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hank

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  1. Of course Ozzy’s observation is correct. I heard this somewhere else recently that Prentiss sent out David Moore to reinforce Powell and wondered where that could possibly come from. One is left to surmise how anybody could arrive at that conclusion when Moore clearly stated in his report that it was an order from Colonel Peabody that sent Moore and five companies of the 21st Missouri to Powell’s aid. But it was interesting to note that Lt. Col. Woodyard did indeed put in his report; “I have the honor to report that on the morning of the 6th of April, before sunrise, General Prentiss ordered Colonel Moore, with five companies of our regiment, to sustain the pickets of the Twelfth Michigan Infantry.” Woodyard’s comment reinforced the fact that the situation was so chaotic that Woodyard did not even know it was Peabody that sent Moore out with the first five companies and that it was done to “sustain the pickets of the Twelfth Michigan Infantry.” I kept an eye out for a confirmation of Moore’s report concerning who ordered him out with five companies to reinforce Powell. I finally found it in the following letter written in 1883 by William French, who was there. Not only was he there but he was Moore’s adjutant. His short letter contains other interesting points that blow holes in the Shiloh revisionist ship that will aid in sending that ship down to the deep where it belongs. William French’s letter was published on April 12, 1883 in the National Tribune. Copies of the National Tribune are available online. Just google National Tribune and it should show up. It is a short letter so I typed it up and here it is. One Regiment that was Not Surprised. To the Editor National Tribune: “As the manner in which the battle of Shiloh was fought is now under discussion, I would like, with your permission, to relate what I know about it. There was at least one regiment, the Twenty-first Missouri, commanded by Colonel David Moore, which was not surprised. On Saturday morning, April 5th, the day before the battle, General Prentiss, commanding the division to which we belonged, held a review, and at that time some rebel cavalry were seen in the vicinity. In the afternoon he ordered Colonel Moore to take five companies of his regiment and reconnoiter on our front. We went out about a mile and found numerous traces of the presence of rebel cavalry. The inmates of a house which we visited told us that the rebels were in large force, and that we would be attacked the following morning. Colonel Moore reported this fact to Colonel Peabody, who commanded the brigade, and also to General Prentiss, but no notice was taken of it, except that the pickets were strengthened. The next morning found us up early and ready for orders, and presently Colonel Peabody’s adjutant arrived with instructions for Colonel Moore to take out five companies. The pickets had been fired on in the meanwhile, and the Colonel met them falling back. They reported a heavy force in front of them, and the Colonel sent back to camp for the remaining five companies, and taking the pickets with him marched to the front. We had gone about a mile, and were in sight of the house where we heard the afternoon before that we were to be attacked, when the rebels fired on us. Colonel Moore was shot twice. He dismounted and told me to take care of him and keep a sharp lookout. He formed his regiment in line of battle and the boys began to deliver a very rapid fire. At this time an orderly arrived from Colonel Peabody and wished to know whether Colonel Moore could hold his position until he could re-enforce him. Colonel Moore sent back word that he would; but no re-enforcements came, however, and for about an hour we held the ground alone. The Twenty-first Missouri never did better shooting than on that Sunday morning. It was on that field that Colonel Moore was wounded for the third time. A minie ball broke his leg below the knee, and he was taken back to the camp, and afterwards placed on a gunboat on the river, If, after all the fighting we went through that Sunday morning, any of our boys were shot down near their tents, I, for one, don’t pity them. They had plenty of warning. Colonel Moore held his ground faithfully and bravely, and justice indeed has never been done him for the part he took in the battle of Shiloh.” William French Athens, Mo. Co. F, 21stMo. Wiley Sword wrote in his book on page 138; “About 7 P. M. Moore advised Prentiss that the results of his reconnaissance were negative.” That is not what Prentiss wrote in his report nor is it what William French wrote in this letter. William French wrote that they found evidence of Rebel cavalry and were told by citizens that they would be attacked in the morning. Colonel Moore reported this information to both Colonel Everett Peabody and Brigadier General Benjamin Prentiss. The Shiloh revisionists want you to believe that Moore reported nothing to the front of the camps and that Moore’s report is why General Prentiss did nothing as Peabody harangued him about Rebels to the front of his brigade. But the record clearly shows that Moore reported the presence of cavalry and the reaction by Prentiss was to send out additional pickets to strengthen the picket line and authorize additional patrols that eventually culminated in the 3 a. m. patrol by Major James E. Powell and ordered by Peabody. While Prentiss authorized reconnaissance patrols he was unaware as to the timing of those patrols. I have found nothing to indicate that Prentiss was at Peabody’s camp on the night of April 5th. Peabody, Powell and others were taking their case to Prentiss at his headquarters. As it got later on the night of April 5th Peabody continued to receive reports that heightened his alarm and increased his anxiety to know just what was in front of his brigade. But Prentiss was not there and did not have the latest information that Peabody had. It is bewildering to hear revisionists claim that Moore reported that he found nothing actionable. Moore wrote in his report; “In pursuance of the order of Brig. Gen. B. M. Prentiss, commanding Sixth Division, Army of the West Tennessee, I on Saturday proceeded to a reconnaissance on the front of the line of General Prentiss’ division and on the front of General Sherman’s division. My command consisted of three companies from the Twenty-first Missouri Regiment—companies commanded by Captains Cox, Harle, and Pearce. A thorough reconnaissance over the extent of 3 miles failed to discover the enemy. Being unsuccessful, as stated, I returned to my encampment about 7 o’clock p. m. What Moore is referring to is that he did not find any Rebels that he could shoot. Moore does not relate that he found evidence of rebel cavalry but Prentiss wrote that in his report and acted on it by strengthening the picket line. Prentiss wrote “At about 7 o’clock the same evening Colonel Moore returned, reporting some activity in the front—an evident reconnaissance by cavalry. This information received, I proceeded to strengthen the guard stationed on the Corinth road, extending the picket lines to the front a distance of a mile and a half, at the same time extending and doubling the lines of the grand guard.” It should be noted that Moore is pretty specific about the afternoon patrol he took out. He even gave us the names of the commanders of the three companies he took out on the patrol. He makes no mention of going on patrol joined by Major James E. Powell as claimed by Wiley Sword in his book. The idea of a patrol going out with both Moore and Powell just makes no sense and is not backed up by any account that I can find. It is simply one of the figments of Sword’s imagination that has found its way into the narrative and gets repeated by other historians who just repeat another historian’s work without scrutiny. But Prentiss confuses the issue with his report because he gets events out of sequence. Prentiss wrote in his second paragraph: “Saturday evening, pursuant to instructions received when I was assigned to duty with the Army of West Tennessee, the usual advance guard was posted, and in view of information received from the commandant there of, I sent forward five companies of the Twenty-fifth Missouri and five companies of the Twenty-first Missouri Infantry, under command of Col. David Moore, Twenty-first Missouri. I also, after consultation with Col. David Stuart, commanding a brigade of General Sherman’s division, sent to the left one company of the Eighteenth Wisconsin Infantry, under command of Captain Fisk. At about 7 o’clock the same evening Colonel Moore returned, reporting some activity in the front—an evident reconnaissance by cavalry. This information received, I proceeded to strengthen the guard stationed on the Corinth road, extending the picket lines to the front a distance of a mile and a half, at the same time extending and doubling the lines of the grand guard.” The way Prentiss composed these paragraphs gives the impression that Moore returned at 7 o’clock p. m. from a patrol consisting of five companies of the Twenty-first Missouri and five companies of the Twenty-fifth Missouri. But that makes no sense and does not fit the timing given by Moore in his report. Moore clearly wrote that he returned to camp at 7 p. m. after leading the three-company patrol he took out 3 miles. It makes no sense that at dusk with night approaching Prentiss would order a huge patrol of ten companies to go mashing around through the woods in the dark. My view is when Prentiss stated “I sent forward five companies of the Twenty-fifth Missouri and five companies of the Twenty-first Missouri Infantry, under command of Col. David Moore, Twenty-first Missouri” he is not describing a patrol but rather he sent Moore forward with ten companies to strengthen the picket line. Prentiss stated years later that these troops were sent forward with the order to stay through the night and try to capture some Rebels if they could. At some point on the evening of April 5th communication ceased between Prentiss at his headquarters and what was occurring in front of Peabody’s brigade. Prentiss felt he had responded to information received by sending out additional pickets. When Prentiss retired to his tent he believed that the war god David Moore was out on the picket line with ten companies of troops. However, apparently the pickets returned to camp at some point. When Powell’s patrol moved forward at 3 a. m. Prentiss was unaware of that fact. When Peabody heard pretty heavy firing and wounded men came into camp informing him that Powell could use some help Peabody sent his adjutant to Colonel Moore and told him to go to Powell’s aid with five companies. Moore did so and encountered the retreating Powell on the road east of Seay Field. Moore believed the Rebels were just a patrol and that they could be beaten back if Moore had the other five companies of the 21st Missouri. Moore sent an orderly back to camp to have the other five companies of the 21st Missouri sent to him. But the orderly did not follow the command chain. The orderly did not go to Peabody but instead went all the way to Prentiss at his headquarters. Prentiss described the arrival of the orderly in a speech in 1882; “Early in the morning, on the 6th of April, 1862, it was my duty, from what I had learned, to feel the enemy. I had been admonished on the Friday evening before that battle that an enemy of some force was in our front. Not at 3 o’clock, but on the evening of Saturday, before the sun had set, the details were made, and the order given throughout my division to advance the pickets and strengthen them with additional numbers. I did send to the front the gallant Moore, with five of his companies—three at first, and doubting their ability to meet the enemy, I sent two more on my right. On my left two companies of the 18thWisconsin were advanced one mile to the front. In the center, one company of the 61st Illinois and one of the 18th Missouri were sent forward as extra pickets, with instructions to remain until daylight and see if they could not capture some of the marauders that had been engaged in committing depredations immediately in our vicinity. Early on that Sabbath morning, before (while seated at my breakfast news came to me from the gallant Moore) I had heard the musketry fired in front, and heard the skirmishing, an orderly came galloping into camp and said: “General, the compliments of Gen. Moore. He requests me to say to you that he has met the enemy. Send his other five companies and he will lick them.” That is the language that came to me. Gen. Prentiss sent those other five companies of his regiment to him.” The work “admonish” had a different meaning back in the 1800s. The meaning was more close to “informed” as nowadays it is deemed more critical to be “admonished.” Here it is 20 years after the battle of Shiloh and Prentiss related what he believed happened. Note Prentiss remembered sending “to the front the gallant Moore” “to advance the pickets and strengthen them with additional numbers.” Prentiss had no clue as to Powell’s patrol on the morning of April 6th and the available record, including his 1882 speech shows that Prentiss had no clue as to Powell’s patrol when they placed him in his casket in February of 1901. He never mentioned Powell’s patrol and Peabody’s involvement because he never knew. Prentiss believed that Colonel David Moore was at the front with five companies and when he got a messenger from Moore wanting the rest of his regiment that just reinforced Prentiss’s belief that Moore had been involved with the start of the fighting. Back to French’s short letter and the wealth of information it contains for our consideration. 1. 1. French described how Prentiss ordered Moore to take out an afternoon patrol. French wrote five companies but Moore stated just three in his report. French reported they found numerous traces of Rebel cavalry. This contradicts the revisionist claim that Moore found nothing. 