinger of a speedy close of the horrid rebellion. I received your two letters just before we were ordered into action, and I had to laugh over your congratulations at my good quarters in Smithland [Kentucky] when for two nights I had been camped under a tree, and it raining and snowing on me, without a tent. But my health is improving, and my cold, under which I have been suffering, is getting better. General Smith (Paducah Smith) is a good soldier. The reputation of the Iowa Seventh is as bright as ever, although their loss is trifling. The State may well be proud of her troops. I lost all my bedding yesterday, and doubt very much if I find it again. We marched out of camp leaving everything behind, and our friends helped themselves. I will look after Harry -- I think he will do well. Dr. Marsh says the wound in his stomach did not penetrate far enough for it to do any serious injury. I trust this may be so. He is in good spirits and bore his flag like a hero. Love to all. Good bye. Yours affectionately, J.G. Lauman" The second letter, also from Colonel Lauman, is dated 19 FEB 1862: "Dear Brother, The battle is fought, the dead are buried and the wounded cared for, and we are again settling down to the old routine of military discipline. But what a scene to have passed through, and what a victory we have won! We have already sent off 8000 or 9000 prisoners, and we have more yet to send. But such a lot of humanity I never saw before -- all butternut color; but they can shoot, as many of our boys can testify. I have made my report to General Smith, which I suppose will be published, and before this reaches you, you will know more about the battle than I do. I have already seen that the Iowa Seventh was all cut up on the first day's fight. I hope you did not let any of these [false] reports disturb you. We did have a hard time: for three days we lay in the open air without tents, and some without blankets, raining and snowing all night. The last night we remained under arms all night, prepared to repel an assault; but when morning came -- and oh! how long it was in coming -- the enemy attracted our attention to their white flag, and I received proposals for capitulation, which we promptly forwarded to General Smith, and through him to General Grant. General Grant refused terms and insisted on unconditional surrender, and an hour was given them to consider. At the end of that time the loud shouts of the men gave indications that the surrender was unconditional. Then commenced the rejoicing. I claimed for my brigade the right to enter first, which was accorded; when with drums beating and colors flying we entered the fort. The Rebels were drawn up in line, with their arms in great heaps, and looked quite woe-begone, I assure you, as the victors passed along. My brigade is in the fort, of which I have command. General Smith's division is quartered all around about. The fortifications extend over the country for miles, and the other division of the army encamped at other points. The greatest loss was on our right, in General McClernand's division. The enemy endeavored to cut through at that point, and fought with great desperation -- loss very heavy. But you know all this and more, and this will be stale news to you. I found the pistols I lost at Belmont at Fort Donelson... if not the same, then others just as good. Captain R_____ will return to Burlington, he informed me to-day, for a short time. So he informed me, but he may not be able to get off. If he does, I will send a flag -- Secesh -- captured in the fort. They either destroyed or secreted their flags, as none could be found. I have not yet seen the reports of my commanding officer, but General Grant has caused a highly complimentary order to be read to the troops. General Smith is a good officer, and as brave as a lion. I am proud to be under him. I had a good brigade, and I believe they like me. I hope the rebellion will receive such a shock from this that they will not be able to hold up their heads for some time to come. I am obliged to Jenny for her kind and very acceptable letter, and hope she will write again. I received a letter from Governor Kirkwood covering the resolutions of the legislature of Iowa, and had them read to my regiment last evening. Tell Lou that Harry Doolittle is doing well. I went to the boat to see him, but it had started before I got there. He will remain for the present at Paducah, I suppose. I met, as I was on my way to Dover, where the boat was lying, Doctors Marsh and Nassau of Iowa Second, who gave me this information. Among the hundreds of wounded and dead, it is almost impossible to keep the whereabouts of anyone. I must now bring this to a close. Let Lou [Lauman's wife] see this, and it will be the same as if I had written to her. Captain Slaymaker's remains were forwarded to St. Louis for preparation to send home. I cut off a lock of his hair and sent it to Betty, fearing something might happen and the coffin be unable to be opened when it arrived home. Give my love to all, and if anything should befall me, take good care of wife and little ones, and believe me to be your affectionate brother, Jacob." The third letter is from Colonel James Tuttle, 2nd Iowa Infantry, dated 18 FEB 1862: [All three letters found in Iowa in War Times by SHM Byers (1905) http://archive.org/stream/iowainwartimes02byer#page/n123/mode/2up ]
  3. Boring letters.

    Whether by accident or design, Terre Haute Indiana not only found itself on the National Road (leading from Cumberland Maryland to St. Louis Missouri -- today's Route 40), but Terre Haute sits within a stone's throw of Illinois. That accidental location led to many Indiana citizens joining an infantry regiment associated with Crawford County, Illinois... or more particularly, a regiment associated -- by design -- with a brigade created by Illinois Congressman John McClernand, consisting of the 27th, 30th and 31st Illinois Infantry regiments. One of these "Indiana soldiers" serving Illinois was Benjamin Franklin Boring, who joined the 30th Illinois, Company D, at the age of 21 in August 1861. Rapidly advancing to Corporal, Benjamin Boring first saw action at Belmont; then was "part of the reserve" supporting the 8th Illinois (as part of Oglesby's Brigade) at Fort Donelson. The March 29th 1862 letter from Corporal Boring to his friend, Will Jones of Robinson Illinois, describes the visual scars of battle still evident in the landscape around Fort Donelson; the onset of illness (so severe that at one point only eleven men of 81 could report for duty in Company D); and following the battle, several regiments were sent to garrison Clarksville (which is where Benjamin Boring hopes his regiment will be sent, not really fond of his current location... although he indicates that he "has taught himself to play the piano tolerably well" by making use of the piano found in an abandoned house near Dover.) http://visions.indstate.edu:8888/cdm/ref/collection/vcpl/id/3337 [Letter of 29 March 1862, courtesy of Wabash Valley Visions and Voices of Indiana Libraries.] At the time of Corporal Boring's letter, Major General McClernand's original brigade had been comprehensively removed from his control: the 30th Illinois was on garrison duty at Fort Donelson; the 31st Illinois was also on garrison duty at Fort Donelson; and the 27th Illinois was taking part in the Operation against Island No.10. Following the Battle of Shiloh, the 30th Illinois and 31st Illinois reported to Pittsburg Landing and became part of McClernand's Reserve (Sergeant Benjamin Boring has a number of letters written from Jackson Tennessee: the letter dated 27 May 1862 is most revealing.) The 27th Illinois also joined the Crawl to Corinth, but remained part of Pope's Army of the Mississippi. Sergeant Boring continued to write letters (and contributed stories to Illinois and Indiana newspapers) until his muster-out at expiry of his three-years' term of service in 1864. Many of those letters are to be found at the listed online site (with some of the most interesting detailing his involvement with the Vicksburg -- Raymond -- Champion Hills campaign.) Cheers Ozzy References: http://visions.indstate.edu:8888/cdm/ref/collection/vcpl/id/3337 Letters of Benjamin F. Boring 30th Illinois Co.D http://www.findagrave.com/memorial/26334910/benjamin-f-boring Benjamin Boring at find-a-grave http://www.vigo.lib.in.us/archives/inventories/wars/civilwar/boring.php Benjamin Boring bio at Vigo County Library
  4. Buell Wins Shiloh

