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Ozzy

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  1. Ozzy

    Lew Wallace's march

    [from chroniclingamerica.loc.gov] https://chroniclingamerica.loc.gov/lccn/sn84031490/1862-04-07/ed-1/seq-2/ Chicago Daily Tribune of Monday 7 APR 1862, page 2. The above article is... confusing. Here are the issues: The advance guard from General Nelson's Division reached Savannah on Wednesday 2 APR 1862. "A gentleman who arrived at New Albany on Tuesday..." [ Tuesday, April 1st... but how does he know of arrival of BGen Nelson's advance?] "A gentleman who arrived... by the steamer John Raine." [This must have been the trip to Louisville, delivering cotton... that departed 30 MAR ?] "General Buell's Army commenced crossing the river..." [Duck River, instead of Tennessee River ?] "A battle is imminent." [On April 1st ? ] The restrictions on reporting military operations (without authorization) were strictly enforced in April 1862. And there is so much information contained in the article that someone reporting on 1 APR 1862 should not have known... Which makes me wonder: is this a "coded report," announcing "something big was happening up the Tennessee River," without resorting to "You Won't Believe It!!!" -- "A Battle is Underway!!!" -- "On the Tennessee River!!" (No other details...) If so, then everything that was known at 7:30 a.m. on Sunday 6 April [to someone at Pittsburg Landing, overhearing the sound of musketry and booming artillery, who then sped away downriver aboard the John Raine] is contained in this report. ["Buell crossing the Tennessee River Sunday morning" was anticipated by General Grant... perhaps a Staff Officer relayed that information as the Tigress passed the John Raine? And mention of "New Albany" ...merely an attempt at obfuscation, perhaps an effort to conceal the destination, and identity, of the reporter? ] The article is genuine, but it's meaning is a mystery... Ozzy
  2. It's not often you find an eyewitness account of "that march" conducted by Lew Wallace on Sunday, April 6th... Johann Stuber migrated with his parents and siblings from Switzerland in 1854, and settled in Cincinnati. In October 1861, the 23 year old, trained as a typesetter, joined the 58th Ohio Volunteer Infantry, Company A, and was soon promoted to Corporal. First seeing action at Fort Donelson, the 58th Ohio remained with Lew Wallace's Third Division; and when that division was sent to Crump's Landing in March 1862, the 2nd Brigade (Colonel John Thayer) comprising the 58th OVI, 68th OVI, 23rd Indiana and 1st Nebraska, established its brigade camp in vicinity of Stony Lonesome, midway between Adamsville and Crump's Landing. Corporal Stuber's report for April 6th 1862: "In the morning we heard from the vicinity of Pittsburg Landing a heavy cannonade, which soon developed into an unbroken roar, which persisted as the morning wore on. From the Landing (where our provisions were kept), there came a "rabbit-footed messenger," who had arrived by boat. He loudly reported that he was a member of the 57th Ohio, and that upon being aroused from his sleep by the noise of battle, raced for the Landing and took a boat to Crump's, to deliver the news: but not for us to hurry to help, but to flee for our lives downriver. Knowing that our Army had 50,000 troops at Pittsburg, confirmed by Captain Markgraff during his recent visit, we refused to believe this refugee's report. "About midday, we received the orders preparatory to marching: ammunition was distributed, and we packed necessities and rations for ten days. After about an hour, we began to march south with our heavy knapsacks (instead of taking the boats, as we believed we would). It was dreadfully hot, and the soldiers of the regiments ahead of us threw away their blankets and excess clothing during the march, so that a carpet of clothing lined both sides of the road. We had hiked about seven miles, and were about one mile from our destination, when a report came that we were going the wrong way. We were turned around, and told to take another road -- which caused us to go double the distance in order to arrive where we were wanted. "It was during twilight that my regiment reached a dark woods, at the edge of a swamp, and were told to wait. And while we waited, we were not allowed to do anything -- no pipes or cigars -- because we were told the Rebels could be on the other side of the swamp, only 500 yards away. Finally, we passed through that swamp and reaching the other side, were told we had arrived. We continued marching, and the gunboats were firing, supposedly in the direction of the Rebels. We had gone about a mile when we entered a Union camp, totally abandoned by its owners, but with the tents filled with wounded, who all seemed to be moaning and crying from their wounds. We continued past this camp, and entered a dark woods, where we halted and attempted to rest beneath the boughs of the trees. But the gunboats continued firing; and it started to rain... a thunderstorm, no less. As bad as it was for us, we could not help feeling pity for the wounded, caught in the open with no shelter. We could hear them, away out there, somewhere, in the darkness, calling for help, and for water. And we could not help them. The pickets were not far from us; and the enemy's pickets were not far from our pickets. During the night, firing occurred between the lines of pickets, so heavy at times it seemed the Battle had resumed..." [Above record translated and edited; entry from "The Diary of Johann Stuber" for 6 April 1862.] Ozzy Reference: http://archive.org/stream/meintagebuchuber00stub#page/22/mode/2up
  3. Ozzy