2. 2. French described how they were informed by citizens that the Rebels had a large force and that the Union camp would be attacked in the morning. French wrote that Moore passed this information on to both Prentiss and Peabody but that no serious note was taken except to strengthen the pickets. Here is a first indication that French was unaware of Powell’s patrol. It is also the only source I have seen that informs us that not only did Moore alert Prentiss but also Peabody. 3. 3. French confirmed the fact that Moore received an order from Peabody to take out five companies and move to the front. French gave the reason for this order is that the pickets had been fired upon. A second indication that French was unaware of Powell’s patrol. In addition this observation supports Moore report that it was Peabody that ordered him forward. Both Colonel David Moore and his adjutant, William French, say Peabody ordered Moore forward with five companies and they were there. 4. 4. French wrote that Moore met the pickets falling back and stopped them while sending back for the other five companies of the 21st Missouri. This is the third indication that French was unaware of Powell’s patrol and concluded that the men they encountered had been on picket duty instead of a five company patrol that Peabody had ordered to the front. French made no comment but it has been noted that the orderly Moore sent back for the other five companies went to Prentiss and not Peabody. 5. 5. French described the location of their fight as the house they had visited the day before during their reconnaissance which is at Seay Field. Seay Field is not three miles from the camp of the 21st Missouri. Based on Moore’s description that he moved in front of Sherman’s division it appears that he advanced beyond Seay Field but where Moore actually went is open to question. 6. 6. French wrote of Peabody sending an orderly to ask if Colonel Moore could hold his position until Peabody could reinforce him. I have not seen that referenced anywhere else. Finally French declaimed that “Colonel Moore held his ground faithfully and bravely, and justice indeed has never been done him for the part he took in the battle of Shiloh.” Of that French is totally correct. Rather than receiving justice for his role in the battle of Shiloh Colonel David Moore now receives ridicule and mockery at the hands of the Shiloh revisionists. He is depicted as a liar and a buffoon who could not find his way through the trees in front of Peabody’s camp without losing his way. There is no better example of how Shiloh revisionism has adversely affected the modern history of the battle of Shiloh than reading about the opening of the fight in Keven Getchell’s Scapegoat of Shiloh. What a shame that readers of that book who are not familiar with the battle of Shiloh will believe any of what Getchell wrote concerning the opening of the fight. Getchell did Moore and Prentiss a severe injustice in his book because he followed the Shiloh revisionist mantra. With that I close this posting even though I have so much more to tell. But tomorrow is another day and how it came to be that Colonel David Moore has been falsely depicted as a liar and a buffoon will be revealed in an upcoming posting. Hank
  2. Hi Perry. I know you are funning me because Prentiss made no statements in his official report about Peabody’s conduct in the battle and his role in alerting the army of the presence of the enemy prior to the attack. I would expound on that to clarify that there had been encounters with the Rebels prior to the morning of April 6, particularly the skirmish Buckland had that ended up facing Hardee’s infantry and even artillery at Micky’s on April 4. Prentiss was aware of a presence of enemy in the front and responded by ordering increased pickets forward on the night of April 5. But, as Prentiss admitted later, he had absolutely no idea that a full-scale attack from Johnston’s entire army was about to come down on his head. Colonel Peabody sent Major Powell out on the morning of April 6 and Powell found the entire Rebel army poised to strike the Union camps. The Colonel’s actions alerted the army to the presence of the entire Rebel army. I know you are aware of my views on Prentiss but others might not be so I take the liberty to refer to the following articles published in the Quincy Herald-Whig and on the website of the Historical Society of Quincy and Adams County. These articles were slightly edited from what I wrote without my input. They are slightly different but the gist is the same. http://www.whig.com/article/20160710/ARTICLE/307109929# https://hsqac.org/major-general-benjamin-mayberry-prentiss-quincys-slandered-hero-shiloh-hank-koopman/ On my last research visit to the Shiloh National Military Park I was reminded the degree to which the unwarranted, and unsubstantiated, vilification of Prentiss has permeated the Shiloh story. I was minding my own business at the research desk leafing through files with only one of the Shiloh volunteers in presence. I had made no references to Prentiss when out of the blue the Shiloh volunteer said to me “You know Prentiss took credit for sending out the Powell patrol.” The volunteer was surprised when I calmly replied “That is not true.” I got back “That is what all the books say.” My calm reply was “Those books are wrong.” Of all people to make the untrue statement that Prentiss took credit for sending out Powell’s patrol I am not the one. The incident reinforced my objection to the fact that I cannot even visit the park without someone trying to make me dislike Prentiss by spouting out things I know are not true. Perry, although you did not ask my view as to why Prentiss makes no mention of what Peabody did during the battle I am going to give it. Ozzy has made some recent posts that are relevant to the subject as to why is there no mention of Peabody’s actions before and during the battle in Prentiss’s report? In the forum “April 7” thread “Value of the POWs” Ozzy broached the subject of Prentiss’s official report with the following: Prentiss, Prisoners and Prognosticating Nature abhors a vacuum... and I have attempted over the past several months to determine, "Why was General Prentiss' Report of Battle of Shiloh in error, as regards the roles of Peabody and Powell ?" (Errors of omission, as in, "no credit given for the early morning reconnaissance ordered by Colonel Peabody and performed by Major Powell.") The death of Peabody was not discovered until the 25th Missouri regained their camp on April 7. Early newspaper accounts listed Peabody as wounded. Peabody’s brother made the trip from Massachusetts with the understanding that Everett Peabody had been severely wounded. When the brother arrived at Shiloh he discovered his brother had been placed in a wood crate and he took him back home to Massachusetts for burial and thus removing Colonel Peabody far away from western theater of battle. Meanwhile the last time Prentiss saw Peabody was in the camp of the 25th Missouri when they had their altercation and Prentiss told Peabody that he was responsible for bringing on the engagement. Prentiss never saw Peabody again and could not very well write about Peabody’s actions during the fight when he had no idea what Peabody had done. Prentiss included observations on Madison Miller, Jacob Tindall and Colonel C. S. Albans because they were with Prentiss during the fight and he could vouch for their actions. Prentiss was on his way to Memphis along with a couple thousand other prisoners by the time Peabody was confirmed killed. The only way Prentiss could learn of Peabody’s death is if someone told him but all the prisoners were sent off the battlefield on the night of April 6. During his imprisonment Prentiss might have read some smuggled newspapers but otherwise what Prentiss was hearing was how he and his men had surrendered first thing. Prentiss was finally released from prison and arrived in Washington DC on October 17, 1862. He spent a busy day visiting Lincoln and relating how the prisoners had been mistreated and it was going to take a big effort to bring the south to heel. That night Prentiss was serenaded and gave a speech and immediately left for Quincy, Illinois with a group of five or six other officers. He was given a 30-day leave. He passed through Chicago where he was serenaded again and he gave a speech along with several of the other officers. Prentiss then traveled home to Quincy, Illinois. The trip was a whirlwind of activity. By this time it was over six months after Shiloh and the war had moved on. During this journey the only way Prentiss would have known of the death of Peabody is if someone told him. There is no reasonable expectation that someone would have told Prentiss what Peabody had done during the battle so he could include it in his report. Prentiss did not return to an existing division where he could get information about the battle from a staff. He returned alone to Quincy. The usual sequence for an official report by a senior commander was that he would wait to receive the reports of his underlings to aid in the preparation of his report. Prentiss had no such advantage. He had never read or had in his possession the reports of the members of his division. Prentiss was writing blind using just his memory and understanding of what had happened. Prentiss had not a clue as to what had transpired concerning Peabody ordering out Powell’s patrol. This is evident in his report when he attributed the start of the fighting to the combative Colonel David Moore. One missing puzzle piece for me was to confirm that there were no officers of the 25th Missouri among the officer prisoners captured along with Prentiss. Ozzy posted the link he found to a list of officers captured at Shiloh. The list has no officer from the 25th Missouri who might have been able to tell Prentiss what transpired in their camp concerning the actions of Peabody and Powell. The date of November 17, 1862 shows that Prentiss procrastinated the writing of his report. Prentiss felt no need to get his story out as quickly as possible. He waited until the last day of his leave to finally write it. The report was not Prentiss’s top priority as other events were taking place in Quincy at that time. The papers are full of the Emancipation Proclamation issued by Lincoln after the September battle at Antietam. Prentiss was busy as he was invited to give speeches relating to the very important mid-term elections. In November Prentiss married a 24-year old woman to be his second wife. That surely cut into the time he had to write a report about Shiloh. It is surmised by some that the reason Prentiss did not mention more about Peabody and his death on the battlefield is that he hated Peabody. If that is the criteria than Peabody must have been the most hated man in the brigade. Of the five official reports submitted by regimental officers of Peabody’s brigade only one lists the death of Peabody. (Col. Francis Quinn of the 12th Michigan). Lt. Col. Robert Van Horn of the 25th Missouri must have really hated Peabody because he did not mention the death of Peabody in his report. The big difference between those officers and Prentiss is that they knew Peabody had been killed but Prentiss did not. General Grant was so impressed with Peabody (and Julius Raith) that he did not mention him in his report either. But we did learn all about Sherman’s boo-boo to his hand from Grant. Prentiss did not note the deaths of Colonel Tindall of the 23rd Missouri and Colonel Albans of the 18th Wisconsin in his report but he did mention their outstanding service which he witnessed. I guess Prentiss hated them too. My view is that had Prentiss known of the deaths of Tindal and Albans he would have mentioned their sacrifice in his hastily written report. If Prentiss did not know of the deaths of Tindal and Albans it is logical to conclude he did not know of the death of Peabody either when he wrote his report. But why is there no mention of the part played in the opening of the fight by Major Powell? Because Prentiss did not know the fight was initiated by Powell’s patrol. Prentiss believed that the fight was initiated with the troops under the command of Colonel David Moore. Then that brought up the question as to when did Prentiss finally learn that the fight was initiated by Major Powell’s patrol? I set to work on this myself (just a retired engineer doing the type of Shiloh research that Shiloh revisionist historians just won’t do) and through luck and lots of hours in archives I found out that every time I found a report, letter, speech and a newspaper account where Prentiss described the opening of the fight he always attributed it to Colonel David Moore. I have found nothing in which Prentiss gave any indication he knew of Powell’s patrol. Therefore, my view is that the answer to when Brigadier General Benjamin Mayberry Prentiss learned of the early morning patrol by Major James E. Powell is – NEVER. Benjamin Mayberry Prentiss went to his grave never knowing of Major Powell’s patrol and how the battle of Shiloh truly started. The idea that Benjamin Prentiss deliberately dissed Colonel Peabody by not acknowledging Peabody’s role in sending out Major Powell’s patrol that ended up alerting the army and gave it time to defend itself fails to scrutiny. Prentiss can hardly be expected to have credited Peabody with doing something of which Prentiss was unaware. The good General is doing just fine. He sleeps well and I appreciate the opportunity to explain why. There is a lot more to be told. Hank