    Rbn3 Thanks for confirming that the original Volume 2 was "lost along the way" to creating the more concise summary of 1963. Another unexpected place to find Battle of Shiloh information is in the 1963 Volume 8 -- Gulf and Inland Waters. Beginning on page 28 is the claim, "Lieutenant Gwin proceeded to Pittsburg Landing on March 1st." Then a gap follows (to allow details of the Island No.10 Operation to be examined.) Re-commencing page 36 is a two-page explanation of how the U.S. Navy (in cooperation with Stephen Hurlbut and William Nelson) won the Battle of Shiloh: the Navy's important role confirmed by U.S. Grant and PGT Beauregard (page 38). Most enlightening in Volume 8 pages 90 - 91 are "all the excuses" given by Mahan why Vicksburg was not subjugated May/June 1862 (while leaving out the real reasons...) Ozzy
  5. Buell Wins Shiloh

    For those who enjoy "alternative views of history" the attached link leads to a 9-volume examination of Campaigns of the Civil War. Originally devised in 1880 (and published as a 13-volume set) this HathiTrust version is dated 1963 with a view to "reduce the unwieldy number of volumes for a modern-day reader not so accepting of multiple-volume histories as was the reader of two generations ago." http://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=mdp.39076006502236;view=1up;seq=37 Of particular interest is the chapter "Concentration at Nashville" (to be found in the above link to Volume 4 pages 21 - 31). Beginning with an explanation of how and why Don Carlos Buell occupied Nashville, the chapter presents a solid biography of General Buell leading up to his taking command of the Army of the Ohio; and includes a brief explanation and history of each of the Divisions (and their commanders) functioning as components of that army. On page 27, the reader is introduced to the claim that, "General Buell wrote at length to Henry Halleck on January 3rd 1862 proposing a joint campaign against the enemy involving Federal movements up the Cumberland and Tennessee Rivers." On page 29, the positioning of Buell's forces at Nashville is examined, preparatory to the Campaign against Corinth. Also on page 29 is the following: "Buell's Army, after crossing Duck River, pressed rapidly forward" (without any mention of the delay, or possible effects on April 6th.) And the reader is left with the impression (upon review of page 30) that Buell and his fellows won the Battle of Shiloh (because all mentions of U.S. Grant and the Army of the Tennessee appear to be purely accidental.) A bit tongue-in-cheek, this post is presented as evidence of the danger of "summarizing History too much" ...because on page 30 the reader is invited to "review the Battle of Shiloh in more detail," yet that original Volume 2 appears to be one of the "extraneous volumes" deleted for benefit of the "overwhelmed reader of Civil War history." What remains in this 1963 version of Campaigns of the Civil War is an Eastern Theatre-focused examination of the Civil War that many of us were exposed to during our schooling in the 1960 - 1980s (and which Shiloh Discussion Group is attempting to redress.) Cheers Ozzy Reference: http://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/009915611 1963 version of Campaigns of the Civil War, edited and published (1881-1883) by Thomas Yoseloff (with subject of volumes and contributors to those volumes as indicated): Outbreak of Rebellion (from Sumter to Bull Run) by John G. Nicolay, Secretary to President Lincoln Peninsula Campaign of George B. McClellan by Alexander Webb Antietam and Fredericksburg by Francis W. Palfrey Army of the Cumberland (from Crazy Sherman to success at Chattanooga) by Henry M. Cist Atlanta (from Chattanooga to Sherman's Conquest) by Jacob D. Cox Shenandoah Valley (1864) by George E. Pond The Blockade and the Cruisers by James R. Soley The Gulf and Inland Waters by Alfred Thayer Mahan [this chapter is where Fort Henry, Fort Donelson and the Navy at Shiloh is discussed] Atlas.
  6. Boring letters.

    Mona I assume you are referring to Benjamin Boring's letter of 12 September 1862 (which I attempted to "save as" ...and print ...and all I got was a yellow square.) However, each page of Boring's letter is transcribed at bottom of each page: if you drag your mouse over the text of the transcript, you can "copy," and then "paste" that bit of the transcript to an existing Word Document. Not as pretty as the original cursive handwritten letter, but better than nothing. All the best Ozzy
  7. Boring letters.

