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Ozzy

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Ozzy last won the day on March 21

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About Ozzy

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    Reynella, South Australia
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    Writer
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    Family history research, car restoration, travel...
    Welcome to my SDG page: the image at top is of Dubuque's Governor's Greys, which became Company 'I' of First Iowa Vol. Inf. Regt. (Uniform worn Battle of Wilson's Creek, 1861.)
    My book, Falling through the Hornet's Nest' (Martin Samuels) is now available at Amazon.com as ebook. My next book (focus on Henry Halleck 1861-62) entitled 'Shiloh was a Sham: the untold story of the iconic Civil War Battle,' will be available April 2016, on Amazon as e-book.

    I can be contacted at bzmax03@chariot.net.au by any SDG member so inclined.

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  1. Ozzy

    Jane got a Gun

    While trying to decide whether to watch a movie or go to bed the other night, I switched on the TV and scanned what was on offer: Jane got a Gun was advertised as "a Western, set after the Civil War" and it starred Natalie Portman, Joel Edgerton and Ewan McGregor. Since I'd never seen it (never heard of it) I figured I would give it a go... After ten or fifteen minutes, I decided this story (about a bounty hunter in New Mexico who is hired by his former fiance (before he enlisted in the Union Army)... Now, she is married to someone else; and she wants her former fiance to avenge the shooting of the man she married... This movie was not for me. As I took control of the remote, the two characters played by McGregor and Edgerton (John Bishop and Dan Frost) commenced a conversation: John: "You see this revolver? It's one of my prized possessions... got it from General Beauregard for helping him at Shiloh." Dan just glances at the displayed weapon without making remark. John: "You know, it's funny," continues John. "They told us later that Shiloh meant, "Place of Peace.'" Dan, shaking his head: "Warn't nothin' peaceful about Shiloh..." I put down the remote; decided to give this movie another few minutes... But although there were more Civil War references, there was nothing more about Shiloh. Still... although I rate this as "half-a-star" (out of five -- one of the worst films ever made) it stands as "The most recent feature film to contain some reference to Shiloh." https://www.imdb.com/title/tt2140037/?ref_=tt_ch "Jane got a Gun" (2015) entry at imdb. Ozzy
  2. Ozzy

