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Ozzy

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About Ozzy

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    Reynella, South Australia
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    Family history research, car restoration, travel...
    Welcome to my SDG page: the image at top is of Dubuque's Governor's Greys, which became Company 'I' of First Iowa Vol. Inf. Regt. (Uniform worn Battle of Wilson's Creek, 1861.)
    My book, Falling through the Hornet's Nest' (Martin Samuels) is now available at Amazon.com as ebook. My next book (focus on Henry Halleck 1861-62) entitled 'Shiloh was a Sham: the untold story of the iconic Civil War Battle,' will be available April 2016, on Amazon as e-book.

    I can be contacted at bzmax03@chariot.net.au by any SDG member so inclined.

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  1. Ozzy

    Did Grant kill Smith?

    Russell Thanks for your interest in this topic, which merely asks, "Did Grant kill Smith?" Not an assertion; not a conspiracy theory. Just a valid line of enquiry, with no pre-determined outcome. Because, in the end, Smith died. The point of this exercise is to determine whether more could have been done, possibly leading to a better outcome for Major General Charles F. Smith.
  2. Ozzy

    Did Grant kill Smith?

    Grant’s too-close involvement with Smith, part two Major General U.S. Grant first became aware of General Smith’s boat mishap via steamer-delivered message from Smith, dated 13 MAR 1862. Subsequently, General Grant assessed Smith’s condition on March 17th (and moved General Smith into the upstairs bedroom at the Cherry Mansion); and commented on Smith’s bedridden condition in his Memoirs (page 274) as the reason Brigadier General WHL Wallace was assigned to acting command of Smith’s Second Division. But U.S. Grant made these observations as a layman, not as a trained physician. Brigadier General C.F. Smith’s personal physician at Savannah was Surgeon Henry Hewitt (who also acted as Medical Director for the Army of West Tennessee.) It was Hewitt who converted every empty house and unused building in Savannah into Hospitals, the whole network capable of tending over 1000 men. And as far as is known, Smith enjoyed ready access to Surgeon Hewitt. Major General Grant also had a personal physician with him when he arrived at Savannah: Surgeon John H. Brinton. So, a “second opinion” should have been available, especially when it was realized after a few days that General Smith was not getting better. But, study of Surgeon Brinton’s Memoirs seems to indicate NO contact with Charles F. Smith; and then, Surgeon Brinton was sent away by General Grant on March 22nd to conduct business in St. Louis and Cairo (he did not return to Pittsburg Landing until April, after Shiloh.) In Surgeon Brinton’s Memoirs, the only recorded meeting he had with C.F. Smith was at Savannah on April 25th at the request of General Grant. Surgeon Brinton travelled by steamer from Pittsburg Landing and found Smith upstairs in the Cherry Mansion (his Hospital-for-one had long since become a Hospice); General Smith was in bed, unconscious, and obviously in the final stages of dying (which occurred that afternoon at 4 o’clock.) The implication: no second opinion was accorded General Smith, despite his declining health, until there was no chance of his recovery.
  3. Ozzy

    Did Grant kill Smith?