    Mona You are correct: Sergeant Boring provides a compelling account of the September 1862 action at Britton's Lane (which pitted perhaps 3000 Confederate cavalry from a variety of units, under command of BGen Frank Armstrong against 1500 - 2000 men under overall command of Colonel Elias Dennis, in charge of a combined force of infantry (20th Illinois and 30th Illinois), cavalry (4th Ohio and some of the 4th Illinois) and one section of artillery (two guns of Gumbart's Battery E of the 2nd Illinois). The OR 17 (part 2) pages 180 - 197 contains important details of the lead-up to Britton's Lane (the Federal emphasis on rebuilding railroads, and the Confederate success at denying use of those railroads... and, most importantly, U.S. Grant's request for more Federal cavalry to combat the sizable-and-growing force of Confederate cavalry; and Halleck's denial of that request (page 182); and Halleck's admission (page 186) in a letter to Sherman in August 1862 that, "things are not going well in the West"). For reports (both sides) of the aftermath of Britton's Lane see OR 17 (part 1) pages 43 - 51. And for the best overall summary of the Battle of Britton's Lane: http://www.brittonlane1862.madison.tn.us/battle_history.htm The Battle of Britton's Lane may be considered a Federal victory (because Union forces were in possession of the battlefield when the fighting was over); or it may be considered a "costly, but successful Confederate raid" because of the capture of Gumbart's artillery, as well as over 200 Union soldiers taken prisoner; the capture or destruction of much of the Federal supply train; and the "tearing up" of a mile of track and destruction of railroad bridges. Cheers Ozzy References: http://www.civilwar.org/visit/heritage-sites/britton-lane-battlefield Brief summary of Britton's Lane http://visions.indstate.edu:8888/cdm/ref/collection/vcpl/id/3337 Letter of Sergeant Boring dated 12 SEP 1862 http://ebooks.library.cornell.edu/cgi/t/text/pageviewer-idx?c=moawar;cc=moawar;q1=Dennis;rgn=full text;idno=waro0024;didno=waro0024;node=waro0024%3A2;view=image;seq=70;page=root;size=100 OR 17 parts one and two
  8. Illinois Officers

    Biographical Sketches of Illinois Officers engaged in the War against the Rebellion of 1861 was published by J. Barnet of Chicago in late 1862. What makes this resource of particular interest is the fact there were so many Union officers of note from Illinois; many of those listed in this work were veterans of Shiloh and/or Corinth, including: U.S. Grant page 12 (with then-current explanation of Shiloh) T. Lyle Dickey p. 78 (cavalry officer at Shiloh and Fallen Timbers) Augustus L. Chetlain p. 31 John Pope Cook p. 99 Napoleon Buford p. 21 Stephen Hurlbut p. 93 John A. Logan p. 96 (the other John Logan is included, too) John McArthur p. 18 John A. McClernand p. 83 Richard Oglesby p. 104 John Pope p. 86 Benjamin Prentiss p. 19 (Still in custody as POW at time of writing...) Julius Raith p. 43 WHL Wallace p. 49 Joseph Webster p. 47 (Grant's Artillery Commander at Shiloh) Thomas Ransom p. 33 Available at archive.com [not all listed alphabetically: scroll along scroll-bar at bottom of page to find to find all recorded officers.] http://archive.org/stream/biographicalsket00wils#page/n9/mode/2up Cheers Ozzy
  9. Friends march to Corinth

    Another friend (USMA Class of 1829) who marched to Corinth was Thomas A. Davies, who arrived at Pittsburg Landing after April 14th 1862 (at the request of U.S. Grant -- see Papers of US Grant vol.5 page 44) and was installed as Commander of the Second Division, replacing the unfortunate General WHL Wallace. (See Special Orders No.54 of 14 April 1862, signed by John Rawlins -- Papers Of US Grant vol.5 page 44.) Brigadier General Davies was a veteran of Bull Run, where he commanded a Brigade of General Mile's Fifth Division. After Bull Run, Davies was assigned responsibility for the defense of Union-occupied Alexandria Virginia (just across the Potomac River from Washington, D.C.) at which place he was serving until called west to join the Army of the Tennessee. Unfortunately, at the end of May 1862 the heat, poor food and bad water caught up with General Davies as the Conquest of Corinth loomed... and in early June he was forced to take a Leave of Absence in an attempt to restore his damaged health. And the departure of Thomas Davies opened the door for "another friend" ...who was not required to march to Corinth, but merely was "parachuted in" -- Edward Otho Cresap Ord, USMA Class of 1839 (same West Point class as Henry Halleck.) At the commencement of the Civil War, Captain EOC Ord was serving in the Pacific Northwest; and after the Disaster at Bull Run he was called east and installed as a Brigade Commander in the badly-requiring-organization Army of the Potomac. Apparently, Ord's efforts were noticed: he was promoted to Brigadier General of Volunteers, effective 14 September 1861; and on December 20th General Ord's force of approx. 5000 men was accorded credit for the victory over General J.E.B. Stuart (4000 men) at Dranesville Virginia. Promoted to Major General of Volunteers effective 2 May 1862, Edward Ord was serving as Division commander in the Department of the Rappahannock when he received orders to head west and join Halleck's Army at Corinth. Major General Ord arrived in Mississippi in time to replace Major General George Thomas as commander of the Post of Corinth, effective 22 June 1862. [As for Thomas Davies, he recovered from his illness and returned to the Army of the Tennessee in time to assist Edward Ord at the September 19th 1862 Battle of Iuka.] Just a bit more of the story... Ozzy References: Papers of US Grant vol. 5 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Siege_of_Corinth_Union_order_of_battle (see Right Wing, AoT 2nd Division commander) http://penelope.uchicago.edu/Thayer/E/Gazetteer/Places/America/United_States/Army/USMA/Cullums_Register/565*.html Thos. Davies career http://penelope.uchicago.edu/Thayer/E/Gazetteer/Places/America/United_States/Army/USMA/Cullums_Register/1002*.html EOC Ord's career http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Army_of_the_Potomac Army of the Potomac at Encyclopedia of Virginia
  10. I hadn't given this much thought before, but while studying the Campaign for Island No. 10, it became obvious that Henry Halleck and John Pope were on good terms: Halleck even indicated in one telegram to Pope that 'he trusted Pope's judgment.' [Could never imagine a similar message going from Halleck to Grant.] (Note 1) Don Carlos Buell was seen as an equal to Halleck, until Halleck absorbed his Department of the Ohio into the new Department of the Mississippi. Afterwards, Buell was treated as if he was equal to Halleck: this may have extended to overlooking Buell's tardiness in marching 150 miles from Nashville to Savannah, prior to Battle of Shiloh... in three weeks. George H. Thomas was the Hero of Mill Springs. One of the few connections I can find (Thomas to Halleck) is William T. Sherman: Thomas and Sherman were roommates at West Point (both Class of 1840), and served together at several diverse locations after graduation. It is known that Halleck 'helped Sherman through his anxiety problem,' by assigning him to duty as overseer at Benton Barracks, for a term. (Halleck did a similar thing for Stephen Hurlbut, but in this case, it may have been because Hurlbut was a friend of Sherman's... or President Lincoln.) Returning to Thomas, it is said that Halleck spent a lot of time visiting George Thomas, during the weeks prior to the final stroll into Corinth. West Point connection? Pope was USMA Class of 1842; Buell was USMA 1841; Thomas was Class of 1840; and Henry Halleck was USMA Class of 1839, so all four men would have attended the Academy at the same time, and would have known of each other. (The classes were only 50-60 individuals, during that time frame.) Anyway, I was just trying to make sense of why Thomas, Buell and Pope were selected to lead the major wings and center of Halleck's Army, during the Expedition to Corinth... Any thoughts? Ozzy References: Cullum's Register of West Point graduates http://penelope.uchicago.edu/Thayer/E/Gazetteer/Places/America/United_States/Army/USMA/Cullums_Register/1090*.html Note 1: OR Series 8, page 629: telegram sent March 21, 1862. 'I trust your judgment...' OR Series 8, page 602: telegram sent March 10, 1862. 'Give Pope all the siege cannons he wants...' http://ebooks.library.cornell.edu/cgi/t/text/pageviewer-idx?c=moawar&cc=moawar&idno=waro0008&q1=Halleck+Pope&view=image&seq=614&size=100 (see third message down the page)
  11. Illinois Officers