    55th TN Infantry, Company H

    Terrie Welcome to Shiloh Discussion Group. In our "Resources" section (bottom of Main Page) we had compiled a list of resources for use in tracking details of Tennessee CSA ancestors, under "Ancestor Veterans (CSA)" -- unfortunately, many of the links utilized have broken since that list was created, so will attempt to refresh the information, here: First of all, be aware there were TWO Tennessee 55th Infantry Regiments: Brown's and McKoin's. Brown's 55th Tennessee fought at Island No.10 and was mostly captured there on 8 April 1862, while McKoin's 55th Tennessee fought at Shiloh, part of SAM Wood's 3rd Brigade, of William J. Hardee's Third Army Corps. Also part of SAM Wood's Brigade was the 44th Tennessee Infantry (Coleman A. McDaniel) -- this is important because after Battle of Shiloh, the 55th Infantry and 44th Infantry were combined into the "44th Consolidated Tennessee Infantry" (sometimes called "44th Tennessee Infantry, Second Organization") and search for ancestor records after Shiloh must be done through the 44th Tennessee. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shiloh_Confederate_order_of_battle Shiloh -- Confederate Order of Battle (scroll down to SAM Wood in 3rd Army Corps) https://ehistory.osu.edu/books/official-records/010/0607 Colonel McDaniel, 44th Tennessee report No.221 page 607 - 609 for Battle of Shiloh. The 55th Tennessee did not submit an after-action report; Colonel McDaniel's report makes brief, but important mention of 55th Tennessee at Shiloh. In OR 10 part one [link provided.] https://www.familysearch.org/wiki/en/55th_Regiment,_Tennessee_Infantry_(McKoin's) The free site, provided by Mormon Church, contains valuable records. If someone has previously contributed records belonging to your ancestor, they are easy to access at familysearch.org (otherwise "fold3" will need to be used, which is a subscription site associated with ancestry.com). Try familysearch.org first. https://sos.tn.gov/products/tsla/bibliography-tennessee-civil-war-unit-histories-tennessee-state-library-and-archives-0 The Tennessee Secretary of State maintains an extensive collection of Tennessee Civil War records. This link is to the Bibliography of those records. https://sos.tn.gov/tsla/civil-war Tennessee Secretary of State site, offering access to maps, battle histories, etc (Civil War). http://www.tennessee-scv.org/4455/44lind.html History of the 44th Tennessee Infantry. http://www.tennessee-scv.org/4455/55titcw.html History of McKoin's 55th Tennessee Infantry. Tennesseans in the Civil War hathitrust -- place the search term at left into Google or Bing or Yahoo and hit [search]. http://www.tngenweb.org/mcnairy/tngw.html All Tennessee counties have tngenweb sites that allow searching for ancestor veterans (some counties do it better than others). But, if you know which county your ancestor was from, try the tngenweb site maintained by that county (usually, Military History is kept in Special Projects or Civil War or...) http://tennessee-scv.org/4455/TN55.txt Roster of the 44th Consolidated Tennessee Infantry http://www.petersburgbreakthrough.org/44thTNnotes.htm 44th Tennessee Infantry Descendants Association Hopefully, this is enough to get you started. Let us know how your search progresses. Good Luck!
  3. Annie Wittenmyer, nurse and agent for the Iowa State Sanitary Commission, arrived at Savannah Tennessee aboard a Hospital steamer at 4 a.m. on 7 April 1862. There, the medical staff and passengers aboard the steamboat were informed, "Grant has been driven to the river; he and his Army are likely to be captured today." Hearing that news, "our Hospital boat raced for Pittsburg Landing..." They arrived before sunrise, and while the overnight Navy bombardment (one shell every 15 minutes) continued, and immediately set to work: feeding wounded men, dressing their wounds, providing them with water... The entire story runs pages 28 - 35 and is one of many Shiloh memories to be found in Under the Guns: A Woman's Reminiscences of the Civil War (1895) by Annie Wittenmyer. Other interesting stories to be discovered: pages 43 - 47 "U.S. Grant and the Issue of Passes" page 128 "A Painful Accident" [Governor Harvey of Wisconsin] page 164 "Searching for the Dead" [a Mother from Pennsylvania comes to Pittsburg Landing, looking for the grave of her son...] Also included are memories of the Siege of Vicksburg (and other campaigns). And there are tales of corruption and malpractice (involving Army surgeons and Sanitary Commission stores, and how they got away with their criminal behavior); and details of Generals (such as Grant and McPherson and Logan) not to be found anywhere else. https://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=osu.32435008944803;view=1up;seq=1 Annie Wittenmyer's Under the Guns.
  4. Ozzy

    Mrs. General John Logan

    Sometimes you find details where you least expect them... and this autobiography is a real gem: Reminiscences of a Soldier's Wife by Mary Logan https://archive.org/details/reminiscencesas02logagoog/page/n8 The view from Cairo of "what was taking place, just across the Ohio River" (...and I was going to just list the "important bits" relevant to us at Shiloh Discussion Group): pp. 100 - 116 Muster and drill in Southern Illinois (31st Illinois Infantry, Colonel Logan -- Member of Congress) pp. 116 - 118 Battle of Belmont (as experienced by those waiting for the Troop Transports to return) page 120 The 31st Illinois meets General Grant pp. 121 - 122 Fort Henry pp. 122 - 126 Fort Donelson (where Colonel Logan is wounded. His wife, Mary, describes her efforts to retrieve him from the battlefield.) pp. 127 - 129 The move up the Tennessee River to Pittsburg Landing (reflects a civilian's understanding of what took place) page 129 Major General Halleck in command. page 130 General Halleck is called to Washington (and General Grant resumes command...) But, the most important bits are "what came afterwards..." pp. 130 - 131 The relationship of Generals James B. McPherson and John Logan pp. 159 - 161 The replacement of Army of the Tennessee Commander John Logan with O. O. Howard pp. 162 - 168 Incredible exchange of letters after the war between William T. Sherman and John Logan, reflecting on "interpersonal relationships" involving Sherman, Logan, O. O. Howard, George H. Thomas and Ulysses S. Grant. pp. 170 - 172 Another illuminating exchange between Grenville Dodge and John Logan (regarding Dodge, Logan, WT Sherman and George Thomas). If you want to understand "why Union commanders related to each other the way they did," and "why friction seemed to appear from nowhere" (and how those interpersonal relationships impacted actual "fighting of the War"), then this is a good place to start... "Harmony" Ozzy
  5. Ozzy