  3. Greetings to all, I missed the anniversary hikes but this video of Bjorn’s hike describing the spirited defense of their camps put up by the Sixth Division and their commanding general is really quite good. Many thanks to Tony for posting it and to Bjorn for the extensive preparation showing that the Sixth Division put the hurt to the Rebels even if, eventually, they were overwhelmed and lost their camps. The final walk was made from the camp of the 18th Wisconsin to Prentiss’s Headquarters. Bjorn related the order Prentiss gave to his division to fall back fighting. How many men did fall back fighting is impossible to know but there are a couple accounts I found which described the fighting in this area of the battlefield as the men of the 6th Division fell back from their camps. The intrepid Captain Andrew Hickenlooper described his battery’s fall back from Spain Field to the color line of his camp where Union troops tried to rally and form a new line. Hickenlooper’s camp was just west of Prentiss’s headquarters so the action he described occurred between Prentiss’s headquarters and the camps of Colonel Madison’s brigade. Hickenlooper’s account of the battle of Shiloh can be found in Sketches of War History 1861-1865, Vol. V. Hopefully this link will get you there. https://archive.org/details/sketcheswarhist00unkngoog On page 414 we find Hickenlooper’s claim of providing a warning to the rest of the army. It was thus the Fifth Battery met and assisted in checking the first determined onslaught of the enemy, giving nearly two precious hours’ notice of approaching danger to the still slumbering army far to the rear. On page 416 Hickenlooper described the backward movement from Spain field to their color line at their camp. Barely in time to escape the touch of bayonets, over ditches, between trees, through underbrush, over logs, every rider lashing his team, we gain an opening, when the bugle’s “Battery, halt,” again brings order out of apparent confusion, and the shattered battery has a chance to breathe for the first time since early morning. It seems an age, and yet but two, or at most three, hours had elapsed since we passed to the front with all the pomp and pride of conscious power. Slowly we moved backward, saving ourselves from capture only by bringing the remaining sections alternately into action, until we reached the color-line of our camps, upon which an effort was being made to reform our disorganized forces. On page 422 Hickenlooper noted his last conversation with Brigadier General Benjamin Prentiss as the Hornets’ Nest collapsed. It was then General Prentiss informed me that he feared it was too late for him to make the attempt to withdraw his infantry, but that I must pull out, and, if possible, reach the reserves, or forces forming in the rear. I bade the General--as brave a little man as ever lived—good-by, and, under whip and spur, the remnant of our battery dashed down the road, barely escaping capture. Near the end of the hike a participant brought up the Shiloh novel by Shelby Foote in which she said the Mississippi and Alabama troops gave full credit to the men of the 6th Division for the fighting they did to slow the Confederate “avalanche.” I have not read Foote’s novel on Shiloh but for a Confederate view of a man who was there I refer those interested to an article written in 1901 by Isaac Ulmer and titled “A Glimpse of Johnston Through the Smoke of Shiloh” and published in The Quarterly of the Texas State Historical Association, Volume 10, July 1906 – April 1907. Isaac had a front row seat in the attack on the 6th Division because he was a member of Company C of Wirt Adams cavalry. On the morning of April 5th, 1862 Ulmer’s company was ordered to report to General Albert Sidney Johnston to serve as his cavalry escort for the coming fight. As you read Isaac’s account he is describing mostly the attack on Prentiss’s camps because we know that Johnston was directing the movements on the Rebel right flank. Eventually Isaac refers to the fighting even further to the right as the Rebel attack moved against Stuart’s brigade. Isaac gave no definite locations in his descriptions because he probably did not know exactly where he was but if you have an understanding of the fighting for Prentiss’s camps and the attacks on Stuart and then McArthur you can get a good idea of what Isaac is describing and where it is. Following is a segment from Isaac’s article relating to the attack on Prentiss’s camps. I assume he is referring to the camps of the 2nd brigade under Colonel Madison Miller. “I remember about this time of day, say 10 or 11 o’clock, or perhaps a little earlier, we rode into the enemy’s encampment, from which our infantry had previously swept them. The tents were pitched in company formation and full of the impediments of a field force. Evidently they had been interrupted at an early breakfast. At some of the camp fires the breakfast was untouched, and some of the men partly undressed, lay dead in the tents, and yet they say no surprise was acknowledged by Genl. Grant. I do not know how this was, but they fought stubbornly from position to position. (Some of our after experience of surprisals make us think of occasions, when we knew that surprised Yankees could and would fight.) I will not notice further this controversy, but I here add my testimony to the gallant stand made hour after hour that day by this Federal Army. The carnage of this field was terrible. Nearly one man in three being either killed or wounded. Battery after battery was knocked to pieces, and their brave dead lay silently attesting how bravely they had fought.’ Near the end of the article Isaac gave his opinion of General Benjamin Mayberry Prentiss when he wrote: But enough; the gallant Prentiss with the large part of his brigade had been captured some time in the evening, numerous other prisoners had been sent to the rear,… “The gallant Prentiss;” a tribute from a Confederate who was there. Surprisingly even with my rudimentary internet skills I astonished myself by finding a link to the full article published in The Quarterly of the Texas State Historical Association. Hopefully the link works as I am not sure I could do it again. The link gets you into the magazine and you scroll the pages. Here is the link https://texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth101040/m1/317/ I found a copy of Isaac’s article in the folder for the 3rd Alabama Cavalry at the Alabama Department of Archives and History. There were some slight changes between the article I found versus what was published in the quarterly. I thought the description in the article I found was better than that published so the paragraph I included came from the article I found. You can compare what I wrote with the published article to see the differences. Somewhere in my research materials I have an account by a member of the 18th Missouri. Unfortunately I could not find the original documentation but wanted to pass along my recollection of what this soldier said as it relates to the retreat of the 18th Missouri through the very area of the battlefield covered by Bjorn’s hike. If I find the account in my files I will edit this posting. Hopefully my memory is sufficient to get the point across. The 18th Missouri soldier related how, around 1895, he and a group of other 18th Missouri soldiers walked the battlefield with David Wilson Reed and pointed out to him locations where they had made a “stand” as they retreated from their camp to the Hornets’ Nest area. What stood out was that they identified five locations where they thought Reed should put in a tablet depicting where they had turned around and stood their ground for a while and then retreated further. (I say five but it might have been four, maybe three) Reed did not put in that many tablets. He just put in one for the position held by the 18th Missouri from 8:30 am to 9:00 am. This was the second position taken by the regiment after they retreated from their first position. It was near their camp. The reason to point this out is that it reveals how units made a fighting retreat through the woods and fields even if those positions are not recognized with tablets. The final item of interest I will point out is what Captain E B. Whitman wrote to Major General J. L. Donaldson on March 26, 1866 concerning Whitman’s efforts to locate the bodies of buried soldiers, Union and Confederate, on the Shiloh battlefield. Union soldiers were reinterred in the new national cemetery which graces the hill above the landing today. Whitman was tasked with finding bodies of Union soldiers throughout the area around Pittsburg Landing. General Donaldson was the Chief Quartermaster of the Military Division of the Tennessee. I obtained a typed transcript of Whitman’s letter from the Shiloh National Military Park. To make sure that copy was correct I followed up with a trip to the National Archives in Washington DC to read the original handwritten document that Whitman sent to Donaldson. Except for a minor error that referred to the Bay field in the typed document when Whitman wrote the Ray field the typed copy matched what Whitman had written. Whitman’s R was mistaken for a B. I have included only that part of Whitman’s letter that related to Shiloh and his observations as to where the heaviest fighting occurred. Captain Whitman started his March 26, 1866 communication with General Donaldson with the opening sentence: “Having completed the exploration of the Battleground of Shiloh or Pittsburg Landing, I hasten to communicate briefly the results of my labors since the last report.” Following is Captain Whitman’s description of his efforts at locating the bodies of the fallen at Shiloh. “I come now to the most important and interesting portion of my work of this section – an inspection of the battlefield of Pittsburg Landing or Shiloh Church. Seven days of uninterrupted labor of the entire party have been devoted to the work; and, I flatter myself, with a good degree of success. A space of territory containing about twelve square miles has been examined minutely. An aggregate of about four hundred linual miles of travel have been accomplished on the grounds. The field has been swept by the entire party, deployed in manner of skirmish line, at such distances from each other as to leave the intervening space within easy observation. In this manner we passed over the entire battlefield back and forth, the outer man scoring the trees as he went, to guide on the return. Every grave, group of graves and trench have been carefully noted and the location recorded by point of compass and distance from some prominent point or object easy of recognition. The separate graves have been counted and each lot and group recorded by itself. Every legible name, number, and inscription has been copied. Plans of the road, fields, houses, etc., will be prepared, and in addition to a written description, the location of the larger group of graves will be noted on the place. The result of the exploration has been the discovery and localizing of the burial places of eighteen hundred and seventy four union dead. Six hundred and twenty have been identified by headboards and inscriptions, and the inscriptions copied. Of all these, sixty five (65) are solitary graves situated here and there over the entire field. There are eighty nine groups of separate graves containing more than two in the group. Twenty one trenches containing at the most moderate estimate, two hundred and fifty four bodies – probably more – have been notices. All of these solitary graves, groups and trenches occupying no less than one hundred and seventy eight different localities scattered from the bank of the river to the extreme exterior line, and from the extreme right of the right wing to the extreme left of the left wing covering all the fighting ground of that memorable and bloody contest.” The above two paragraphs show the extent of the work that Captain Whitman and his force performed in locating bodies on the Shiloh battlefield approximately four years after the fight The next paragraph and one sentence of the following paragraph are for those interested in knowing the truth about Shiloh. The following words of Captain Whitman are quintessential in deriving that truth. “The haste of the graves of the Union dead, as well as the trenches and mounds covering the rebel dead, marks most distinctly the progress of the fight, and the points where each party suffered most severely. The appearance of the very woods themselves indicated the points at which the fight raged most fiercely. On our left, covering the ground over which General Prentiss was driven from the Ray and Spain lands across the Barnes and George farms to the Bell field where he was finally captured, the slaughter of the Federal troops seems by the number of graves to have been terrible. (Bold added) At one point N.E. of the Widow Bell’s house where an Indiana Battery is said to have been stationed, the brush and small trees are mown off as with a scythe, and the number of rebel dead is greater than at any other point. The ground is now white with their bones. On our right also the rebels seem to have suffered most severely, while in the center there seems to have been less fighting as fewer graves are found.” Captain E. B. Whitman, who was physically on the Shiloh battlefield just four years after the battle when the evidence of the fighting was still fairly fresh mentioned just one general officer in his report and where that officer fought “the slaughter of the Federal troops seems by the number of graves to have been terrible.” That officer is Brigadier General Benjamin Mayberry Prentiss. It is not Sherman, it is not McClernand, it is not Hurlbut and it is not WHL Wallace. It is Prentiss. Because Bjorn’s hike covered the spirited defense of their camps by the 6th Division and their route of retreat to the Hornets’ Nest I thought this thread would be a good place to add some information that corroborates Bjorn’s hike and would be of interest “The ground is now white with their bones” could very well be the area of the battlefield where Johnston sustained his mortal wound. I believe the Indiana battery erroneously referred to by Whitman was Willard’s battery. Hank
  4. hank