    Just a couple more useful sources... because Illinois had so many regiments of infantry, artillery and cavalry at Shiloh; many of the Federal leaders were from Illinois: http://alplm-cdi.com/chroniclingillinois/search?query=Marsh&query_type=exact_match&record_types[0]=Item&page=3 Abraham Lincoln Presidential Library and Museum, with the Search Box permitting access to persons and documents (and images) not to be found anywhere else. (Unfortunately, no image of Colonel Marsh.) http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi= Bibliography of Illinois Regiments. Updated frequently, this reference lists mostly regiment-specific sources of information: diaries and regimental histories, and most dated before 1920. These can usually be found in their entirety on HathiTrust and archive.org. (And this reference is particularly useful for finding sketches and CDVs/photographs, which are often included inside the listed resources.) Eight resources are listed for "20th Illinois Infantry" and I have not been able to investigate them all (so it is possible an image of Colonel C.C. Marsh resides in one of these.) Cheers Ozzy N.B. Just remembered... probably the most famous member of the 20th Illinois Infantry (before he transferred to 2nd Illinois Light Artillery, Battery F) was John Wesley Powell. There are any number of CDVs/photographs of Powell (and Powell and Colonel Marsh appear to have been "out West" at the same time, after the Civil War concluded, so it is not impossible that they "ran into each other.") In addition, Powell and Marsh served in Missouri together in 1861 (so perhaps a Missouri online site possesses a picture of the two men together, possibly at Cape Girardeau.) http://www.sos.mo.gov/archives/resources/resources Missouri State Archives (and research portal) http://www.english.illinois.edu/maps/poets/m_r/merwin/jwpowell.htm brief bio of John Wesley Powell
  12. Illinois Officers