    Failure to Report

    Sometimes, facts hide in plain sight... While re-reading the history of events that took place from just after midnight (in the wee hours of April 6th 1862) it occurred to me: General Prentiss in his Shiloh report records sending notice of the attack in progress to Commanders of the 2nd Division and 4th Division, and to Colonel Stuart; and requests for assistance from the 2nd and 4th Divisions. But, Prentiss does not indicate that he informed the Acting Campground Commander (W. T. Sherman) of the Confederate attack. Why not? In General Sherman's Shiloh report, he admits to requesting reinforcement from McClernand (1st Division) and to "alerting Hurlbut to the need to reinforce Prentiss" ...and to General Prentiss, "alerting him that the enemy was in our front, in force." As Prentiss's Sixth Division was obviously under attack for some time before Sherman's own 5th Division felt the sting, this "sending of alert to Prentiss" smacks of mild rebuke, "for not informing the Campground Commander -- acting, of what was taking place." The question: "Why did not Prentiss notify Sherman?"
  4. Ozzy

    Failure to Report

    Good question, Mona... because there were two instances (one of which was likely made known to him by William Tecumseh Sherman.) The first was stated above: due to Grant's questionable performance (visiting Nashville without Halleck's permission) MGen Grant was removed from "command in the field," replaced by Brigadier General C.F. Smith (who was junior in seniority to Generals Sherman, McClernand and Hurlbut on 5 MAR 1862.) Smith was put in charge of the Tennessee River Expedition. The second instance was likely brought to his attention by Brigadier General Sherman -- who in January 1862 was 7th most senior Brigadier in the entire Volunteer Army, even ranking U.S. Grant and Don Carlos Buell. That "Shell Game" took place at Benton Barracks, shortly after MGen Halleck took command of the Department of the Missouri in November 1861, and involved William T. Sherman (recuperating from nervous breakdown), Stephen Hurlbut (needing to dry out from alcohol over-use) and William K. Strong (who was a businessman requiring more experience in leading military men.) During the three months these three generals served together at Benton Barracks, any one of the three was claimed to be "Commander" at Benton Barracks, to hide the real reason three brigadier generals were there, at a Camp of Instruction. References: OR 52 page 198 -- "General Sherman's mental and physical state is so broken that, for the present, he is unfit for duty" [General Halleck communication to General McClellan on 2 DEC 1861.] OR 8 page 514 -- "General Sherman was placed in command of Benton Barracks." OR 52 page 227 -- Special Orders No.28 of 21 MAR 1862: "Brigadier General Strong is hereby placed in command of the District of Cairo." [Until this assignment, General Strong had been "present" at Benton Barracks, since December 1861. Assigned to command of Benton Barracks by General Halleck, Strong reported that "when he entered the Commanding Officer's Quarters, where he assumed he was to lodge himself, he found General Sherman already there."] https://www.loc.gov/resource/mal.1264500/?sp=3 Letter of 24 OCT 1861 from William K. Strong to President Lincoln, detailing his work with General Fremont. SDG topic "They also serve, who stand and wait..." post of 20 FEB 2018 -- details of W.K. Strong service. https://www.amazon.com/General-William-K-Strong-Autograph/dp/B00JBNNK04 Letter of 12 NOV 1861 in which General Strong claims he is in command of Benton Barracks. OR 3 pages 156 - 157, 475 -- In August/ September 1861, Brigadier General Hurlbut got caught up in a shambles of on operation along the line of the Hannibal & St. Joseph Railroad in Northern Missouri, which resulted in him being placed under arrest and removed from command. Sent home to Illinois by General Fremont to await Court Martial, Hurlbut was still languishing in Illinois when General Halleck took command in Missouri in November. Halleck dropped the charges against Hurlbut, and at the suggestion of William T. Sherman (a close pre-war friend of Henry Halleck and Stephen Hurlbut) General Hurlbut was "assigned to Benton Barracks." Stephen A. Hurlbut: a Politician Turned General by Jeffrey Norman Lash, page 90. [Hurlbut arrived Benton Barracks on 1 JAN 1862.] OR 8 page 591 -- Henry Halleck in communication of 5 MAR 1862 to BGen Sherman refers to C.F. Smith as "Major General Smith."
  5. Ozzy