    Grant’s too-close involvement with Smith, part one Of the above items, “Why General Grant persisted in maintaining his HQ at Savannah” is primarily concerning because of the obvious impact on the conduct of the Battle of Shiloh, and the Commanding General’s hours-long absence from the field, morning of 6 April 1862. But, Grant’s use of the Cherry Mansion as HQ had other peculiar implications. This is the dilemma: C.F. Smith was already aboard a steamer, the Hiawatha, when General Grant re-joined his Army in vicinity of Savannah. And Smith informed Grant that, “he was barely able to limp through the cabin from one chair to another.” If Grant had left General Smith aboard the Hiawatha and medevac’d him away to a Hospital – ANY Hospital – north of Savannah, no one could fault U.S. Grant for exercising due care. And whatever happened to Smith, during the voyage or afterwards, was beyond control of General Grant. However… this medical evacuation did not occur. And the state of affairs changed with the removal of Smith from the Hiawatha by General Grant; and the installation of Smith in an ad hoc Hospital-for-one, upstairs in the Cherry Mansion, the same building which also happened to be Grant’s HQ …by General Grant. And Grant’s downstairs “offices of HQ” acted as gate-keeper for access to General Smith. (Many did not realize Smith was there, but assumed he was in the field at Pittsburg Landing campground.) Again, if Smith had been deposited in “the best ad hoc Hospital available in Savannah or Pittsburg Landing” the arm’s length nature of Grant’s involvement with Smith’s care could by verified as such. But by taking a controlling role in the provision of Smith’s care, Grant assumed more than a modicum of interest in the outcome (same as if you or I brought a sick friend, or work colleague into our Home, and arranged for personal care of that person: our input, our decisions, have consequences, for which we can be held liable.) And as for General Smith’s condition: as far as can be determined, it progressively deteriorated. There is no indication that he could manage the stairs at the Cherry Mansion, and so it must be assumed that he remained upstairs and had his meals brought to him. As well, he likely made use of a bedpan instead of attempting visits to the outside privy. Soon, Charles F. Smith could no longer walk; became bedridden. This condition never improved. And Major General Grant returned to the Cherry Mansion every night, and was witness to Smith’s declining health (which became so obvious that Henry Halleck ordered Smith’s medical evacuation on or about April 14th.)
  4. Ozzy

    Did Grant kill Smith?

    Before revealing the facts in the matter, allow me to list the concerns that resulted in opening this line of enquiry; elements of the story that caused me to question the “care” delivered to General C.F. Smith, ultimately leading to his death: · U.S. Grant maintained his headquarters at the Cherry Mansion during the entire time he was forward deployed. Why? · Although making daily visits to Crump’s Landing and Pittsburg Landing to observe proceedings (and enforce the prime directive, “Do nothing to bring on a general engagement”) Major General Grant was not seriously tasked with anything except assembling a force to march on Corinth. Meanwhile, subordinates carried out attempts to cut the Memphis & Charleston R.R. and the Mobile & Ohio R.R., which allowed Grant to return to the Cherry Mansion every evening. · U.S. Grant appeared to have an abundance of Time on his hands, which he filled by engaging in a purge of loose cannon officers, who were too lacking in discipline for their own good. In addition, Grant initiated an operation against soon-to-be Major General John McClernand designed to deny that officer exercise of his rightful seniority. · The players thought to be necessary to carry out the McClernand ruse were Brigadier General W. T. Sherman; Captain William McMichael; and soon-to-be Major General Charles F. Smith. [The Shell Game, or McClernand ruse, involved General Smith being assigned to command of Pittsburg Landing campground, with assertion that Smith was “temporarily away, sick.” In his absence, W. T. Sherman was designated as acting-Commander of the Pittsburg Landing campground. From 21 March 1862 John McClernand, promoted to Major General, was senior officer present at Pittsburg Landing, and by rights should have exercised acting-Command.] · It has frequently been claimed that, “It was good that U.S. Grant survived the bad experience at Shiloh, because there was no one competent enough to replace him.” And yet, there was one man; and that man had already replaced General Grant on two occasions. If that competent commander had recovered from a leg injury, he might have been available to act as Grant’s replacement again. Of course, that man was Charles F. Smith.
  5. Ozzy

    Did Grant kill Smith?