    Billy Thought I would have a go at finding that picture... and was amazed at my lack of success. First, I tried Wikipedia (and found the bio of Charles Carroll Marsh to be incomplete.) Then I tried Google Images: and although there are CDVs of other members of the Marsh family on offer, there are none featuring C. Carroll Marsh. http://www.findagrave.com Next attempted "find-a-grave" and searched Cook County and Chicago for burial site. With no result, expanded the search to all of Illinois; and although found "C. Carroll Marsh, died 1908" and "Charles C. Marsh, died 1907" neither of these are Colonel C. Carroll Marsh, formerly of 20th Illinois Infantry. http://chroniclingamerica.loc.gov The Library of Congress online newspaper collection at Chronicling America offers (free) access to back-issues of newspapers, that may be searched by State of publication for the information desired. Just under the heading, "Humanties: Chronicling America" is "Search pages." By entering Illinois and 1862 and 1863 and Carroll Marsh into the four boxes below "Search pages," and pressing "GO" I received the following hits: http://chroniclingamerica.loc.gov/search/pages/results/?state=Illinois&date1=1862&date2=1863&proxtext=Carroll+Marsh&x=14&y=16&dateFilterType=yearRange&rows=20&searchType=basic [The entry for April 19th 1862 contains a "Listing of killed and wounded officers from Battle of Shiloh" that records Colonel C. Carroll Marsh among the "wounded," (without revealing the nature of his wound.)] But the most revealing detail of the Chronicling America search of Illinois newspapers -- out to 1917 -- lies in the fact nothing comes back "as a hit" on Colonel C. Carroll Marsh after 1864. http://www.familysearch.org/search Next went over to the (free) family heritage site -- Family Search -- and entered "Charles Carroll" and "Marsh" born New York 1827 to 1831; resident of Chicago Illinois 1858 to 1871: United States records -- Search -- and the following results were returned: an 1860 Chicago census (with Charles C. Marsh -- misspelled Marshe -- and wife Harriet, with three children) and a number of Alameda California voting registration documents, the last being dated 1896. http://chroniclingamerica.loc.gov Returned to Chronicling America, and searched the California newspapers: in Search pages, entered California and 1891 and 1917 and Carroll Marsh into the four boxes, and pressed, "GO" ...and this came back. The San Francisco Call for Tuesday, October 4th 1904 page 14, column 3 "Died" and column 4 "Marsh, Charles C., Colonel 20th Illinois Volunteer Infantry, beloved husband of Harriet Cooley Marsh and father of Mrs. C.J. Mattison of Oswego New York [two other adult children also listed], passed away October 2nd 1904 in East Oakland [funeral details and "private burial" indicated.] http://chroniclingamerica.loc.gov/lccn/sn85066387/1904-10-04/ed-1/seq-14/#date1=1888&index=6&rows=20&words=Carroll+Marsh&searchType=basic&sequence=0&state=California&date2=1917&proxtext=Carroll+Marsh&y=15&x=15&dateFilterType=yearRange&page=1 The above information recorded to illustrate how this search may be attempted. Once it was determined that Colonel C. C. Marsh resigned in 1863 and settled in California (in or near Alameda), and died in California in 1904, the ability to uncover a "family photograph" presents, either at find-a-grave, some California library, his California workplace, or in possession of family members (possibly not published on the Internet, but likely in existence.) Happy Hunting! Ozzy N.B. Of course, now that "Harriet" is known to be his wife, with residence in California, and death date October 1904, a more thorough Family Search investigation may be attempted (and perhaps "place of business" or "political offices held" will return as a "hit" and allow search of those sites for photos... Update: although unable to find Colonel Marsh's grave (as yet) here is Harriet Cooley Marsh at find-a-grave. http://www.findagrave.com/memorial/180219283/herriett-marsh
  13. Mona Correct. (We augmented our celebration with a trip to Adelaide Zoo.) As concerns the rest of Australia... the U.S. Government Diplomatic Mission in Canberra has its way(s) of celebrating. And the Island of Norfolk (technically under Australian Administration): as well as being the home of descendants of the HMS Bounty Mutiny, became a home-of-sorts to American sealers and whalers two centuries ago... and those men brought the Celebration of Thanksgiving with them. Norfolk Island has Thanksgiving as an official holiday. Cheers Ozzy
  14. It seemed timely to revisit this topic, initiated by Manassas1 in 2014, because the Federal soldiers at Shiloh did not celebrate the National Holiday of Thanksgiving... until 1863. By Proclamation of President Lincoln, the date of that Holiday (first observed in 1863, and subsequently) was to be "the last Thursday in November." There was one controversial "adjustment" made in 1939 (during the FDR Administration) with a Law being passed a few years later, making that adjustment official... and the date is celebrated in accordance with that Law to this day: on the fourth Thursday in November. [Just a bit of trivia: here in Australia, Thanksgiving is not a National Holiday. But there are parts of Australia that celebrate, regardless. Any guesses where?] Regards (and Happy Thanksgiving!) Ozzy Reference: http://www.history.com/this-day-in-history/fdr-establishes-modern-thanksgiving-holiday FDR adjustment to Thanksgiving
  15. When I first encountered mention of 'officers under arrest' in the lead-up to the Battle of Shiloh, I found it unsettling, and difficult to believe. Why would majors, colonels, a BGEN, (and almost a MGEN) be arrested on Grant's orders? Had they plotted to kill someone? Received Government property by engaging in fraud? Conspired to commit mutiny? In the one, well-publicized instance, we know the answer: Colonel David Moore of the 21st Missouri was held responsible for allowing his men to fire their muskets, while in transit aboard their steamer, while underway up the Tennessee River. Supposedly, they were firing at civilians. So, Col. Moore was placed under arrest, and confined; but found 'Not Guilty' of the most serious charge at his Court Martial, and released (with a reprimand) before April 6th. But what of the others: Brig Gen John McArthur Commander of 2nd Brigade, of 2nd Division LtCol A.S. Chetlain 12th Illinois LtCol William Morgan 25th Indiana Col H. Reed Cruft's Brigade Col James Geddes 8th Iowa Maj Gen Lew Wallace Commander of 3rd Division (able to talk his way out of difficulty... just)All charged with 'abusing Halleck's furlough system,' a purge which Grant was forced to carry out. The officers were released on the morning of April 6th, after the attack had commenced, after Grant arrived at Pittsburg Landing. (For anyone familiar with The Caine Mutiny by Herman Wouk, and the unforgettable 'Captain Queeg,' (played by Humphrey Bogart in the movie), this is a case of 'Where are my strawberries...!' if ever there was one.) Ozzy
  16. Why not just go?

    Rbn3 For answer, see Officers Under Arrest, post of today. Cheers Ozzy
  17. Why not just go?

    It was commonly understood during the 19th Century, that in the absence of orders, "a commander was expected to rush to the sound of the guns of battle." In Lew Wallace's Autobiography, page 459, he indicates his strong belief, early on Sunday, April 6th that he was hearing a roar and rumble that was unmistakeable. "My Staff officers joined me, and there was no disagreement: it was a battle." Major General Lew Wallace sent the appropriate orders; staged and prepared his Third Division to march... and then waited aboard his commissary boat (Jesse K. Bell) for General Grant "to drop by and give him orders." Yet, in Wallace's mind, he knew there was only one route open: the Shunpike. And he had communicated a recommendation to Brigadier General WHL Wallace, just the previous day, "that in the event of attack, at either Landing, one Wallace would come to the aid of the other, via the Shunpike." So, the question: "Why did Lew Wallace not simply march his Third Division away down the Shunpike -- in accordance with accepted practice -- and let the chips fall where they might, once the dust had settled?" Yours to ponder... Ozzy Reference No.1: http://ehistory.osu.edu/books/official-records/010/0189 OR 10 pages 189 - 191. Reference No.2: http://digital.library.msstate.edu/cdm/compoundobject/collection/USG_volume/id/17403/rec/7 Papers of US Grant vol 4 pages 402 - 3. Reference No.3: http://archive.org/stream/lewwallaceanaut02wallgoog#page/n479/mode/2up Autobiography of Lew Wallace, pages 459 - 461. Reference No.4 http://archive.org/stream/artwar00mendgoog#page/n76/mode/2up/search/tactics The Art of War by Jomini (pages 70, 72-3 (taking the initiative), 132-3 (use of reserves), 144 (re-taking the initiative from an enemy), 176, 184-5 (operation of reserve force of Army-on-Defense in wresting initiative from the Attacker.) Reference No.5 "In the absence of any other orders, always march to the sound of the guns" -- Napoleon.
  18. Officers under Arrest