    Library of Congress, online

    http://www.loc.gov/rr/askalib/ "Ask a Librarian, online" The Library of Congress, the World's premier library service, offers online access to their collection that rivals "showing up in person." Click on the above link, fill in the form (with as much detail as possible, based on personal search of LOC Catalogue), and submit the query... In my own recent experience, I desired a Letter addressed to one of our favourite Generals, John A. Logan, from the Showman, P.T. Barnum. Believed to be stored with the "John Alexander Logan Family Papers" there was no "master listing" of items held; and the Letter (if it was held) could have been in any of the boxes, 1 - 33... although I believed it was most likely in Box 1, or Box 6, or Box 33. Not having any unrealistic expectation (but just wanting to know if the Letter was held by Library of Congress) I enabled the above link... completed the Query Form (including my concern that the Letter may be in any of the three boxes)... and hit, Submit Query. That was late last night... Today, when I awoke, I found a reply from Library of Congress not only verifying, "Yes, we hold that Letter," but with a facsimile of the complete Letter -- all four pages -- from P.T. Barnum. If you have not tried the Online service at Library of Congress recently, you will be in for a pleasant surprise... Ozzy
  6. As we know, Van Dorn's Army (recently defeated at Pea Ridge, Arkansas) was "required" to come East, and join with the Army of the Mississippi at Corinth. Very little arrived in time for Shiloh; the following work describes the belated movement east, and participation in the Siege of Corinth, from the Rebel viewpoint: A Southern Record: History of the Third Regiment, Louisiana Infantry by (Major) William H. Tunnard and published at Baton Rouge (1866). Beginning page 161, details of the march via Little Rock, to steamers bound for Memphis, and riding the Memphis & Charleston, arriving at Corinth on May 1st 1862. The reception received, immediate involvement in skirmishing... coupled with news (received May 6th) of the Surrender of New Orleans, followed by terms of enlistment expiring (but the new Conscript Act interfered with plans...) [The 3rd Louisiana and Colonel Hebert later played a significant role at Vicksburg (3rd Louisiana Redan). And there are details "why Southern men admired Ben McCulloch" -- killed at Battle of Pea Ridge, Arkansas in March 1862.] https://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=uc2.ark:/13960/t8kd1r57h;view=1up;seq=9 History of the 3rd Louisiana Infantry by W. H. Tunnard (1866).
  7. Ozzy

    Julia Dent Grant

    The General's Wife: the Life of Mrs. Ulysses S. Grant, published 1959 by Ishbel Ross; Dodd, Meade & Co., New York is another collection of letters and memories, centered on Julia Dent Grant (as she observed the enormity of History taking place around her -- and had her own "brushes with fate and notoriety.") This work is valuable, to compare with other references, and extend general knowledge of General Grant and his wife. Available online: https://archive.org/details/generalswifethel010870mbp/page/n5
  8. Joe Thanks for this post. Every piece helps complete the puzzle; and the real story of Shiloh is slowly, steadily coming together... Your Busbey Report is logical, plausible, and makes for clear understanding [except for the final paragraph, indicating statement of someone named "Ross," and what appears to be "missing details," a sentence or two edited out, resulting in time compression. The Tigress is at Crump's; then it is at Pittsburg; yet the conversation involving Ross (and his knowledge of Baxter) seems to occur before Tigress arrived at Pittsburg Landing.] Or, is the real claim being made: Baxter received his orders aboard Tigress... before Tigress arrived at Pittsburg? One (or two) of the remaining pieces to the puzzle: who acted as messenger, sent by WHL Wallace from Pittsburg Landing aboard John Warner ? (Was the John Raine also sent? And, if so, who rode the John Raine ?) I have only ever seen the messenger refered to as "a lieutenant." Never a name. But, I have suspicions regarding who acted as messenger... and I am hopeful that when the Diary of Israel P. Rumsey is released to the public, the identity of that man will be disclosed. All the best Ozzy
  9. Ozzy

    Shiloh Masters Thesis (2)