    Just supposin'

    “The Devil is in the Details.” As part of understanding what happened at Shiloh even the smaller details become of interest. The question as to when heroes Brigadier General Prentiss and Colonel Everett Peabody reached Pittsburg Landing is of consequence when trying to analyze what really was the relationship between these two men. When did they first meet? Prentiss had probably heard of Peabody in Missouri but I have not found anything to indicate they had actually met before Shiloh. Based on my research I wrote the following paragraph in a longer document I am working on concerning what really happened at Shiloh: “The 25th Missouri left St. Louis on the steamer Continental on March 26th bound for Pittsburg Landing. En route they were joined by Prentiss and his meager staff at Paducah so that gave Prentiss and Peabody an opportunity to become acquainted. They reached Pittsburg landing the night of March 28th and disembarked the next day.” The source of this information is Major General Charles Morton. Charles Morton was a boy of 16 at Shiloh. After the war he went to West Point and then served out west fighting Indians. In the forum “25th Missouri at Shiloh” Ozzy introduced Charles Morton and gave the following link for his paper “A Boy at Shiloh.” On page 56 is the statement about picking up Prentiss at Paducah. http://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?num=52&u=1&seq=96&view=image&size=100&id=wu.89065903692&q1=Loyal+Legion Charles Morton wrote another paper “Opening of the Battle of Shiloh.” Pages 8 and 9 describe the boat ride to Pittsburg Landing and names the steamer “Continental.” Here is a link to Morton’s paper. https://archive.org/details/openingofbattleo00mort I put the two accounts together to come up with the paragraph listing the name of the steamer and that Prentiss joined the 25th Missouri aboard the Continental at Paducah. All four Morton brothers survived the war but a brother-in-law was killed at Shiloh defending the camp of the 25th Missouri. In his later years Charles Morton would host a dinner every April 6th and invite participants and they would discuss what they remembered about the battle. Hank
  5. I can hardly wait. I look forward to it. In the mean time here is Jack Nicholson impersonating me when it comes to Shiloh revisionists: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UXoNE14U_zM Hank
  6. I needed a break from my continuing and relentless efforts to crush the Shiloh revisionism malarkey of the last forty years or so and decided to see if I could answer this quiz. 1. The man of many talents, Lew Wallace, sat on the Military Tribunal that tried Booth’s accomplices in 1865. 2. Ulysses S. Grant was fortunate his wife did not like Lincoln’s wife and she had no desire to accompany the Lincolns to Ford’s Theatre on the night of April 14, 1865. Lincoln’s so called security detail failed him miserably but Grant also traveled with a security detail and had he went with Lincoln that night history would be different. 3. My trusted copy of The Bold Cavaliers revealed the name of this officer and the same picture. The man is Thomas Henry Hines and the picture was credited to the Filson Club in Louisville, Kentucky. 4. Hines studied law in Toronto with none other than the former vice-president of the United States, John C. Breckinridge. (Source – Wikipedia) 5. The staff officer was an aide to P.G.T. Beauregard at Shiloh. His name is Jacob Thompson and he served in the cabinet of President Buchanan along with the notoriously inept Rebel General John B. Floyd. (I just searched on Google with the clues given and found his name) 6. Vincent Price would have made a superb Dr. Luke Blackburn as the story was told of his attempts to introduce Yellow Fever to Northern cities. Interesting to find that despite the attempt at biological warfare Blackburn was elected governor of Kentucky in the 1870s. Anyway, searching Google I eventually found a page of a book which was the biography of John C. Breckinridge and in it was described Dr. Blackburn attending to Breckinridge. They were both Kentuckians so it made sense. It is a little tricky to have John C. Breckinridge the answer to two disparate questions but the search for these answers was, as always, beneficial and informative in learning additional facts about the battle of Shiloh. Merry Christmas and Happy New Year to all. Hank
  7. hank

    Epic Trek 2017: Update

    I have my reservation in Savannah and plan to be there as scheduled. Since the research I have done over the years involves Prentiss, Peabody, Powell, the opening of the fight and the Sunken Road and Hornets’ Nest I invite anybody from this group and any others who have an interest to meet me at 9 AM on Sunday, Nov. 12, at the Prentiss headquarters monument where I will share information on Prentiss. Then I plan to visit Peabody’s monument to have a discussion of what happened in the opening of the fight. After that we will make a trip to the Hornets’ Nest to discuss the action there and along the Sunken Road. Other details like the amount of walking and time frame will be worked out once we get started. I have no fixed time for ending but figure on continuing as long as there is an interest to do so. I was going to offer to do this after the morning Trabue hike but since those plans have changed I adjusted to start Sunday morning. Hank
  8. hank