    Jim Last I looked, this was a discussion group. Everyone is free to take a position, and argue their case in agreement or disagreement with a claim. And if a claim is "ridiculous," it should be easy to disprove. Ozzy
  6. As we know, U.S. Grant was involved in a number of shadowy operations during the early months of the War of the Rebellion: a supposed pursuit of Missouri Rebels in order to relieve an endangered 16th Illinois Infantry Regiment; the occupation of Paducah Kentucky (asserted by General Grant to have occurred without authorization from Major General Fremont); and the unauthorized visit to Nashville following General Grant’s success at Fort Donelson. Seldom considered is U.S. Grant’s role in facilitating the death of General Charles Ferguson Smith. Don’t think so? Consider this: Until mid-March 1862, Smith was Expedition Leader tasked with breaking Confederate railroads within reach of Savannah Tennessee. But Brigadier General Smith was superseded on 17 March 1862 when Major General Grant arrived at Savannah and took charge of the five divisions then present in the immediate vicinity. And U.S. Grant came face to face with an ailing, bed-ridden Charles Smith, whose leg had suffered serious injury through misadventure in boarding a small boat. It is accepted that General Grant was not a trained physician, and likely had no appreciation for the dire nature of Smith’s condition, for the first day or two after he arrived. However, trained medical officers were on the Staff of both Grant and Smith. And with all reports indicating that “General Smith remained upstairs in his bedroom at the Cherry Mansion” during the entire time General Grant operated from Savannah and Pittsburg Landing, it would be impossible NOT to notice that Charles Smith was failing to improve. General Grant's own Headquarters were at the Cherry Mansion, permitting daily interaction with C.F. Smith. One month after Grant arrived at Savannah, Major General Henry Halleck completed his own journey from St. Louis; and he immediately took notice of Smith’s shocking condition. So obvious was the poor state of General Smith’s health, that Halleck arranged for transport north on a steamer, soon as General Smith was well enough to travel. And health professionals were placed on standby to accompany Smith to Philadelphia, soon as possible. But this arrangement for medical evacuation occurred four weeks too late: C.F. Smith never made the trip. [By reason of comparison: On 22 March 1862 Colonel Michael K. Lawler of 18th Illinois Infantry was granted leave by Major General Grant to return home and recuperate from wounds incurred at Fort Donelson. It could be argued that a similar leave could have –SHOULD have -- been arranged by Grant for General Charles F. Smith.] References: Papers of US Grant vol.4 pages 381, 491 IRT Colonel Michael Lawler. Autobiography of Lew Wallace vol.1 page 445 describes the manner in which Brigadier General C.F. Smith injured his leg one March evening in 1862 (believed to be 12 March 1862.) See Emerging Civil War “General Grant loses a Resourceful Subordinate” of 19 FEB 2018. Personal Memoirs of Surgeon John H. Brinton (1914) page 152, 159, 160 in which Surgeon Brinton admits to being called to Savannah Tennessee by General Grant in late April “to see to General Smith, who had been very sick.” Brinton reached the Cherry Mansion early on 25 April, “found General Smith sinking, moribund, unconscious. That afternoon of 25 April 1862, at 4 p.m. he died.” Medical Histories of Union Generals by Dr. Jack Welsh (1996) page 308, indicates C.F. Smith’s injured leg became infected. General Smith “was a cripple, upstairs in the Cherry Mansion” when the Battle of Shiloh took place. He continued to sink, and died 25 April 1862. His body was removed to Philadelphia for burial at Laurel Hill Cemetery.
  7. It has been a while since our last quiz, so what follows are thirteen questions related to Benjamin Prentiss, Brigadier General in command of Sixth Division of U.S. Grant's Army of West Tennessee at the eruption of the Battle of Shiloh: 1. On 17 AUG 1861 B.M. Prentiss and U.S. Grant had their first dispute in regard to seniority. Which man of the two was the senior union officer on that date? 2. On 2 SEP 1861 B.M. Prentiss and U.S. Grant had their second seniority dispute. After learning details of BGen Grant’s claim, BGen Prentiss: · Offered to put the matter of seniority before an unbiased panel of officers; · Offered to resign; · Was placed under arrest by BGen Grant; · Reported to MGen Fremont at St. Louis; · All of the above. 3. BGen Prentiss likely reported to Savannah Tennessee at the end of March 1862. Who is most likely to have made Prentiss aware that, “Nothing is to be done to bring on a General Engagement.” 4. Prior to reporting to Major General Grant, Colonel David Moore had operated in the District of Northern Missouri, commanded by BGen Prentiss (True or False.) 5. On the afternoon of Saturday 5 April 1862 Major James Powell of the 25th Missouri Infantry became aware of “unknown horsemen just south of the ground being used by BGen Prentiss to conduct an inspection of the Sixth Division.” In response to concerns about the identity of these horsemen, Prentiss ONLY sent a force under command of Colonel David Moore to investigate (True or False.) 6. After midnight, as April 5th gave way to Sunday, April 6th, Major Powell operated under orders to, “Advance south with a force and capture a Rebel cavalryman; bring that captured man back to camp for interrogation.” The officer who approved Major Powell’s operation was: · Colonel Peabody, commanding 1st Brigade; · LtCol Van Horn, commanding 25th Missouri Infantry; · Colonel Moore, acting Division Duty Officer; · BGen Prentiss, commanding Sixth Division. 