    Update on Officers Under Arrest Was recently asked about "the nature of the Purge" conducted by Major General U.S. Grant, beginning late March 1862 and continuing until commencement of Battle of Shiloh on Sunday morning, April 6th. Firstly, these are most (but not all) of the men caught up in that exercise: Brigadier General John McArthur, commander 2nd Brigade of 2nd Division (violation of General Order No.28 of March 28th 1862); LtCol William Morgan, 25th Indiana (violation of General Order No.28); Colonel Hugh Reed of Cruft's Brigade (violation of General Order No.28); Colonel James Geddes, 8th Iowa (violation of General Order No.28); Captain Charles Carpenter of Jessie Scouts (sent to St.Louis for Court-Martial due suspected horse theft); Trooper L.F. Scott of Jessie Scouts (sent to St.Louis for Court-Martial due suspected horse theft); Colonel David Moore, 21st Missouri (Court-Martial early April for "allowing troops belonging to his command to fire from steamer J.C. Swon during transit up Tennessee River, jeopardizing lives and property of innocent civilians. Found guilty of lesser charge and received reprimand from General Grant. Returned to duty); 2/Lt Charles Speake, 23rd Indiana (found to have absented himself without authority during sweep of records belonging to Grant's Army, and discharged from service); Major Thomas Reynolds, 16th Wisconsin (minor disciplinary infraction); Colonel C.J. Wright (senior officer at Clarksville, held responsible for irregularities there); Surgeon Henry Hewitt, Senior Medical Officer at Savannah (believed by Henry Halleck not to have been properly mustered into service, and ordered dismissed by General Grant. Dismissed April 20th); Major General John McClernand, commander First Division (threatened by U.S. Grant with disciplinary action on March 25th due suspected horse theft committed by members of Jessie Scouts "attached to your command" (see Papers of US Grant vol.4 page 421). General McClernand "expressed his mortification" (see page 422) and the matter was dropped; Major General Lew Wallace, commander Third Division, (for as-yet unwritten General Orders No.28: sending away troops under his command, out-of-area, without proper authorization). Major General Lew Wallace "sparked the Purge" with his actions in mid-March (sending over 200 desperately sick men from the Third Division away north to Evansville, Indiana for medical care; having been denied proper medical care at Savannah.) If Henry Halleck had not taken notice, probably nothing would have happened (see Papers of USG vol.4 page 404 -- and especially page 405). But, "shirkers," and "men abusing the Furlough System" appear to have been pet-peeves of Henry Halleck (who believed that the best cure for most ailments was fresh air and activity.) Having witnessed officers from Grant's command in St. Louis "on properly authorized medical furlough" but evidently not really sick, General Halleck became incensed upon hearing of "multiple steamers from Grant's command" landing sick men at a variety of Ohio River ports. And he telegraphed Grant, demanding not only an explanation, but a stop to the practice of sending men out of his area. But, there was another problem: General Halleck's telegrams were being sent through Cairo, and during March 1862 "there was a difficulty" (see Papers of US Grant vol.4 pages 400 - 401, telegram from Grant to Halleck of March 21st.) Because General Grant did not reply promptly, Halleck became even more angry. But, once General Grant understood "what had caused Henry Halleck to become so upset," he turned his attention to Lew Wallace. Sometimes sending messages directly to Wallace (and sometimes directing John Rawlins to send messages to Lew Wallace), General Grant demanded an explanation for the sick soldiers "sent away without proper authority" ...and the messages crossed in transit -- see Papers USG v.4 pages 401-2 -- (with Lew Wallace eventually replying, "Do not worry. I will not move my Division without proper orders" -- page 403, top.) Meanwhile, General Grant (realizing he truly had a serious medical problem) sent a telegram on March 22nd to St. Louis requesting massive quantities of medical supplies (to which Henry Halleck replied, "I cannot fill that request, because your Medical Director, Surgeon Hewitt, is a civilian, and not authorized to request those supplies" -- see Papers USG v.4 pp. 404-5). In response, Grant sent his 2-I-C surgeon, John Brinton, to St. Louis to personally submit the request for medical supplies -- (see Papers page 405, notes at top). How did "medical issues" and "unauthorized removal of sick troops" lead to a Purge? A late-arriving telegram sent from Henry Halleck, dated March 17th, expressed Halleck's concerns IRT Grant's command and its "lack of discipline." And, simply, Halleck directed Grant to, "Hold your officers to account for the actions of their men" (see Papers page 415 notes). And, what is interesting upon review of the list of "officers placed under arrest" ...Colonel Jesse Appler, Captain Joseph Clay and Captain John B. Myers are not on it. The officers whose names are listed tend to be "tough characters with strong wills" (or in the case of McClernand and Lew Wallace, "loose cannons" Grant wanted to rein in.) The Chinese have a saying: "Punish one, teach one hundred." I believe Grant's Purge (encouraged by Henry Halleck) was a ham-fisted attempt to instill discipline during the empty days of March and April, expecting to march on Corinth soon as Buell arrived... Ozzy References: Papers of US Grant volume 4 page 385 (General Orders No.23 of March 18th 1862); pages 386 - 406. Getchell, Kevin, Scapegoat of Shiloh (2013) ebook locations 498 - 548 "A Medical Matter creates Friction." http://www.artcirclelibrary.info/Reference/civilwar/1862-03.pdf Art Circle Library for March 1862 (see pages 37 - 38: Letter of March 12 from soldier of 40th Illinois and published in Chicago Times of March 19th. Reports "Rebel cavalry fired into steamer Argyle during transit up Tennessee River, killing one soldier and wounding two others belonging to 57th Illinois. The commanding officer ordered the steamer put into the bank; and a party of soldiers was sent to the nearby town of Clifton Tennessee. Ten citizens were taken away, and held hostage on the steamer to prevent further firing from the Rebels. The citizens were released once the danger was passed." [Presented, as well as report that the 48th Ohio fired their new guns during transit, as evidence that Colonel David Moore was made a scapegoat for his troops "firing indiscriminately into the river bank" during transit of J.C. Swon. No one in 48th OVI or 57th Illinois were held accountable for similar (or worse) actions.]
  19. T. Hurst remembers...