    David W. Reed's brother

    David Reed’s brother was Corporal Milton Reed and died of disease in Jackson, Tennessee on February 2, 1863 at age 19 and was originally buried there. His body was moved to the Corinth National Cemetery after the war where it is marked with a headstone. The name is misspelled as Milton T. Roed instead of Reed. Tim Smith wrote an article on Reed published in The Annals of Iowa, vol. 62, no. 3, ccin 2003 that relates the story. Find a Grave has a picture of the headstone. Hank
  9. hank

    Name that Road

    I go with the Corinth Road at the south end of the park.
  10. hank

    First Capital to fall

    The Confederate recognized capital of Kentucky was Bowling Green. The Confederates left Bowling Green after the fall of FortHenry on February 6, 1862 and prior to the fall of Nashville so it was the first Confederate recognized capital to go under Union control. In Missouri the contender would be Neosho. The South recognized Missouri as a Southern state but that was later in 1861 and the Union had already occupied Jefferson City in June 1861. Then the secessionist Jackson government set up in Neosho on October 21, 1861. But ten days later the government moved to Cassville. This southwestern part of Missouri was in turmoil until the battle of Pea Ridge on March 7-8, 1862 so it is hard to tell which side was occupying which town at which time. Perhaps the Union could claim control of Neosho before Nashville fell. Claiborne Fox Jackson was the secessionist Rebel governor of Missouri who was driven into exile and tried to take Missouri into the Confederacy and failed. Jackson died on December 6, 1862. George Johnson was the Rebel governor of Kentucky with the Shiloh connection. The connection being he was killed there fighting on foot in the private ranks of the Orphan Brigade from Kentucky on April 7, 1862. On April 6 he was mounted but his horse was killed so he took an oath as a private and fought on April 7 in the ranks. After the secessionist government of Missouri fled the state they set up in Arkansas but ended up in Marshall, Texas and that is where the Missouri Confederate government was at the end of the war. Go Cubs!!!!!! Hank
  11. hank