    Lew Wallace's march

    Joe There is record of John Raine involved in movement of captured pork from Nichols Landing a few days before Battle of Shiloh. And there is evidence of John Raine involved with the Vicksburg Campaign of 1863. Aside from Logbook records, there is almost nothing about the steamer after morning of April 6th 1862 (although she appears frequently at Cairo, Evansville and Louisville during 1862... so likely reported to one of those Ohio River ports after leaving the Tennessee River.) Ozzy N.B. In Papers of US Grant vol.4 page 448, General Grant reports on 30 MAR 1862, "40 bales of cotton sent from Savannah to Louisville aboard the steamer John Raine." After dropping off the cotton, the John Raine likely returned to Savannah/ Pittsburg Landing (unknown cargo) and was at Pittsburg Landing when firing erupted morning of Sunday 6 APR 1862. [I have found no record of troops arriving at Pittsburg Landing aboard John Raine in late March/ early April, so the cargo was likely foodstuffs or animal feed.] https://archive.org/details/fiftyyearsonmiss01goul/page/368 Fifty Years on the Mississippi by Elmerson Gould (1889) page 368 lists John Raine in 1858 as belonging to a venture known as The Lightning Line, which included other fast steamers such as Fanny Bullitt, Diana, Baltic and A. McGill, which ran between Louisville and New Orleans. At that time, the Captain of John Raine was W. Underwood.
  6. Ozzy