    Thomas Hurst grew up on a farm just outside Savannah, on the east side. His father, 35-year-old Daniel R., worked as both farmer and mill wright; his mother, 32-year-old Elizabeth Black Hurst, mostly looked after Thomas's young brothers and sisters. With the excitement of the attempted Confederate-sponsored State conscription of early March 1862, disrupted by the landing at Savannah of Colonel Worthington's 46th Ohio Infantry, then 13-year-old Thomas Hurst appears to have spent a lot of time in town, acting as witness to all that was taking place. Years later (at the time he wrote this article) he remembers, "the Tennessee River was full to overflowing in March 1862. And the roads were a muddy mess, especially during the first week of April." He knew that "General Buell was to make a junction at Hamburg." And he knew "that the steamer Tigress was General Grant's flagship." On Sunday morning, April 6th, "wild staccato of the blazing musketry, accompanied by the sullen roar of thundering artillery" drew him to the waterfront, just behind the Cherry Mansion, where he, "witnessed General Grant lead a cream-colored horse aboard Tigress (despite claims years later that General Grant required the use of crutches, at that time.)" Some of the other gems remembered by Thomas Hurst: Paymaster Douglas Putnam, on Grant's staff, "gave up his horse about 2 p.m. for use of LtCol McPherson." [McPherson would ride this horse north across Snake Creek, in company with John Rawlins, to meet and hurry forward Major General Lew Wallace.] He saw the steamer Henry Fitzhugh, one smokestack all shot up, making its way downriver carrying the first wounded soldiers away from the battle; He was told by Paymaster Douglas Putnam, who accompanied Grant on the battlefield, that "after dark on Sunday, he went with General Grant to the Tigress and slept aboard." [This is interesting, and does not appear far-fetched, because we know Grant and Rawlins attempted to seek shelter from the rain Sunday night and sleep in the makeshift Hospital. U.S. Grant records that he was unable to rest there, with all the cries from the wounded, and returned outside. Rawlins, on the other hand (in his biography) records that "he slept like a baby in that Hospital." -- Did General Grant really sleep in the rain, under the tree, with Tigress close at hand?] Thomas Hurst remembers the steamer Glendale (and only the Glendale) as having a calliope on board; Hurst recalls the steamer Dunleith (sometimes spelled Demleith) as being the steamer Governor Harvey was leaving (after visiting wounded soldiers of the 16th Wisconsin) when he slipped and fell into the Tennessee River and drowned. After the war, Thomas Hurst married Mary Smith and moved to Pennsylvania (where Reverend T. M. Hurst became Pastor of the Presbyterian Church at Arnot.) Cheers Ozzy References: http://www.jstor.org/stable/42637415?loggedin=true&seq=1#page_scan_tab_contents Battle of Shiloh by T.M. Hurst, pages 82-96. http://www.findagrave.com/memorial/68880126 Reverend T. M. Hurst http://www.findagrave.com/memorial/179882598/Daniel-Robinson-Hurst Thomas Hurst's father, Daniel, of Savannah Tennessee
  20. Epic Trek 2017: Update

    Thanks to Tony Willoughby for recording these videos, and making them accessible (especially for those of us unable to make the journey): this series of three is well worth the time, as areas important to both April 6 and 7 of 1862 are featured, much of which is generally difficult to visit, even if you do make the trip. And Tim Smith's explanations greatly assist with understanding why aspects of Shiloh progressed in the way they did. Well Done, Tony! Ozzy
  21. Why not just go?

    Mona and Rbn3 Thanks for your contributions to this topic. Part of the reason the question is posed (IRT why Lew Wallace did not move before General Grant's visit) stems from the revelation uncovered in Johann Stuber's diary: on April 4th, when the Federal camps in vicinity of Pittsburg Landing became alarmed upon hearing the sounds of the afternoon skirmish taking place in front of Sherman's Division (and many organizations from widely separated divisions were brought into line by trilling of the Long Roll), just a few miles north, the "sounds of battle" were not heard. Johann Stuber's two-line entry for April 4th merely records the visit of a man from Dayton. Yet, on April 6th, Corporal Stuber (serving near Stony Lonesome as member of the 58th Ohio Infantry) recorded the "growing sounds of battle, coming from the south, from early in the morning." The roar of cannons was especially mentioned; and there was no doubt, the sound was coming "from the vicinity of Pittsburg Landing." Major General Lew Wallace heard those roaring cannons, too. Familiar with "the sound of battle" (most recently, at Fort Donelson) Wallace promptly issued orders and prepared his Division to march south; and then waited at the Landing (Crump's Landing) for General Grant to arrive and issue the "expected orders to march south." But, Grant did not issue those marching orders; instead directing Lew Wallace to "wait in readiness to move in any direction (upon receipt of further orders.)" If we assume Grant's visit with Lew Wallace took place at 8:15 a.m., the following one... two... three hours must have been excruciating: just waiting, while the sound of battle (according to Corporal Stuber) persisted, unabated. Lew Wallace records in his Autobiography that he concocted a "contingency plan," in accordance with which the men of his Third Division would be granted early Dinner at 11:30; and commence to march south (down the Shunpike) at 12 noon... if no orders were received. Therefore, having met General Grant, face-to-face, Lew Wallace was willing to wait a little over three hours before "taking the initiative." So, the questions revealed themselves: "How long would Lew Wallace have waited, if General Grant did not "drop by?" And, "Knowing that a battle was in progress -- and having taken the necessary steps to stage his battalions to march -- why did not Lew Wallace order that march (instead of waiting for acquiescence from U.S. Grant?)" And, I believe Mona provided the answer: during the "weeks of waiting" before commencing the anticipated March on Corinth, General Grant took the opportunity of those empty days to "rein in" his loose cannons, and came down "like a ton of bricks" on any infraction of the rules, in order to instill discipline. In the case of Lew Wallace, it was the "sending away out of area seriously ill troops for hospital care in Indiana" that provoked the wrath of Grant (asserting that he had been embarrassed by Henry Halleck calling attention to the matter.) Lew Wallace, not fully grasping what was taking place, attempted to justify his actions through a lengthy, wordy, missive in late March 1862 (which only brought John Rawlins, Grant's AAG, into the "discussion.") Finally realizing what was really taking place -- that he was being disciplined for its own sake -- Lew Wallace kowtowed... and issued the response (to be found in Reference No.2 Line 2 on page 403, above in first post). Cheers Ozzy Other reference: http://archive.org/stream/meintagebuchuber00stub#page/20/mode/2up Diary of Johann Stuber, entries for April 4 and 6.
  22. Why stay at Crumps?