    Hello from 58th Illinois

    Welcome to the group Pat, As my great-great-grandfather was also with the 58thIllinois and was captured at Shiloh and held as a prisoner until October 1862 I have studied the regiment for a long time. I have a roster of the regiment and if you would state your great grandpa’s full name I could look for him in the roster. The only officer I found with the first name of Patrick was Patrick Gregg. Some of the privates from Shiloh got paroled in May but others did not get paroled until October. As Ed Bearss was a marine I am sure it added to the experience of being on a battlefield with him. There is lots of information on this site and the search option can help you find it. Search the 58thIllinois and you will find numerous postings that should be of interest. I have been to every battlefield the 58thIllinois fought on during the war. The purpose of this forum is to share information so ask away. Cheers, Hank
  12. In the “Charles C. Cloutman Papers, Special Collections, State Historical Society of Iowa, Des Moines” there is a memorial book dedicated to Captain Charles Cloutman of Company K of the 2nd Iowa. Captain Cloutman led his company up the slopes of Fort Donelson on February 15, 1862 and was shot dead through the heart during the advance on the fort. He was 37 years old and had a wife and three children plus Charles Cloutman Jr. was born the day after his father’s funeral on February 25, 1862. His wife was a cousin of General Winfield Scott. The Iowa State Archivist gave approval to this posting of letters and information from the Charles C. Cloutman Papers. The Iowa State Archives is a treasure trove of information concerning the battles of Shiloh and Fort Donelson. The memorial book is almost two inches thick and contains pages that are probably legal size. Someone prepared the book and typed information pertaining to the regiment and numerous newspaper articles from the Ottumwa, Iowa newspaper, the Courier, and others. Some of these articles were written by Captain Cloutman under the pseudonym the Pewquaket Boy. Interspersed within these typed pages are original letters written by Captain Cloutman to his wife. Captain Cloutman was a musician and taught singing school. He was engaged in the grocery business in Ottumwa, Iowa and was Captain of the Ottumwa City Guards. He offered his services to Governor Kirkwood of Iowa in November, 1860. He must have anticipated the need for soldiers for the troubles to come. The Ottumwa City Guards were one of the first companies in Iowa to tender service to the state. The City Guards were mustered in as Co. K of the 2nd Iowa on May 6, 1861. The regiment served in various locations until sent to Fort Donelson on February 10, 1862. As an aside there was a 1st Iowa regiment that fought under General Lyon at Wilson Creek suffering 159 casualties. The 1st Iowa was a 90-day regiment and was mustered out in August 1861. Reenlisting soldiers went to other regiments and the designation 1st Iowa was not assigned to a regiment again. For another account of the charge of 2nd Iowa by a man who was there go here: https://books.google.com/books?id=jLVJAQAAMAAJ&pg=PA177&lpg=PA177&dq=The+midland+monthly+magazine+fort+donelson&source=bl&ots=arEze88_TY&sig=ucihtbCoDYANRrVJ9w6DF2P0XP4&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwjRu76-pqjPAhVV6GMKHSwqB0YQ6AEIHDAA#v=onepage&q=The midland monthly magazine fort donelson&f=false I copied and pasted the above link and it worked. If it fails Google - The Midland Monthly Magazine Fort Donelson - and it should show up. The author is W. S. Moore. Midland War Sketches – The Famous Charge at Fort Donelson. Moore’s account is interesting because he relates a conversation with Captain Cloutman and how Cloutman has a presentiment of his upcoming death in combat. Cloutman wants to go home but feels he cannot do so without dishonor. He must first lead his company as they “see the elephant” for the first time. The article contains a picture of Captain Cloutman. Upon reading the memorial book to Captain Cloutman at the Iowa State Archives in Des Moines, Iowa I was struck by the letter he wrote to his wife on January 31, 1862. In the letter he referred to the “fiery epistle” he had received from his wife, Rachel. From reference to his response it appears Rachel accused Captain Cloutman of “growing cold” and scolded him to the point Cloutman hastily stutters a reply to the accusation that must have caused him great grief. Rachel Cloutman was home without her husband with three children and in the eighth month of the pregnancy of their fourth child. One can just imagine her feelings when she learned that the man she had scolded for being cold had died in the charge of the 2nd Iowa at Fort Donelson. I found the letters of Cloutman to be of extreme interest as they relate to the movements of the 2nd Iowa towards Fort Donelson and their activities prior to the movement. In letters dated January 26, 1862 and February 10, 1862 there is reference to the melancholy that Cloutman experienced as related by W. S. Moore in his account of the charge at Fort Donelson. Several times Cloutman instructs his wife to burn a letter. I started with a letter dated December 10, 1861 and continued to the last one dated February 10, 1862. There are nine letters of varying length. Cloutman’s handwriting was not too hard to decipher once you got use to his writing but there were some words that I could just not decipher. Some sentences run together as he frequently did not use periods and did not use apostrophes as in dont and wont. Following are letters from Captain Cloutman to his wife, Rachel. They have three children named Ella, Lefe and Frank. Cloutman reveals feelings he does not want known to others than his wife and thus you see a couple notations to her to burn the letter. It is hard to tell why Rachel accused Cloutman as “growing cold” as he seems to profess his love for her and the children in his letters. Cloutman was a Democrat and regretted the election of Lincoln but had no hesitation to offer his services to defend the Union. On a trip through Springfield Cloutman related in a story to the Courier as to how he visited Lincoln’s home and went through the front gate and put his hand on the door knob Lincoln must have used thousands of times. There was a tenant in a portion of Lincoln’s home. With no more comment here are some of the letters Cloutman wrote to his wife that give a glimpse of the hardships and conflicting feelings the war caused to sacrificing families. Benton Barracks Dec. 10. 1861 After a long time I have arrived in camp. I had to stop 3 nights & 2 days in Keokuk waiting for a boat. On Thursday at noon I took the ferry boat for Quincy. At 4 oclock that afternoon we got on a sand bar in the River and could not get off until Saturday morning. The men on board 2 nights and one day. On arriving at Quincy we found that no packets were running and that no trains soon to leave for South late Sunday night at 10 oclock. There being no other way to do it we left for Springfield Ill. and after stopping 10 hours in that town we took the Chicago down train at 6 oclock on Monday night and got into St. Louis at 12 oclock last night. Today at noon I got into camp. Pretty well tired out and willing to rest. To night (Tuesday) I thot I would drop you a line to let you know that I am safe and sound. Nothing new in Camp. I am going to write a letter to the Courier in a day or two in which you will (page 2) see a listing of my travels and something that occurred. I expected to send you home money this week but I find on arriving here that they will only pay the Officers when the companies are paid off. Which will happen about the first of January. You will have to do with what you have got. I am plum strapped but can borrow enough to do me till that time. I am getting bigger every day and cant tell when I shall stop. I have just got a letter from Bro. Io which says he weighed 222 and can whip me he thinks. I don’t think so. I hope you will content yourself and get along well. The present prospect is that our regiment will stay here for some time probably all winter. I dont expect it likely that any thing will happen to us very bad. (Ed. note: Not a good prediction) I shall write you again as soon as I can. Be a good girl and remember I love you and how I would like to be with you. Keep the children and yourself comfortable this winter. Good-bye. Chas Camp Benton – St. Louis Dec. 20, 1861 My Dear Wife I have just received your letter the 1st I have received since I have been here. We are all jogging along quietly here in camp with nothing to do except the usual duties of drilling and other camp duty. Our Regiment is improving a little in health. Our sick list is about 200 some less than it was. The camp is lively and full of soldiers. The picture above (Ed. note: Cloutman glued a print of Camp Benton at the top of the sheet) will give you an idea of the appearance of about one half of it looking towards the East it is being extended out and additional quarters built for the men. Our Company is situated where I have made an X. We are comfortable. I have a very good room with two lieutenants in with me a good coal stove and bunks to sleep on. We have a small room for a kitchen in the rear when Io cooks and we get our meals. Io is a first rate cook and we are getting along very comfortably. When I get tired (page 2) I go down to the city and see the sights. Like I wrote I am getting along comfortable. The weather has been warm and ?? Io came back but today it has turned cold and I think we are going to have some pretty rough weather. I have nothing of importance to write you as we are doing nothing and but little prospect of much to do. There is some talk that our Regt will be sent down to the City to do Police Guard duty in the city. But I don’t credit the report very much. I am glad you are getting along so well. I hope Mary will stay through the winter. Keep Frank and Ella at School and have him write me once in a while. His letter was written very well. Have him keep trying and be careful how he spells and it will improve him very much. I am fat and heavy yet. I have got up to 190 and think now I shall get through the war(?) first Rate. I drilled our Regiment yesterday (page 3) afternoon for the 1st time. The Col is at home & the Lt. Col had a sore throat and I am the oldest Capt on Parade so he gave it up to me. I done very well they said for a green hand. I think I can improve after a little practice. Senator Johnson and Alvan Sieghton(?) are here in the city. They have been out to camp once or twice. When you write again tell me whether you got the Bedstead and got it set up. You had better get a good pile of wood and get it sawed up so you will not be troubled during the winter for wood. Keep enough feed for the Cow and see that she is well fed as it is better and cheaper to keep her fat than poor. You will be able to get along I think if you try. I hope you will content yourself and keep things all right. I shall not get any money till after new year but when I do I shall send some to you. Eaton is flourishing around as usual. I should like to be with you but I cannot hope to at present. I think it is quite as much self denial to me as to you to be away. If I could make as much money I should rather be at home. It is a little tough but I shall have to stand it awhile. Give my love to all and remember for yourself and our little ones that I am constantly thinking. You know more than I may tell you on paper. Good by. Charles St. Louis Dec. 21, 1861 Rachel, I have borrowed 35 dollars of Nathan Manro who is going home and I want you to pay him back that amount and as soon as I get my pay I will send you some. I am out of money and have had to borrow of him. Pay him 35 dollars and it will all be right. I am very well. He will tell you all about how I am getting along. My love to you and to the little ones. Charles C. Cloutman St. Louis Dec. 30. 1861 My Dear. I have been looking anxiously for a letter from you every day during the last week but none has come. Since I wrote you last we have moved from Benton Barracks to this place for the purpose of guarding the Regiment of Secesh captured at Warrensburg last week. We are stationed at buildings called “McDowells College” in which are confined 10 or 12 hundred prisoners. Our duty is to see that they don’t escape. Our Regiment is quartered in a Block of 3 storyed brick buildings and are very comfortable. My boy Io is a first rate cook and I like him first rate. We are getting along well. My room is a dining room in the ell part of the house. Back of us is a kitchen where our cooking is done. We have plenty to east and I have a nice cot to sleep on with plenty of blankets. We are stationed in the city about 1 mile from the Planters (Ed. note: Planter’s House was a famous St. Louis hotel which stood from 1817-1922) southwest. I think we shall stay here 3 or 4 weeks. Though we cant tell. If you are getting along comfortably I shall be very happy. I need not tell you how to get along as you know already. I want you to write me often and tell me all about how you are getting along. What you are doing. and how Mary and the children flourish. I have some things that I do not want with me that I shall send home in a box sometime (page 2) soon coats pants and caps together with some other things that I have got and I want you to keep them safe till I get home. I have a spy glass, a Powder flask and some other little traps that I have picked up and having no use for them here I shall send them home. You will get them out of the express office & keep them. My health is first Rate. I am weighing 190 and can eat all my rations. If you should want any little things that I might get for you down here I can buy them after I get my pay. Which I hope will be soon. I have been out of money since I came down and borrowed some from young Manro who was going home & gave him an order on you for 34 which I suppose you have paid him by this time. It is all right. I will send some home as soon as I get paid. You will see a letter in the Courier this week probably and another next from the Pequawket Boy which you may read. I shall write occasionally when I feel like it. Kiss Lefe & Ella & Frank for me & tell them to be good children. I was glad to get Franks letter. I will write to him before long. You may kiss Mary for me and tell her I should like to scholtisch (Ed. note: This appears