    Failure to Report

    Joe The relative seniority of officers before, during and after Shiloh is presented in “Colonel C.F. Smith and Seniority,” in order to provide support to the following answers to your above questions: 1) There was always an issue with relative seniority, prior to 21 MAR 1862 because BGen Smith (who had been put in command of the Tennessee River Expedition by MGen Halleck) was junior to every other Brigadier General taking part in the expedition, except Lew Wallace. This technicality could be “rectified” by referring concerns to William Tecumseh Sherman – the senior officer present – who appeared happy to operate under Charles Ferguson Smith. 2) After 21 MAR there was a problem that arose, after McClernand – Smith – Lew Wallace were promoted to Major General (in the order listed.) John McClernand, with his political connections, likely was aware of the relative seniority attached to his own promotion. And, whether you like him or hate him, MGen McClernand was within his right to seek redress to “being senior officer, forced to serve beneath a junior.” There was no way US Grant was going to allow John McClernand temporary command in Grant’s absence; and the official Army List had not reached Grant (so he was able to claim ignorance of McClernand’s claim, until that official pecking order, which he requested from Halleck, was delivered to him.) 3) Meanwhile, MGen Grant created an elaborate façade (which I refer to as “Shell Game”) with the following components: - MGen Smith assigned to Pittsburg Landing - Captain William McMichael, Smith’s AAG, assigned to Pittsburg Landing - MGen Grant accords MGen Smith status as Campground commander - Due to injury, MGen Smith is temporarily away. During his absence, Smith has designated BGen Sherman to act in his stead as Campground commander. - In Smith’s absence, Captain McMichael acts as “place holder,” indicating intention for MGen Smith to “return” to Pittsburg Landing (and meanwhile, conducts affairs as if Smith is actually present) - My belief is that General Grant witnessed Henry Halleck do a similar thing (assigning a Brigadier General with less seniority) to command an expedition composed of officers more senior than the commander… and likely assumed, “if Halleck can do it, why not anyone else?” But, Grant took his subterfuge to an additional level, by installing Jacob Lauman as acting commander of the 2nd Division (in Smith’s absence.) And this version of the Shell Game came unstuck, because a more senior Colonel was part of the 2nd Division (John McArthur) who, likely, was as possessive and aware of his own seniority as Grant and McClernand were of theirs. Even after the promotions to Brigadier General were made (effective 21 March) McArthur was listed as senior to Lauman. BGen McArthur then got caught up in Grant’s Purge (see “Officers Under Arrest”) and this arrest of McArthur was followed up by orders sending McArthur to Lew Wallace’s 3rd Division “when for duty,” and WHL Wallace replaced Lauman as acting commander of the 2nd Division. The only consistent component present with the 2nd Division while this subterfuge was taking place: the AAG, William McMichael… acting for Smith, acting for Lauman and acting for WHL Wallace. References: SDG “Colonel C.F. Smith and Seniority” “The Real Story about Nashville” (post of 2 July 2018) “William McMichael” (post of 6 OCT 2018) SDG “Grant and McClernand” SDG “McArthur (part 2)” Papers of US Grant vol.4 pages 428 and 429. Life and Letters of General WHL Wallace page 180 [Letter of 3 APR 1862 in which General Wallace indicates he will remove himself to the 2nd Division tomorrow (April 4th). Provided to illustrate that not only was Jacob Lauman “on the job” commanding a brigade in Hurlbut’s 4th Division for an unbelievably short time prior to Battle of Shiloh, but General WHL Wallace faced a similar experience of, “being thrown into the deep end.” Cheers Ozzy
  7. Despite the mammoth Federal success at Fort Donelson, the war did not come to an end (though some acted as if it had.) General U.S. Grant looked to push the next objective, which appeared to be Nashville. And he requested guidance from St. Louis. In meantime, Clarksville (about fifty miles up the Cumberland River, in the direction of Nashville) was deemed a suitable target: a reconnaissance conducted by U.S. Navy gunboats Conestoga and Cairo on February 18th discovered that Confederate Clarksville was practically a ghost town; the Rebels and most of the citizens had fled. So, General C.F. Smith was dispatched with a suitable force pulled from his Second Division and occupied Clarksville on about February 23rd. Early the next day, U.S. Grant, in company with Surgeon Brinton, , BGen McClernand, Captain Taylor (of Taylor's Battery), Colonel Lauman and Colonel WHL Wallace, departed Fort Donelson aboard steamer W.H.B. for an inspection of Union-occupied Clarksville. But, it does not appear that an inspection took place at Clarksville that day: General Grant caught wind that General William Nelson's Division (which was known to have been promised to assist Grant at Fort Donelson) had arrived at Paducah; reported to General Sherman; and departed Paducah aboard a small fleet on February 23rd, bound for the Cumberland River. The seven steamers, under gunboat escort, continued to the ordered destination of Clarksville (arrival recorded as 8 a.m. February 24th) and General Nelson met with General Smith. At about noon (in accordance with orders relayed from General Grant to General Nelson) General Nelson returned to his steamer, Diana, and in company with six other steamers (led by USS Carondelet) the force proceeded up the Cumberland (with U.S. Grant aboard steamer W.H.B, in company with USS Cairo, well in advance of the fleet.) Bull Nelson arrived at the "open city" of Nashville on February 25th, stepped ashore... and became the first Federal General Officer to enter Nashville following Rebel occupation; (General Buell was just across the river at Edgefield: today's East Nashville); and U.S. Grant appears to have waited aboard the W.H.B., at least, for a little while. Nelson made contact with Buell; and Grant escorted his party from Fort Donelson into Union-occupied Nashville for two days of what can best be described as relaxation and diversion. On February 27th, U.S. Grant met with Don Carlos Buell aboard the W.H.B. and exchanged pleasantries; and then Grant and his party departed Nashville, and arrived back at Fort Donelson late on 28 FEB 1862. Cheers Ozzy References: OR 7 pages 661, 662- 3, 668, 670- 1, 674. OR (Navy) vol.22, pages 315, 587, 616, 617, 625. Memoirs of U.S. Grant page 318. Adam Badeau's Military Career of U.S. Grant, pages 58 - 9. Diary of Jacob Ammen for dates February 23, 24 and 25 (found in OR 7 page 659 - 660. Hoppin's Life of Andrew Hull Foote, pages 230 - 236. Memoirs of Surgeon John Brinton, page 139. Life of General WHL Wallace, pages 166 (Letter of 20 FEB 1862) and page 171 (Letter of 28 FEB 1862).
  8. Ran across the following Shiloh report in the New Orleans Daily Crescent of 30 APR 1862:
  9. Ozzy