    I was intending to use this discussion to introduce the concept of "Strategic Reserves" (as advocated by Jomini in The Art of War, pages 128 - 135) and poorly implemented by U. S. Grant at Shiloh. But Mona's suggestion got me thinking: what if General Grant kept Lew Wallace away for the same reason he held John McClernand in Savannah? Perhaps Grant saw Lew Wallace's assignment to the north, away from day-to-day conduct of operations at Pittsburg Landing (where Grant wanted Brigadier General Sherman to control those operations, in Grant's absence) as Providential (especially considering the contortions he was forced to execute in preventing the other Major General, McClernand, from assuming command at Pittsburg Landing in his absence?) The whole "shell game" of pretending Charles F. Smith was senior commander at Pittsburg, "just away -- temporarily -- due to illness," was orchestrated in conjunction with sending McClernand to Pittsburg Landing; and the charade of "Smith's Division" (under temporary management of WHL Wallace) was maintained right through the Battle of Shiloh... with near fatal consequences. Well Done, Mona, for "thinking outside the square." Ozzy Reference: http://archive.org/stream/artwar00mendgoog#page/n134/mode/2up The Art of War by Jomini (pages 128 - 135). http://digital.library.msstate.edu/cdm/compoundobject/collection/USG_volume/id/17403/rec/7 Papers of US Grant vol.4 (especially pages 428 and 429, showing Major General John McClernand was aware of "the game" being played to prevent his rightful (lawful) exercise of command by US Grant, making use of the "temporary absence" of General C.F. Smith (who, it turned out, was junior Major General to McClernand.)
  23. Why stay at Crumps?

    In , Grant's Memoirs (page 330) he records: "When I reassumed command on the 17th of March I found the Army divided, with about half at Savannah; while one division was at Crump's Landing on the west bank of the Tennessee River, about four miles above Savannah; and the remainder at Pittsburg Landing, five miles above Crump's... I at once put all the troops at Savannah in motion for Pittsburg Landing [where General Sherman stated, 'there was ample space and drinking water for 100,000 men.']" In Papers of US Grant volume 4 (pages 379-380), in a letter from Sherman to Captain John Rawlins dated March 17th, General Sherman wrote: " I am strongly impressed with the importance [of Pittsburg Landing], both for its land advantages and for its strategic position. The ground itself admits of easy defense by a small command, yet affords admirable camping ground for a hundred thousand men..." Neither Grant nor Sherman offered similar "justification" for maintaining Federal troops at Crump's Landing. And with Lew Wallace having completed his assignment to cut the Mobile & Ohio Railroad [and the primary Confederate stronghold at the northern end of that line -- Fort Columbus -- already evacuated], here is the question: What was the one reason Major General Lew Wallace was maintained in vicinity of Crump's Landing? (Provide justification for your answer.) Ozzy
  24. Why not just go?

    Mona That may have become true, after 10 a.m. But, at 7 a.m. (the time the booming artillery was heard at Crump's Landing and at Savannah) the placement of Confederate forces on Shiloh battlefield had yet to evolve. (And Lew Wallace had no way of knowing what would be found, upon his arrival.) But, not wanting to ponder "what might have been, had Lew Wallace arrived at Owl Creek Bridge at 10 a.m.," the real question is: "Why did not Lew Wallace, convinced that a battle was underway, order his Division south down the Shunpike, soon as his battalions were ready to go?" Regards Ozzy
  25. Why stay at Crumps?

    Just to recap... "Lew Wallace and his Third Division remained at Crump's (after U. S. Grant arrived at Savannah about March 17th) because: he needed to engage in road-corduroying and bridge-rebuilding [WI16thJim] Cheatham and any other Rebel desiring to occupy Crump's needed to be blocked [Transylvania] the Union Supply Depot established at Crump's needed to be guarded [Mona] the Third Division needed to act as observers of Rebel activity in vicinity of Purdy [Mona] Crump's needed to be occupied in order to keep the Tennessee River open to Federal shipping [Mona] by being based at Crump's, Major General Lew Wallace could march his division to Corinth (when those orders finally arrived) via a different road to those Federal forces based at Pittsburg Landing and Hamburg (and avoid conflict and potential traffic jam) [Mona]. Do you believe "the one reason Major General Lew Wallace was maintained in vicinity of Crump's Landing" is to be found in the list, above? Or was there another reason why Major General Grant kept him there? Ozzy