to be reference to a Scottish round dance like a polka and spelled schottische) with her and talk about the bible to her. I don’t know how to kiss you so far off but I can kiss some pretty woman down here & think it is you-(by mistake). Now dont be jealous but believe me I had rather kiss you than anybody else in the world. I hope some day to do it. Write me every week or I won’t believe you love me a bit. Keep up your courage and some day I will come in and give you a good hug. Good by and a happy night (?). The following was written over the above handwriting and it was difficult to read but I finally got it: It is now about 11 oclock at night and I must close. I am as ever yours ever after. Charles. In addition the following is found in the upper margin of the first page and upside down to the other writing. It appears to be a final thought just before mailing: Dont show this to anybody but burn it. Write me how you feel and all about private matters. I want to know. How are you getting along and whats up, generally. You know what I mean. St. Louis Fri. Jany 3 1862 My Dear Wife I have received two letters from you this week. Am very glad to hear from you. I wrote you a day or two ago and said everything I could think of. I am hard at work. Have something to do all the time. Today I am on a Court Martial. Don’t know how long we shall hold it. We have 7 cases to try. I shall have but little time to spare. So I will write you to night. The 35 dollars to Manro is all right. Whatever you want get and pay for it. Buy a hog and anything else you need. I shall get paid off next week I expect. I am certainly willing you should get everything you need. Don’t be afraid of your money. Make yourself comfortable. About the singing books I paid 40 cents a piece. They are worth 25 cents I think. If they want them for that let them have them. But don’t lend them as they will (?????) them. I have written two letters for the Courier but have seen neither of them. I wish you would send me the Papers if Norris has published them. If not all right. I have got very comfortable quarters In the margin of page 1 is this sentence: I sent you a picture entrusted by Walter Grubber(?) who will give it to you. Page 2 here in a 3 story brick house. We shall probably be here sometime. I have no news to write you. I spent Christmas and New Years at work in the day time. In the evening I went to the City & spent half a dollar going to the theater. We are not allowed to go out of camp now without permission from Head Quarters. This I don’t like very much but suppose I shall have to stand it. Lieut. Murtrick is unwell. Mobly is tough and myself the same. I want you to write as often as possible and if you try I think you can say something to me that I want to know. Now try. It may be to late for me to write love letters but you are younger than I am and as you never have written me any you can try your hand at it. Dont be afraid to tell it right out. You need not show this to any body and than they wont know that I am about half homesick and want to see you and be with you. But enough, I will make it up when I do get away. Good night and remember you foolish (Ed. note: ends there) The next letter is sent from the infamous McDowells College which is also known as the Gratiot Prison in St. Louis. Here is a link to a site describing the mad doctor who founded the college. http://www.prairieghosts.com/mcdowell.html McDowells College H. Quarters 2nd Iowa Regt. St. Louis Janaury 8th 1862 My Dear Wife. I say dear because you are dear to me in more ways than one. At this time you are dear to the amount of 200. dollars (Ed. note: Not a mistake. The letter says 200) which I enclose to you. The other way you are dear to me I will not now write about. As I wrote you the other day all I then had to say. I want you to put this where it will be safe. Don’t swap it off for any thing else because it is safer to keep this than any other kind of money. See that you dont lend any of it to anybody, and if possible dont let anybody know that you have got it. I am willing you shall do the spending of it as I am quite sure you will spend prudently. I hope the next time you have turkey for dinner it will not prove to be a slaughter (?). We(?) men paid off last Monday & I am glad to be able to send you so much. Save it as much as possible as we may want it some day. I am first rate in health. Just fill up my uniform exactly. We have nothing ??? in camp. Page 2 I got a letter from Joe from Conway(?) a day or two ago & he informed me that my Father is very low with the Heart Disease and was expected to die any day. He is probably dead by this time. Susan is at home. Well. My mother is very well also. Let me know when you secure the money and all about who knows any thing about it. And now my dear good night and many happy days and “New years” be yours. Keep up a good heart and bear bravely whatever is in store for you and remember that I am thinking about you constantly and I don’t know that I need be ashamed to say that I love you more and think of you more than I ever had before. There that will(?) do now. Write me soon and I will answer as often as possible. I am very affectionately yours “Snoaked”(?) or “Muggins” Burn this up St. Louis Jany 26, 1862 My Dear Wife I have received all your letters up to this date. I have written as often as I had opportunity. This Sunday afternoon I have a moment to spare and will drop you a line. We have as much to do on Sunday as any other day. I have just come from church. I have been to hear Dr. Elliott ??? who has a very fine church and is a good old man. After church we were coming home and Dr. Whittier spoke to us on the street and invited Mobley & me to go up to his house & take dinner with him. We did so and had a good time. We made the acquaintance of a very nice family. He has a little girl just as large as Ella, a little boy about as large as Lefe. I hugged and kissed them till I thought I was at home again. The lady I did not hug, of course, but I wanted to right bad. I thought it was pretty hard though to be away from home. I have just heard that Mr. Hebard of Burlington may (be) living in St. Louis. I have not seen them yet but I have learned where (Page 2) they live. I shall call on them in a Sunday. I expect in the course of a couple weeks that the prisoners we are now guarding will be sent to Alton, Illinois and we shall be relieved from guard duty so that case I expect we shall pack up and go down the River again, probably to Cairo or Bird Point. It is likely that we shall be in the army that will go down the River. You can write me at St. Louis as you have done. In the event of our going I shall write you all about it as soon as I find out about it. My health is very good excepting a bad cold. I have been so hoarse for 2 or 3 days that I have hardly been able to speak. It is now getting better. Eaton started today for Chicago to meet his wife. I have nothing new to write you. I have not heard from my father since I had wrote you. I suppose by that he is still living. I am glad you got the money and box safe. The box contained my Gray suit one blanket which you can wash and use. Some powder that you must take care of and keep it away from Jim and from the children. Look out for accidents! Some other things that I now forgot but you can save them till I get home. You will find a letter in the Courier this week from me. Send me the paper as soon as you read it. I dont always get the paper (Page 3) till it gets cold. I saw my two letters in papers sent to a man in my company But I did not receive those sent by Norris. I have seen them however so you need not send them to me. I shall write the Courier occasionally as I have any thing to write but do not expect to be very regular. What do the folks say about them? You need not tell that I have inquired. You can write me any thing you wish to and it will all be right. I take good care that no one sees them. I should like to know how you are getting along and when you expect to be sick. (Ed. note: Cloutman’s wife is about eight months pregnant) How do you feel about it. Write me freely about it as you know I am anxious to know all about it. I am very happy to know that some one sincerely cares for me. I have never had a doubt but that you loved me most truly. I think I have had reason to believe that much and I can only say that bad as I have been I yet love you as much as when I first knew you. May we both continue to do so and we shall never repent(?) it. Think kindly of me and learn our little ones to love us and if it is my lot to fall in this service let them never have reason to blush for my memory. You are very comfortable at home and have perhaps nearly all you wish. But think how you would (Page 4) feel if you were in my place away from the one you love best and away from your children. How would you like to live so. You have your own troubles but you know not how I feel sometimes. I would give any thing to see you. But I cannot leave now without dishonor. I shall have to take my chances down the river. I would like to have you give yourself but little trouble about it. I have no fears about it for my own sake. I only think how it would fare with my loved ones if I fall. This is perhaps too sober so I will stop it. Cheer up my dear one and believe it will all be right. Some day I shall be with you and then it will all be the sweeter and we shall love the more. Bless you my Dear Rachel and my little ones. ??? that you dont know how much I think of you. Write me often and I will drop a line when I can. Direct to “St. Louis Mo” 2nd Iowa Regt as before and your letter will find me. Good Bye. Be a Good Girl. Don’t give yourself any trouble about me. Love to all, I am yours truly, Charles McDowells College St. Louis Jany 31, 1862 My Dear Wife I have just received your fiery epistle written last Sunday, in which you take occasion to scold me pretty hard. I hope you will think the matter over and perhaps you will see that it is pretty hard to be away from home all the time and be scolded too when I do all I can to make you comfortable and happy. I have written you as often as once a week and I think you have got them all. I have written when I could. I have a good deal to do. I was on a Court Martial for three weeks every day. When off and in my quarters I have had to attend to my company matters and keep things all straight. I have had a good deal of company writing to do besides taking my turn for duty out on Parade. If you were here you would see how busy I am most of the time. And my dear I hope you will not scold me so again when I write you on all occasions I have. I know how hard it is for you and perhaps you dont know how hard it is to be a soldier. I suppose you find it a little lonesome sometimes. So do I. But I hope you will stand it bravely. I hope you will never think I do not love you and my family. Some day you will know how much perhaps. Till then I shall expect you to bear it all and I shall like you all the better. I am sorry Ella is sick. Take all the care of her you can for she is my only girl and I love her dearly. Keep my little Lefe all right and tell Frank to be a good boy and help you. I am very well and have neither got hurt or wounded. I wrote you a long letter one day this week & have time only to say that I do not see any prospect for us to get away from here yet. I am very thankful for the thousand kisses you send me. If I was with you I think I should get a thousand more. (Page 2) Tell Eliza I wrote her a long time ago and have not heard from her since. I hope she will write me soon. Now dont get in a bad passion again and I will try and send you a line oftener. Eaton got home from Chicago yesterday. I suppose he had a happy time. I went out the other day to hunt up Mrs. Hebard but could not find her. I called in & saw Mrs. Brooks the Methodist Preacher’s wife and had a good time kissing her little girl and Boy. Both about as big as Ella and Lefe I wanted to kiss someone(?) right bad so I kissed them. Nothing wrong I hope. Is there? Not having much time today I have written this in a hurry and hope it will assure you that I am not growing cold as you think. but on the contrary that I still continue to think of you as my little (big!) darling wife and that I love you pretty near to death. There, wont that do? I hope by this time you are good natured and feel Better. Good Bye and I will Kiss somebody a thousand times for you. Your aff Hus Chas St. Louis Mo Feb 6th 1862 My Dear Enclosed find a picture. You can look at it and ask somebody who it is if you dont know. We expect to go south next week. You can write me addressed to St. Louis as before. I shall write you a time or two before we go. My health is good. I have nothing important to write you today. Good Bye and write me soon. Charles St. Louis Monday morning Feb. 10 1862 My Dear We are just on the point of starting south. At one oclock we are to move. It is now 12. We are to take a Boat and go down to Cairo & from there probably to Fort Henry Tennessee. We are all packed up and in an hour we are off. I take this opportunity to write you in great haste. We have been under orders to march for several days and have been expecting hourly to move. Now we are off. I have had the Blues pretty bad for a few days but it is no use(?) I shall write you as often as possible. I dont know what will happen to us(?) but I shall do the best I can for myself and soon as I can I shall get out and go home. But I cannot now. Let us hope for the best. Keep up your courage as well as you can and let me hear from you often. When you are sick I want some one to write me immediately. Dont fail. I have but a moment to spare. Good Bye. Give my love to all and remember one who loves you well. Charles In the afternoon of February 15, 1862 Captain Charles Cloutman led his company in the attack upon Fort Donelson. He was shot through the heart and died instantly while in front of his men and waving his sword as he cheered them on. His son, Charles Jr., was born the day after his funeral back home in Ottumwa, Iowa. While the subject of this posting is Captain Charles Cloutman of the 2nd Iowa Regiment his story is similar to hundreds of thousands of the men, Blue and Gray, who made the ultimate sacrifice during the American Civil War and whose wives and children had their lives forever changed with the loss of their husband and father far from home. This posting honors them all. Hank
  13. hank