7. Upon Major Powell making contact with the enemy, half of Colonel Moore’s 21st Missouri Infantry Regiment was ordered forward to support Major Powell. The officer who ordered Colonel Moore forward was: · Colonel Peabody, commanding 1st Brigade; · Colonel Moore, exercising his own initiative; · Colonel Madison Miller, commanding 2nd Brigade; · BGen Prentiss, commanding Sixth Division. 8. Upon Colonel Moore making contact with an overwhelming enemy force, Moore sent back a request for “the rest of the 21st Missouri be sent forward to his support.” The messenger sent by Colonel Moore reported to: · Colonel Peabody, commanding 1st Brigade; · Colonel Madison Miller, commanding 2nd Brigade; · Major General Grant, commanding Army of West Tennessee; · BGen Prentiss, commanding Sixth Division. 9. Not long after the remainder of the 21st Missouri was sent forward, the artillery belonging to Munch and Hickenlooper were ordered forward. The officer who ordered Munch and Hickenlooper forward was: · Captain Andrew Hickenlooper, acting on his own initiative; · Captain Emil Munch, acting on his own initiative; · Colonel Peabody, commanding 1st Brigade; · BGen Prentiss, commanding Sixth Division. 10. Shortly before 9 a.m. on Sunday 6 April 1862 the Sixth Division fell back until meeting BGen Stephen Hurlbut’s Fourth Division. BGen Prentiss rallied perhaps 500 men and placed them (along with guns belonging to the 1st Minnesota Light Artillery and 5th Independent Ohio Battery) to the right (west) of Hurlbut’s Division. Soon, the Second Division appeared and placed its infantry on Prentiss’s right (with all of the Second Division artillery sited behind the line of infantry.) It was this situation that MGen Grant encountered when he visited Prentiss for the first time on Sunday morning (True or False.) 11. At this first (and possibly ONLY) face-to-face meeting between Grant and Prentiss on Sunday 6 April 1862 MGen Grant ordered BGen Prentiss to “Hold your position at all hazards” (True or False.) 12. In BGen Prentiss’s Shiloh Report, submitted November 1862, he makes no mention of either Brigadier General WHL Wallace or BGen Stephen Hurlbut (True or False.) 13. Of the following Brigadier Generals present at Battle of Shiloh, indicate their relative seniority to each other: · BGen W. T. Sherman · BGen Stephen A. Hurlbut · BGen B. M. Prentiss · BGen WHL Wallace.
  8. A number of Historians have attempted, over the years, to define the Civil War partnership of U.S. Grant and William Tecumseh Sherman; and identify "what it was that made that partnership successful." General Oliver O. Howard, USMA Class of 1854, came to know the two leaders after he was transferred to the West following his participation at Gettysburg; he first made their acquaintance during the Campaign for Chattanooga in October 1863. This is General Howard's observation: References: http://penelope.uchicago.edu/Thayer/E/Gazetteer/Places/America/United_States/Army/USMA/Cullums_Register/1634*.html General O.O. Howard bio https://archive.org/details/autobiographyofo01inhowa/page/n7 Autobiography of General Oliver O. Howard (pages 474 - 475).
  9. Following the Battle of Shiloh, and the service of the 14th Wisconsin with Buell's Army of the Ohio on Day Two, the 14th Wisconsin Infantry was tasked with provost marshal duties, and remained at Pittsburg Landing while Henry Halleck led his Army of the Mississippi south towards Corinth. After the Occupation of Corinth end of May 1862, and the pursuit by Major General Pope of Beauregard's Army withdrawing to the south, the 14th Wisconsin helped process the thousands of Confederate prisoners sent north by Pope for transport to Northern POW camps. In addition, the men of the 14th Wisconsin were among the first to learn that "Major General Pope estimated the remaining Rebel Army under Beauregard to number only 30,000 men." [This figure was wildly inaccurate, and led leaders in Washington, and General Halleck, to believe the Rebel Army in the West was disintegrating before their very eyes. And this "Success" led to Pope and Halleck being called East for "Important duties in Washington." ] Reported in OR 10 part one and two, the above details are further verified by letters written by Private James K. Newton, 14th Wisconsin, Company F and Private Newton's letters are contained in A Wisconsin Boy in Dixie: Civil War Letters of James K. Newton (first published 1961 and edited by Stephen Ambrose.) James Newton's letters detail involvement of the 14th Wisconsin at Shiloh; the two months of provost duty at Pittsburg Landing; and involvement with the Vicksburg Campaign. References: https://ir.uiowa.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?referer=https://www.google.com.au/&httpsredir=1&article=11025&context=annals-of-iowa https://books.google.com.au/books?id=Rihx0ZU10RoC&pg=PA185&lpg=PA185&dq=abraham+john+logan+vicksburg+mine&source=bl&ots=lvFv9lctsX&sig=ACfU3U33shApGD5jy43VOTylDhzazIctag&hl=en&sa=X&ved=2ahUKEwi896Cqt_LhAhWKWX0KHS_5B384ChDoATAAegQIBxAB#v=onepage&q=Savannah&f=false A Wisconsin Boy in Dixie (limited access at Google Books)
  10. Portrait Monthly was a product of the New York Illustrated News, and seemed a fitting gift for "the Civil War fan who has everything." Beginning in June 1863, the Portrait Monthly presented a selection of images of significant Civil War personalities, North and South, and included a brief biography for each. About two hundred individuals eventually made it into the publication, which ceased with the ending of the Civil War. And although the monthly images were selected randomly, and presented in no particular order, the comprehensive INDEX on pages 191 - 192 allows easy reference to every man and woman included: https://archive.org/details/portraitmonthlyo00newy/page/192 Index of Portrait Monthly. Thought you might enjoy this more than a dancing bird... Happy Birthday, Mona! All the best Ozzy
  11. Ozzy