    Another day, another master’s thesis… and this one, submitted by William J. McCaffrey in 1970 is revealing, compelling, shocking. Although 140 pages long, this work grips the student of Battle of Shiloh by the throat, and does not let go. It examines “whether or not there was surprise at Pittsburg Landing on April 6th 1862”…and just who was surprised. On page three, a list of six items is posted: flawed conditions of readiness, at least one of which must be present to allow a Defender to get surprised by an Attacker. William McCaffrey devotes the remainder of his thesis to providing evidence of the presence of many of those six conditions of “un-readiness” at Pittsburg Landing in the days, hours and minutes leading up to General Albert Sidney Johnston’s attack. This report contains maps, an excellent list of references, and is constructed by a man concerned about “the lessons of History, and how to avoid the mistakes of History.” Have a read, and decide for yourself how close William McCaffrey, West Point Class of 1958, comes to the mark. Masters Thesis by William J. McCaffrey (1970) “Shiloh: a case study in Surprise” submitted to U.S. Army Command and General Staff College at Fort Leavenworth, KS and on file with National Technical Information Service: https://apps.dtic.mil/dtic/tr/fulltext/u2/733391.pdf
  10. Ozzy

    Shiloh Day Trip 02/02/2019

    Great photo... and of benefit to learn that the significant action in the Plum Orchard has finally been recognized... 🙂
  11. Ozzy

    Miss Carroll's idea?

    Ever since its stunning success, there has been debate: Who was responsible for concocting the scheme to move the Union Army up the Tennessee River? General U.S. Grant said it was "his idea, initially labelled as 'ridiculous' when presented to Henry Halleck in early January 1862." In his Memoirs, page 220, William Tecumseh Sherman claims: "I was with Henry Halleck when he came up with the idea to advance up the Tennessee River." But, what if they both are wrong; what if the real developer and promoter of the move up the Tennessee River, bypassing and turning Fort Columbus... was Anna Ella Carroll ? Have a read of the attached book, A Military Genius: the Life of Anna Ella Carroll, (especially Chapter 4 -- Goes to St. Louis: inception of the plan of the Tennessee Campaign) and tell me what you think: http://www.gutenberg.org/files/21909/21909-h/21909-h.htm#page031 Cheers Ozzy
  12. Ozzy