    Scott's Louisiana Regiment

    Stan Thanks for having a look, and researching facts behind the First Louisiana Cavalry. A week ago, I had never heard of this unit, commanded by John Sims Scott... and doubted whether the 1st Louisiana Cavalry was present at Shiloh (even Major David W. Reed indicated uncertainty, on page 88 of The Battle of Shiloh and Organizations Engaged.) However, the more research is done, the more evidence is found. To summarize what I have found, to date: 1st Louisiana Cavalry Spending the early months of the war in Virginia with General Magruder, John Sims Scott of East Feliciana Parish, Louisiana returned home with authority to recruit a cavalry regiment. In short order, the First Louisiana Cavalry (also known as Scott’s Regiment, or Scott’s Cavalry, or “The Louisiana Cavalry”) was organized, effective 11 SEP 1861, and was based at Baton Rouge. Called to Bowling Green, Kentucky in the Winter of 1861/2, the cavalry unit was initially prevented from engaging in demanding duties, due to an outbreak of measles. Then, having survived that epidemic, Scott’s Louisiana Cavalry rode west to take part in the Fort Donelson defense… only to have General Buckner assign the unit to the opposite bank of the Cumberland River (some said “to prevent Union artillery from occupying that position,” while others believed, “it was to make sure the measles did not get spread.”) Whatever the reason, Colonel Scott’s Cavalry was outside, across the river from Fort Donelson when that stronghold was surrendered on 16 FEB; and the unit returned east, made its way to Nashville, and became a part of General A.S. Johnston’s redeploy south towards Huntsville. On March 9th a battalion of Scott’s Cavalry took part in a skirmish against elements of the 4th Ohio Cavalry (belonging to Ormsby Mitchel’s Division, Buell’s Army of the Ohio) at Granny White’s Pike. After holding that Federal force at bay, the 1st Louisiana Cavalry moved south to Columbia Tennessee (and was likely responsible for burning bridges in vicinity, which slowed the advance of General Buell, delaying his join with General Grant at Savannah.) Racing away from Columbia, the Louisiana Cavalry appears to have ridden south (and probably took up the line of the Memphis & Charleston Railroad, heading west) and next shows up for the Battle of Shiloh (as indicated in the Letter of 13 April published in the New Orleans Daily Crescent of 30 APR 1862.) Major David W. Reed in Battle of Shiloh and the Organizations Engaged, page 88, also indicates the “Louisiana Cavalry” was somehow involved with the Battle (listed as “unattached,” but likely part of Breckinridge’s Reserve Corps, acting in cooperation with Forrest’s Cavalry against the Union left.) After Shiloh, Scott’s Louisiana Cavalry took station at Burnsville; but by the end of April, the unit was heading east… and on May 1st harassed General Ormsby Mitchel (the man responsible for cutting the M & C R.R.) in vicinity of Huntsville. For the remainder of the war, the 1st Louisiana Cavalry went from strength to strength: sometimes operating closely with Nathan Bedford Forrest; and at other times, operating as a Brigade of Cavalry, under Colonel John Scott. Significant campaigns include Bragg’s Kentucky Invasion (operating with Kirby Smith); Pegram’s Kentucky Raid; Tullahoma Campaign; Chickamagua; Chattanooga. Recalled to Louisiana early in 1864, Scott’s Cavalry spent the entire year harassing Union troops across the State; then rode into Mississippi to disrupt Union operation of the Mobile & Ohio Railroad. Active mostly in Louisiana for the remaining months of the war, the 1st Louisiana Cavalry was surrendered as part of General Richard Taylor’s Army (to Union General Canby) on May 5th 1865. John Simms Scott survived the war… but passed away in 1872. Perhaps his untimely death contributed to the omission of the 1st Louisiana Cavalry from Confederate Order of Battle for the Battle of Shiloh? ---------------------------------------------------------------------- References: OR 10 Pages 7 – 8; and 878 D.W. Reed’s Battle of Shiloh and the Organizations Engaged, page 88. First Louisiana Cavalry at <tcc230.tripod.com> New Orleans Daily Crescent of 30 APR 1862 [In addition, an image of Colonel John S. Scott, 1st Louisiana Cavalry, is to be found on Pinterest.] Scott's Louisiana Cavalry.docx
  10. It appears another Flag of Truce was sent by the Confederates to Union commanders at Pittsburg Landing, a week after Battle of Shiloh: [from Chronicling America The Semi-Weekly Shreveport News of 22 APR 1862 page 1.]
  11. Ozzy