    Bohemian Brigade

    In further consideration of Bohemians... Always happy to admit when I am wrong (well, maybe not happy, but I admit my mistakes, anyway.) In the case of Bohemians, and the use of the term in relation to the Intelligentsia who frequented Pfaff's Cave, I stumbled upon an early use of "Bohemian" while searching for information about the Wide Awake Movement. In the Chicago Press & Tribune of 6 APR 1860 on page 2 col.5 is a comprehensive description of Pfaff's Cave, and the patrons of that place... a full year before Civil War erupted: https://chroniclingamerica.loc.gov/lccn/sn82014511/1860-04-06/ed-1/seq-2/#date1=1860&sort=date&rows=20&words=Awakes&searchType=basic&sequence=0&index=12&state=Illinois&date2=1860&proxtext=Awakes&y=18&x=13&dateFilterType=yearRange&page=2 Amazing what can be found, when you're not looking Ozzy
  12. Mona Excellent question... because the above letters, detailing the movement of Van Dorn and Price from Arkansas (ultimately for service at Corinth) are to be found in Appendix at back of My Cave Life in Vicksburg, which was published in New York City in 1864. With the Civil War still in progress, I suspect that author Mary Ann Loughborough attempted to "shield" people and places from unnecessary scrutiny. For me, it was a surprise to find details of Price and Van Dorn in Memphis... in a book about Vicksburg. http://www.gutenberg.org/ebooks/35700?msg=welcome_stranger My Cave Life in Vicksburg [at Project Gutenberg] Cheers Ozzy
  13. Ozzy