    Crump wharf

    On the above list of passengers aboard the Tigress, another name has been added: Douglas Putnam Born in Ohio in 1838, Douglas Putnam was trained as clerk (financial industry) and departed his home near Marietta before 1860 to settle in Galena Illinois (where he became friends with William Rowley, who joined the 45th Illinois Infantry late in 1861). Shortly after outbreak of war, Putnam offered his services as “financial agent” and became part of financial agency “I. N. Cook,” handling large sums and making regular disbursement of pay to soldiers in the Volunteer Army [reference to I. N. Cook found in Papers of US Grant vol.5 pages 139 - 140.] Putnam (a civilian contractor with no rank) was sent to Cairo about August 1861, assigned the duty of Paymaster. It was while serving at Cairo through that Winter that Douglas Putnam became associated with Richard Oglesby, John McClernand, Flag-Officer Andrew Foote, and Brigadier General Ulysses S. Grant. Subsequent to General Grant’s victory at Fort Donelson, and likely due the increased number of Staff accorded the new Major General, Grant remembered Douglas Putnam, and brought him into his “military family” as Paymaster. When General Grant was released from arrest in mid-March 1862, Paymaster Putnam was installed in his own office aboard Tigress, and made the voyage to Savannah Tennessee, arriving on the 17th. During the remainder of March and early April, Douglas Putnam was present at numerous “pay parades” and disbursed funds to the soldiers camped at Pittsburg Landing. But, his pay activities were put on hold when fighting erupted Sunday, April 6th. And with the conclusion of the Battle of Shiloh on April 7th, Putnam made his way north aboard a steamer bound for Cincinnati. Back in Ohio, he became part of the drive to get up the 92nd Ohio Volunteer Infantry. Needing a character witness, Douglas Putnam requested one from Major General Grant… who gladly provided that document to Governor David Tod of Ohio. Putnam joined the 92nd OVI as “First Lieutenant and Adjutant,” but was soon elevated to Major. And at the Battle of Chickamauga, Lieutenant Colonel Putnam was wounded (and wounded again on Missionary Ridge.) Douglas Putnam survived the war, returned briefly to Ohio, and then settled in Kentucky, where he became a Director of the Ashland Coal and Iron Railway Company for the rest of his life. References: “Reminiscences of the Battle of Shiloh” by LtCol Douglas Putnam, Jr. (1889) found in pages 197 – 211 of MOLLUS (Ohio Commandery) vol.3 (1890). https://archive.org/details/sketcheswarhist00commgoog/page/n201 https://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=coo1.ark:/13960/t15m6t13x;view=1up;seq=1093 Biography of Jay Cooke, financier of the Union war effort (begins page 1037 of Ohio in the War: her statesmen, her generals… by Whitelaw Reid (1868). http://www.cincinnaticwrt.org/data/ccwrt_history/talks_text/moffat_soldiers_pay.html Soldiers Pay [during the Civil War] by William C. Moffatt (1965) [presented to Civil War Round Table of Cincinnati January 1965.] https://www.kcchronicle.com/2014/03/11/a-look-into-a-civil-war-strongbox/a8nooaz/ Examination of 200-pound Paymasters Box (11 MAR 2014) by Brenda Schory. Papers of US Grant vol.5 pages 139 – 140: MGen Grant to Governor Tod. https://www.findagrave.com/memorial/93324038/douglas-putnam Paymaster Douglas Putnam.
  13. There are two pieces of communication (one constructed on April 5th, and the other generated on April 6th 1862) both of which are important in their own way to explain “how the Battle of Shiloh unfolded.” And both documents have "issues." The first item is a telegram constructed at St. Louis and sent under signature of Major General Henry Halleck on Saturday 5 April 1862. Fitting Halleck’s style of issuing concise orders, the two-line telegram begins by listing the recently promoted Major Generals by order of seniority: Buell, Pope, McClernand, C.F. Smith, Wallace. The inclusion of John Pope is significant because Major General Pope would soon join the Advance on Corinth. And the place held by John McClernand (ahead of Charles Ferguson Smith) may have come as a surprise to Major General Ulysses S. Grant… but no matter, as the late formal notice of MGen McClernand’s seniority did not provide opportunity to ‘Provide him with benefits of seniority to which he was entitled” i.e., the Shell Game played by Generals Grant, Smith, Sherman and Captain McMichael had worked perfectly; and now, at this late hour, McClernand would be notified in due course of his official seniority (likely after U.S. Grant established his HQ at Pittsburg Landing… When McClernand operating as “acting commander” had odds somewhere between Slim and None.) The second line of Halleck’s telegram reads: “You will act in concert [with General Buell] but he will exercise his separate command, unless the enemy should attack you. In that case you are authorized to take the general command.” The wording of this second line, giving Grant emergency authority over Buell in case of attack by Rebels, has significant implications. And yet, when the conduct of Day Two at Shiloh is closely examined, there is nothing more significant in regard to General Grant exercising command, than, “You take the left; and I’ll take the right” during the advance of Monday morning (coordination at its most minimal.) Which leads one to ponder: When did General Grant receive this telegram from Henry Halleck? If it was sent by telegraph from St. Louis late morning of April 5th, it likely arrived at the Fort Henry telegraph office before noon. If a steamer picked up the mail and telegraph traffic at 1 p.m., (perhaps the Minnehaha) then the 5 April telegram would arrive about midnight… plenty of time for Grant to read and understand the contents. But, at 2 p.m. on Sunday, April 6th, where was this telegram from Halleck? The cool indifference shared between Grant and Buell (with Buell simply left at the waterfront, while Grant headed away west to take care of business) does not represent “someone in possession of an important telegram, giving them extraordinary authority.” Instead, it seems to indicate General Grant has not yet received the telegram; or he has seen it… but left it behind at the Cherry Mansion. The second communication was constructed on Sunday morning by Captain A.S. Baxter, the AQM for Grant’s Army, as he rode the steamer Tigress north to relay Grant’s orders (likely relayed from Grant, through Captain John Rawlins, to Baxter.) Finding the orders complex and difficult to remember in detail, Captain Algernon Baxter scanned the floor of the Ladies’ Cabin, found a soiled bit of paper, and wrote the orders (as he best remembered them) onto that scrap (later recorded as “containing a heel mark and tobacco stain.”) Upon arrival at Crump’s Landing, Captain Baxter found Lieutenant Ross – Aide to Major General Wallace – waiting. The two rode away west and reported to MGen Wallace at, or just before 11:30 a.m. Captain Baxter presented General Wallace with the impromptu order; Wallace asked why it was not signed. Baxter explained he “created the memorandum, himself, out of fear he would “forget some detail” unless he did so.” General Wallace passed the “written order” to his Staff, and asked Baxter about the current state of affairs [Baxter left Pittsburg Landing between 10 and 10:30.] Captain Baxter replied, “We are driving them.” General Wallace was satisfied; Wallace’s staff officers were satisfied. The order was accepted, and Captain Baxter took his departure within three minutes of arrival at Stony Lonesome. Captain Frederick Kneffler, Lew Wallace’s AAG, wound up with the “written order.” He tucked it under his sword belt… and subsequently lost it. Ever since, the loss of that written order, or memorandum, has been significant because it would provide tangible proof of what Major General Wallace had been ordered to do. And, it is not difficult to envision the memorandum, jiggling loose from Captain Kneffler’s sword belt, and blowing away… to be beaten by heavy rain that night; ultimately washed into the Snake River, then Tennessee River… lost forever. But, paper was in short supply, always. Letters by soldiers were often written making use of every millimetre of space, including margins and borders. As likely as the memorandum being lost forever, it was just as likely noticed, clinging to trampled stubble, by some soldier… one of thousands following behind Kneffler on his horse. This soldier would have snatched it up, and possibly sent it as souvenir with his own letter, a few days later. My point: there is every chance that the Lew Wallace memorandum from Baxter still exists, contained in a box of Civil War letters and paraphernalia, and the owners have no idea what they have in their possession. But, with all the other material being revealed on a weekly basis, one day this piece of history might just surprise everyone, and re-emerge.
  14. Ozzy