    Fort Donelson Hike - Meeting Location

    In 1959 Ed Bearss produced a set of maps for FortDonelson that are Troop Movement Maps covering the positions of the troops from February 12, 1862 through 5:00 P.M. on February 15, 1862. There are ten maps in the set covering the positions of the regiments at various times over the four days. Hopefully they will have some of these sets available in the temporary visitor’s center for those interested. The FortHenry and FortDonelson campaign was chosen in 1912 to be a campaign worthy of study at the GeneralServiceSchool at FortLeavenworth. The school compiled source material into a large volume (1488 pages) into a book cited as: FortHenry and FortDonelson campaigns, February, 1862. Source book. The General service schools, Fort Leavenworth, Kansas, 1923. You see this book referenced in works of the campaign and this is an explanation of what is being referred to when an author references – The Source Book. Unfortunately, the book has not been digitized for downloading as of yet. I borrowed a copy of the book several years ago through interlibrary loan and copied information I thought I could not get elsewhere. A large part of the book contains copies of the reports contained in the Official Records. I am planning to make it to Dover the night of November 3rd and stay at the Dover Inn. I figured I would use Friday the 4th to refresh my memory of the fort and the surrounding areas and see what might have changed since I was there for the 150th anniversary. I am fairly familiar with the FortDonelson fight and if anybody else is going to be around on November 4th and wants to make a preliminary reconnaissance of the area we will be walking on Saturday, or anywhere else related to the campaign, I would be glad to share what I know. That includes you Michelle. Hank
  14. This is the type of discussion of interest for all who want to understand what happened at the Battle of Shiloh to the greatest degree possible. The devil is in the details and it takes a painstaking effort to work through them. With all the research I have done I would concur with Stacy Allen on the fact that no where yet found mentions exactly who the cavalry vedettes were. As shown in Billy’s analysis the attempt is made to determine from what unit the vedettes were from by eliminating those units from which it can be fairly certainly determined they were not from. When Bragg came up from Florida there were a number of Alabama cavalry companies that came with him. They were organized in battalions meaning they were less than regimental size of ten companies. Sterling Alexander Martin Wood also came with Bragg to Corinth but S.A.M. Wood ended up commanding a brigade in Hardee’s Corps. As noted the Georgia Mountain Dragoons commanded by Captain Isaac W. Avery were attached to Wood’s brigade. The information on cavalry units comes from David W. Reed’s book The Battle of Shiloh and the Organizations Engaged. At the Alabama Department of Archives is a nice collection of S.A.M Wood papers including letters to his wife, biography, paper on his service record, accounts of other battles Wood was in, papers from a court of inquiry Wood requested concerning his performance at Shiloh, request for amnesty and pardon to President Andrew Johnson and other papers. Also, in the early 1900s the head of the archives in Alabama made a concerted effort to obtain information on Alabama civil war units. Surviving members of cavalry, artillery and infantry regiments and companies were contacted and begged to provide information on the formation of the units they served in. The result is that the Alabama archives has folders on most of the Alabama units that served in the civil war. Some have more information than others but I found several accounts of the battle of Shiloh from Alabama soldiers who were in the Alabama regiments. There are a couple accounts from Alabamians who were in Gladden’s brigade. Not related to this subject, but of interest, I found the original handwritten letter that O. E. Cunningham wrote to the Alabama Archives on August 13, 1962 wondering if they had enough information in their archives about Shiloh to warrant a trip from Cunningham. So when Billy requested information on what cavalry unit the vedettes were from who fired the first three shots of the battle of Shiloh in front of S.A.M. Wood’s brigade I thought I would look through the hundreds of photographs I took of the materials on S.A.M. Wood and other Alabama units. The result is what I consider to be a “score.” I photographed a copy of the original order issued by General Thomas Hindman, S.A.M. Wood’s division commander, to Hindmans “Generals.” The order is dated April 4, 1862 and pertains to Capt. Avery and how the picket duty should be performed in front of the division. For those interested in seeing a copy of this order I have set up a Paypal account, just kidding. Here is the order of General Hindman to his “Generals.” Hd Qrs April 4, 1862 Generals: You will divide Capt Averys Cavalry Company into two equal parties, for picket duty, and send them out immediately, as follows: One party to the right and front of my Division between one and two miles- The other to the left and front of Gen. Cleburnes Brigade some distance. Instruct the commander of each party to throw out pickets from his station so as to effectually protect that flank of the army corps on which he is posted, to be constantly on the alert, to hold his position if attacked as long as practicable, falling back slow if overpowered and sending couriers back to these Head Quarters at short intervals with definite information. They will remain on post until relieved unless so driven back. Communicate to the officers and men (of each party) (and to your entire command) the challenge and response as follows- “Who comes there?” “Manassas – who are you?” “Beauregard” You are not authorized to discharge guns of your commands-after dark. Order the commander of each Regiment to stop it immediately. Inform Gen Cleburne that you are picketing on his left, Col Shaver knows it. There are Cavalry pickets of other Commands in our front. Respectfully, T. C. Hindman Br. Gen. In the Capt. Avery’s official report on page 611 of volume 10 he pretty much repeats what Hindman put in the order. Hindman directed Avery to picket the flanks of the division and explained to his “Generals” “There are Cavalry pickets of other Commands in our front.” Playing the game of elimination it is unlikely the vedettes were from Forrest’s command. He had a large contingent which he had led out of Fort Donelson and he was ordered to guard Lick Creek. Clanton’s cavalry was a large unit assigned to Bragg’s Corps but Clanton fought on the Rebel right flank. Wharton’s Texans was a large unit and fought on the left flank. Polk had the 1st Mississippi Cavalry under Lt. Col. Lindsay (this force captured Ross’s Michigan Battery on Sunday) and Brewer’s Alabama and Mississippi battalion. These two forces stayed with Polk as noted in the official reports of both Lindsay and Brewer. Breckinridge had cavalry units but his was the reserve force and stationed well behind the front line of Hardee. Wirt Adams had a force but they operated on the right flank, served as the escort for Sidney Johnston during the battle and guarded Lick Creek with Forrest, I think. Having eliminated all possibilities but one, the one remaining must be the answer paraphrasing Sir Arthur Conan Doyle’s iconic detective Sherlock Holmes. The one cavalry force left is Jenkins (Alabama) Battalion that was assigned to Ruggles’ division of Bragg’s Corps. Ruggles’ division lined up in the second line directly behind Wood’s brigade. If you have a copy of Cunningham’s book, page 147, or the Blue and Gray magazine that has Stacy Allen’s Shiloh article there is a map showing the alignment of the Rebel army just prior to the battle. These maps show the right flank of Ruggles’ division situated near the right flank of Wood’s brigade and the left flank of Shaver’s. Cleburne was to the left of Wood’s brigade while Gladden’s brigade of Bragg’s Corps was placed to the right of Shaver’s brigade. Ruggles’ right flank was on, or near, the Corinth road so it is easy to visualize sending some cavalry up the road to reconnoiter. The Corinth road skirts Fraley field. On page 471 of volume 10 of the ORs Ruggles put in his report: “Four companies of cavalry, under Capts. T. F. Jenkins, commanding, A. Tomlinson, J. J. Cox, and J. Robins, covered our right and left flank.” These four companies were known as the Jenkins battalion because Jenkins was the senior captain. Surprisingly all four of these men made an official report that is in the ORs, volume 10. Major Aaron Hardcastle commanding the 3rd Mississippi battalion in Fraley field wrote in his report (pages 602 and 603, OR vol. 10) that the cavalry vedettes fired three shots and eventually returned to his line. Unfortunately we are not told how many vedettes there were but it must have been a small number as only a few shots were fired. The two groups of advance infantry pickets that Hardcastle posted in front of his main line had seven and eight men. Brig. Gen. S.A.M. Wood verified in his OR report (page 591) that “The artillery and cavalry were detached, by order of Major-General Hardee, and were not under my command during the battle.” This brings us to the four companies of Jenkins battalion. Their official reports begin on page 529 of the ORs, volume 10. Capt. Jenkins wrote “On the first day of the action my company was attached as support to a section of Captain Ketchum’s battery, on the left flank of Brigadier-General Ruggles’ division.” On page 531 Capt. J. Robins wrote “On Sunday, April 6, 15 men of my command were detailed to act as couriers. Ten of them acted as couriers for General Ruggles and 5 for General Pond. The balance of my command masked Captain Ketcham’s battery until it went into action.” Captain Ketchum verified his supports on page 527 of his OR report stating “The next morning (April 5), taking our regular position in line, we advanced until about 5 p. m. forming in line of battle on the extreme left, my battery masked by Captains Jenkins’ and Robins’ cavalry companies.” Since Jenkins and Robins are placed on the left flank of Ruggles’ division that leaves the company of Prattville (Alabama) Dragoons under Captain J. J. Cox and the Mathews (Alabama) Rangers under Capt. A. Tomlinson stationed on the right flank, right behind the right flank of S.A.M. Wood’s brigade. On page 531 Captain Tomlinson wrote: “My company of Alabama Mounted Volunteers was under the command of Brigadier-General Ruggles on the 6th and 7th instant at Shiloh Church…From the time the battle began to 12 m. my command was with General Ruggles on the battle-field, and from that time until 4 o’clock I was engaged in watching the movement of the enemy on our left wing. The remainder of the day and also the night was under the command of Captain Cox.” On page 530 Captain Cox wrote: “The cavalry company, Prattville Dragoons, of Captain Jenkins’ cavalry battalion, carried to the battle of Shiloh, on the 6th of April, 4 commissioned officers, 4 sergeants, 4 corporals, 1 bugler, and 33 privates. The company, with Captain Tomlinson’s company, was ordered to advance with the right wing of General Ruggles’ division. After entering the first camp of the enemy Captain Tomlinson was ordered to reconnoiter the woods on the left of that division. My own was ordered to remain with General Ruggles…” Captain Tomlinson revealed that Captain Cox was the senior captain. On a speculative nature I get the impression that Tomlinson was close to Ruggles while Cox states he was ordered to advance with the right wing of Ruggles’ division. On the morning of April 6 Hardcastle’s battalion was four hundred yards or so in front of Hardee’s line and they were serving as a strong picket force. Hardcastle sent two small groups ahead of his line, one 200 yards out and another at 100 yards. To extend the picketing even further the decision was made to send out cavalry vedettes in front of Hardcastle’s advance pickets to reconnoiter and the vedettes encountered Major Powell’s party advancing towards Fraley Field and fired three shots and scampered back to Hardcastle’s infantry line. Since Captain Cox was the senior captain my assumption is that he would use men from his own company rather than order Captain Tomlinson to send out men from his. My vote is that the unknown cavalry vedettes that fired the first three shots of the battle of Shiloh were from Captain Cox’s Prattville Dragoons. We may never know for sure. I know that Hindman’s order is dated April 4 but Avery notes in his report that he followed the orders that night. Hardee’s Corps was the first in position and stood in line on April 5 waiting for the rest of the army to get in line. One of the straggling divisions was Ruggles’ and by the time Ruggles showed up it was too late to proceed with the attack on Saturday. Hindman was probably assuming that Ruggles would be on time when he stated that other commands would provide the Cavalry pickets for his front. Even if Ruggles’ infantry was slow to arrive that does not mean that Jenkins’ cavalry battalion would have plodded along with them. The cavalry was important and needed to be in the front. As noted Billy had received two different answers to the question as to what cavalry unit provided the vedettes that fired those three shots near Fraley Field. Presented here is a third and that is why we study the written record. Cheers to all, Go Cubs!!! Hank
  15. hank

    local sunrise on 6 April 1862

    On page 149 of Shiloh and the Western Campaign of 1862 by O. E. Cunningham, in note 10 is the following information: "Edwin Bearss, who performed extensive research on the subject, maintains the sun rose at 5:40 a. m. that morning, citing a letter from E. B. McGeever, Head Reference Section Science and Technical Division, Library of Congress, October 30, 1963." The letter is in the Shiloh Military Park Archives. Cunningham has a discussion of the soldiers accounts concerning what time the opening shots were fired in this note for those who have the book to reference. Cunningham wrote "Most of the soldiers' accounts of the action said the firing began just before dawn, and that the sun rose about the time of the beginning of the skirmish between the two main bodies of troops." Hank
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