    Ex Post Facto

    Another witness to the Story of Grant and Prentiss was Orville Hickman Browning, career politician and lawyer from Illinois, involved in the State Legislature, and a lifelong friend of Abraham Lincoln (beginning with their shared experience during the Black Hawk War of 1831.) And, Mr. Browning kept a diary (some entries): 14 APR 1861 (Sunday, at Quincy Illinois) Learned that Fort Sumter had been captured by the traitors. 15 APR Received conflicting stories of the events at Fort Sumter. 22 APR Took the train to Springfield, and reached that place just after midnight. Found cars on the track filled with soldiers, under command of Colonel Benjamin Prentiss, about to start for Cairo. A scheme had been set on foot, by which traitors in Southern Illinois (the area was called Egypt) would act in confederacy with other traitors in Missouri and Tennessee to seize Cairo, cut off all of the State south of the Ohio & Mississippi R.R. and [establish a new State and join it to the confederacy.] To prevent the execution of so diabolical a plot, it was deemed advisable to anticipate them in the occupation of Cairo, and it is now in possession of 1200 of our troops, under command of Col. Ben Prentiss. [State militia Brigadier General Richard Kellogg Swift, under orders issued 21 APR 1861 by Governor Yates, rushed a force of 500 men and artillery south and took possession of Cairo. He then turned over command of Cairo to Colonel B. M. Prentiss, and BGen R. K. Swift returned to Chicago.] 23 APR (at Springfield) Visited Camp Yates in company with Marshall and Oglesby. 24 APR (Wednesday at Springfield) busied himself with affairs at the State House. And on 25 April 1861 a Special Military Bill (giving Governor Yates extraordinary powers during the current crisis) was debated. While the debate continued, Judge [Stephen A. Douglas] arrived and met with me; and we acted in concert to smooth out the Military Bill [which was passed into Law.] That night (25 APR) Judge Douglass made a speech in the Hall of the House declaring himself ready to stand by the Government to the uttermost extremity in putting down treason. 7 June Meeting of the bar this morning in Federal Court Room, Springfield, in regard to Judge Stephen A. Douglass' death (on 3 June 1861). [Orville Browning will subsequently be selected to fill the vacancy as Senator from Illinois, with effect from 26 June 1861.] 2 July Orville Browning, appointed as Senator from Illinois, arrived Washington, D.C. to participate in the Summer session of Congress. 6 July Met with President Lincoln at the White House. 11 July Met General John C. Fremont in Nicolay's room (Fremont had just returned from Europe, where he had undertaken major contracts purchasing arms and ammunition on behalf of the United States Government. Fremont had been in Europe since April.) 19 July Went to the White House to meet with the President. Found a number of others already there, discussing war matters. 21 July (Sunday) A great fight is going on today at Manassas Junction... At supper we received news that we had "forced the enemy back." 22 July News everywhere of the disasters at Bull Run yesterday... 25 July Discussion centers on Appointments of Generals for the War. Senator Browning intercedes on Benjamin Prentiss' behalf. 27 July Pope and Hurlbut already being appointed Brigadier Generals, we thought we would be entitled to seven more. I was for Prentiss, McClernand, Payne, Richardson, Palmer, Grant and Stokes. 28 July Entire Sunday spent in deliberations on proposed Brigadier Generals. The Democrats withheld votes from Prentiss and Palmer in order to give preference to Grant and McClernand. 29 July Met with President Lincoln and explained how the selection of Brigadier Generals had been carried out. President Lincoln told me he would only appoint three [from the list] at present: Prentiss, McClernand and Payne. 9 AUG Got order from the Department to Governor Yates for General McClernand. And went to Surgeon General to see about Hospital for Quincy [and Senator Browning departed later that day for home in Illinois, arriving 10 pm on August 15th.] 21 AUG Senator Browning took it upon himself to go to St. Louis and "see General Fremont about making a military post of Quincy." 26 AUG Following a constructive, but non-committal discussion with General Fremont, Senator Browning returned to Quincy. 3 SEP After learning of serious attacks on the Hannibal & St. Joseph R.R., Senator Browning decides to return to St. Louis to discuss current affairs with General Fremont in person. Travels by rail via Springfield, then to Mississippi River across from St. Louis. By September 5th Senator Browning is in St. Louis. 6 SEP General Prentiss arrived here (last night) on account of his difficulty with General Grant. At 1 pm I went with Prentiss, Governor Wood, Sam Holmes and Boyle to see General Fremont. Prentiss' difficulty was satisfactorily adjusted. Fremont does not censure him, but will reinstate him in Command... [And on this very day, Brigadier General Ulysses S. Grant is taking possession of Paducah...] For those wanting to read more: https://archive.org/details/diaryoforvillehi20brow/page/498 Diary of Orville Browning.