    Baseball, anyone?

    Mona Thanks for the notice that Civil War-era ball will be played at Shiloh NMP this Memorial Day Weekend. Upon review of YouTube and google, it appears this style of "bat and ball" game returned to Pittsburg Landing in 2015 (although, just as occurred in 1862, no one bothered taking film imagery.) Hopefully, in 2019, someone will bring along a camera and snap a few non-lethal shots... In the meantime, here are a couple video links (to illustrate what is possible...) https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=uHVS3GGEaW4 A Brief History of Baseball posted 18 May 2014 by Paul Benoit. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=D8AwvFkz6cM A Friendly Game, 1861-style posted 17 July 2015 by The Day. All the best Ozzy
  15. Sometimes "interesting information" hides in plain sight... When Manassas Belle posted the above information a few years ago, one particular and curious telegram escaped notice: the 3 APR 1862 telegram (9 p.m.) of Don Carlos Buell to Major General Henry Halleck, sent from the telegraph line that General Buell was stringing from Nashville while he marched the Army of the Ohio towards Savannah. The concerning bit of information is reference to Brigadier General Samuel D. Sturgis (who had spent his Civil War in Missouri, involved at Battle of Wilson's Creek (and given credit for safely withdrawing Union forces north after the death of General Lyon) and also involved in the failed relief of Lexington (which resulted in capture of Colonel Everett Peabody and the 13th Missouri Infantry.) In December of 1861, MGen Halleck (who replaced Fremont in November) sent Sturgis on a "Tour of Inspection, focusing on Federal Army posts along the Ohio and Mississippi Rivers" [according to S.D. Sturgis, USMA Class of 1846 entry on Cullum's Register.] And on March 5th 1862 General Sturgis found himself at Nashville (where he remained, "attached" to Buell's Department of the Ohio up through the time the telegram was sent on April 3rd.) Reading Buell's telegram, three likely scenarios present IRT Brigadier General Sturgis: Buell was dissatisfied with his performance, so left Sturgis behind at Nashville; Buell used the reference to Sturgis as opportunity to press for assignment of Brigadier General David S. Stanley USMA Class of 1852 (then with Pope at New Madrid) to Army of the Ohio, should that officer become available; Sturgis had been sent to Nashville by Henry Halleck, to act as liaison between Buell's Department and Halleck's Department. Why is the role of Samuel Sturgis important? It is known that Civil War telegraph communications were periodically intercepted, and so the most secure communication of sensitive information remained the courier, with that information delivered verbally, and not written down. Next best delivery system: "coded telegrams" (which if intercepted, the enemy could not read.) Given the nature of Halleck's operations (his trust of John Pope, and sharing of confidences with Don Carlos Buell, while NOT trusting Ulysses S. Grant) I believe it likely that General Sturgis operated as go-between, facilitating coded messages to pass between Generals Halleck and Buell, and allowing Major General Grant to be kept "out of the loop." I believe it also likely that "a special code" shared by only Halleck and Buell (delivered by Sturgis to Nashville) allowed passage of coded messages through Cairo, without fear of interception by friends of Grant or Sherman. As of the time of writing, the above is purely speculation. In any event, Brigadier General Sturgis departed Nashville on 10 April 1862. Reference: http://penelope.uchicago.edu/Thayer/E/Gazetteer/Places/America/United_States/Army/USMA/Cullums_Register/1303*.html
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