  14. Since the April 1862 Letter from Mrs. Loughborough seems to have sparked some interest, here is another one, written a few days later by the same author: Memphis, April. Dear J——: Again I write you from the Gayoso House, which still teems with Missourians, and many ladies—some few from St. Louis. General P——’s parlor is filled with ladies from morning until night. I have been told that on one occasion some ladies, who were the reverse of beautiful, were coming in to see him, when he turned to one of his staff officers, and told him that it was his duty to assist him—that here was an opportunity: he must kiss these ladies for him; but the officer was politely deaf until too late. It is astonishing to see how ladies do flock to see the old general; and all kiss him, as a matter of course. I rode out to the camp of the Missourians with M——, a few mornings since. It is pleasantly situated near the bank of the river. The men seem to be in good spirits; although moving them across the Mississippi has been an unpopular act. The poor fellows are being taken out to Corinth as fast as transportation can be furnished them. The compliment is paid them of being placed in the most dangerous position; for we daily expect an attack from the Federal forces on Corinth. Would you like to see those you love complimented in this way? You can form no idea of the love and devotion shown by the Missouri troops for their general. I happened to be standing near a window at the end of the hall, last evening, as some regiments passed by the Gayoso on their way out to the depot, bound for Corinth. General P—— stood out on the veranda as they passed by, and shouts and cheers for the old general and Missouri rent the air. General J—— T—— called on me this morning, and amused me much with some of his adventures in Missouri last winter; among others, he told us of his dash into the little town of Commerce for food. His men were ordered to take a certain amount, lay down the money, and leave. As he sat on a small horse, waiting for them, out came the “heroine of Commerce,” as he called the lady. I have forgotten her name; yet, I think it was O’Sullivan. She walked up to the general, shook her clenched hand in his face, and told him he was a robber and a scoundrel. Her husband pulled her by the arm and tried to make her desist; but she was deaf to his entreaties, standing part of the time on one side of the little horse, and part of the time on the other; first, shaking her clenched hand at him, and then standing, with arms folded, calling him all manner of names. Some of the officers wished General T—— to have her confined to her own house until his departure; but he laughed, and said: “No; let her alone.” She still continued hovering around him, threatening and talking. He said: “Oh! Mrs. O’Sullivan, you are a modest woman—a very modest woman. Madam, don’t you think your house stands in need of you?” Powerless fell the irony: wherever he went, he was followed by the persistent Mrs. O’Sullivan; stop where he would, Mrs. O’Sullivan was by his side, much to the amusement of his followers; go where he would, up rose Mrs. O’Sullivan unexpectedly at corners—red-faced and bitter—always in the same belligerent, defiant state. A steamboat was seen coming down the river. General T—— ordered his men to hide behind a woodpile until it came up, expecting to get supplies from it. When they thought themselves disposed out of sight, General T—— raised his eyes, and behold! some little distance up the river, stood the inevitable Mrs. O’Sullivan, violently gesticulating to the boat, and crying, “Turn, turn! J—— T—— is here;” at the same time waving her apron and sun bonnet, in quite a frantic manner. The boat turned indeed; and although the scheme failed, behind the woodpile sat General T——, chagrined at the failure, yet laughing most heartily at the attitude and mal-à-propos appearance of Mrs. O’Sullivan. The hotel is crowded with military men: many wounded at the late battle of Shiloh, going around with arms in slings; others supported by crutches. The ladies are seemingly having a very gay time: the halls are filled with promenaders, and the parlors with gay young couples, music, and laughter. Yet, a sudden surprise has come to all: New Orleans has fallen—an unexpected blow to most of the Southern officers. I cannot but think, as I see all the life and bustle around me, of the different scenes a week or two hence, when the fearful battle of Corinth will have taken place. How many that are now happy and full of life, looking forward with confidence to the laurels that may be won, before the struggle is over will be silent forever in death! or, worse, perhaps lamed and maimed for life! General Beauregard’s works are said to be fine; yet, the Federal approaches are said to be greatly superior. My husband goes to-morrow to Corinth; and I will go to O——, Miss., to await the result of what all seem to think will be a most bloody struggle. I will write on reaching O——; until then, farewell.
  15. As we know, after his defeat at Pea Ridge, Arkansas (also known as Elkhorn Tavern) Major General Earl Van Dorn of the Trans-Mississippi was requested to support the forces of General Albert Sidney Johnston in Tennessee… but there was no apparent urgency in the request. Van Dorn arrived at Memphis about 8 April 1862 and stopped at The Gayoso House. Also in Memphis was Mrs. Mary Ann Webster Loughborough, whose husband James, was a Captain on the Staff of Brigadier General Cockrell. Mary Webster of New York married James Loughborough in Kentucky a few years earlier; then the couple moved west and established themselves in St. Louis, Missouri (and subsequently gravitated towards the Rebel cause.) In early April 1862 Mrs. Loughborough wrote the following letter to a friend, revealing the presence of notable Confederates in Memphis: Gayoso House, Memphis, April, 1862. My dear J——: I am just in from dinner; and you would be amused to see the different faces—I might as well say the different appetites; for the Army of Missouri and Arkansas have been undergoing rigorous fasts of late; and the little episode of the battle of Elkhorn and the consequent privations have helped not a little the gaunt appearance of these military characters. All eat, eat rapidly; from General V—— D—— down to the smallest lieutenant, whose manner of playing the epicure over the different dishes ordered, is a study. The confidential consultations with the waiter over them, together with the knowing unconsciousness of bestowing his small change, almost convinces me that he is a brigadier-general, or a colonel, at least. You see streaming in constantly this tide of human beings, to eat, stare at the ladies, talk, and order much wine in the excitement of military anecdotes; for you must understand that a civilian is a “rara avis” amid the brilliant uniforms of the dining room. Yet, amid all this mass and huge crowd, the majority are polished gentlemen, who have evidently seen much of the world, and who are men of purpose and character. General V—— D—— and staff sit not far from me—looked at rather jealously by the Missourians, as ranking and commanding them over their favorite general. Yet, he always treats the old general with the utmost consideration and courtesy. On the other side sits General P——, with his kind, benevolent face. The poor old gentleman finds at the table his lightest reserves become his heaviest forces: nearly all his staff are about him. And, as I sit half amused at the expression of some faces, and thinking deeply of the mute, yet determined impress of character on others, two gentlemen come in—one in plain citizen’s clothing, with heavy black beard and high forehead—with stooping gait and hands behind him. I am told he is Governor J——, of Missouri. His face puzzles me—it is thoughtful and singular. By his side, with tall, lithe, slender figure, fully erect, walks General J—— T——. You will scarcely think it possible that this is the so-frequently talked of J—— T——. I thought him an ordinary man, did not you? Yet, this is anything but an ordinary man. The keen dark eye sweeps the room as he enters, taking us all in at a glance—a quick, daring, decisive, resolute face. I can make nothing more out of him. Yet, there is more of thought and intellect than you see at first. He is dressed in full uniform, with sword and sash, and has quite a military air. There are many Saint Louisians here; you see them scattered around the tables quite plentifully. General C—— is among the number. He sits at some distance, and looks quite worn and sad. You know—do you not?—that he is the father of young Churchill Clark, who was killed at Elkhorn. Have I ever told you his history? It is this: He graduated at West Point in the commencement of the war; and knowing and having a great admiration for General P——, he joined him at once: he was put in command of some artillery; and showing himself a youth of courage and ability—for he was only twenty years old—his command was increased. Throughout the constant trials and sufferings of the campaign, he showed himself equal in courage, daring, and judgment, to many older heads. He was particularly beloved by General P——. At Elkhorn, as ever, his battery sustained itself with coolness and bravery. As the general rode by, he said some cheering words to young Clark, who took off his cap and waved it, saying, “General, we will hold our own,” or words to that effect, when a ball sped from the enemy, and crashed in the young, ardent brain as he spoke. I have been told that the general was affected to tears. He knelt by his side, vainly seeking for some trace of the strong, young life, but the pulses were stilled forever; and Churchill Clark lay a stiffened corpse in the long, wet grass at Elkhorn. And so his father sits silent and alone, and all respect the grief that none can assuage. In a few days we leave. The gentlemen all go to Corinth, where a battle, in all probability, will take place before long. Fort Pillow can hardly hold out, under the daily bombardment that we hear from the gunboats; and if it falls, Memphis, on taking leave of the Confederate officers, will usher in the Federal to quarters in the Gayoso. Adieu.
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