    Failure to Report

    Joe Thanks for having a look at this topic. In response, I have created a new topic, "Colonel C.F. Smith and Seniority," which lays the groundwork for actual pecking order of General officers during build-up at Pittsburg Landing (and quickly demonstrates the farce of claiming "Smith is senior.") Regards Ozzy
  12. I begin this post with a fact unknown to most Shiloh aficianados: Charles Ferguson Smith, although referred to as "General" Smith, was technically still Colonel Smith through the Fort Henry Campaign. When General Grant learned shortly afterwards that Smith's appointment had been held up in the U.S. Senate, Grant complained to Elihu Washburne (on about 10 FEB 1862) that "Smith must be confirmed, immediately." During the investment of Fort Donelson, C.F. Smith was informed by Major General Halleck (on 14 FEB) that the Senate had finally confirmed him as Brigadier General, with effective date of rank 31 AUG 1861. Why this matters? The frequent, and difficult to predict, promotion of Colonels to BGen, and BGen to Major General during the Civil War -- on both sides -- had potential to upset military planning and execution of those plans in the field (as evidenced during March and April 1862 during the lead-up to events that took place at Pittsburg Landing.) Seniors refused to be commanded by juniors (upheld by Laws of USA and CSA.) And, because Seniority between and among general officers was of some importance, listed below are Union general officers -- with association with Pittsburg Landing -- relative seniority effective on particular dates: April/ May March on Corinth: MGen Halleck -- Grant -- Buell -- Pope -- McClernand -- CF Smith (died 25 APR) -- Lew Wallace -- Ormsby Mitchel -- George Thomas -- WT Sherman -- EOC Ord -- Brigadier General T. W. Sherman (not WT Sherman) -- Hurlbut -- Sturgis -- Wm."Bull" Nelson -- Garfield -- Thos. Davies -- Isaac Quinby -- Oglesby -- John P. Cook -- WHL Wallace (died of wounds 10 APR) -- McArthur -- McCook -- Lauman -- John Logan -- Speed Fry -- Dodge -- Buford -- Ross -- Crittenden -- Hovey -- Veatch Pittsburg Landing on 18 MAR 1862: MGen Grant -- BGen Sherman -- Hurlbut -- Prentiss -- McClernand -- CF Smith -- Lew Wallace (Seniority among selected Colonels on 18 MAR: WHL Wallace -- McArthur -- Lauman) Pittsburg Landing after 21 MAR 1862: MGen Grant -- MGen Buell -- McClernand -- CF Smith -- Lew Wallace -- Brigadier General WT Sherman -- Hurlbut -- Prentiss -- Bull Nelson -- Oglesby -- John P. Cook -- WHL Wallace -- McArthur -- Lauman -- John Logan -- Ross Reference: https://archive.org/details/generalorderswa00deptgoog/page/n8 General Orders of the War Department [Charles F. Smiths late confirmation by the Senate was likely due to unfounded rumours, spread by his personal enemy, Eleazer Paine, detailing "improprieties in Paducah" which Henry Halleck had to personally investigate -- OR 7 page 929 and Teacher of Civil War Generals by Allen H. Mesch, pages 208 - 9. General Grant response to learning that Senate had not yet confirmed Smith as General on 10 FEB 1862 found in General E. A. Paine in Western Kentucky by Dieter Ullrich, et al... page 162, and Papers of US Grant, vol.4, page 188 (and 189).]
  13. When Abraham Lincoln uttered the lines < 'I can't spare this man... He fights' > he may very well have been speaking of Jacob Lauman of Burlington, Iowa. In command of the 3rd Brigade of Hurlbut's 4th Division at the Battle of Shiloh, BGen Lauman demonstrated initiative, tenacity and profound devotion to duty, that caused Stephen Hurlbut to write: 'I saw Jacob Lauman hold the right of my line on Sunday with his small body of gallant men, for three hours. After delivering its fire with great steadiness, the 3rd Brigade charged and drove the enemy 3 or 400 yards...' [OR Serial 10 pp. 204-7] For Lauman, it was continuation of a trend that began at Belmont, Missouri on November 7, 1861, when the 7th Iowa [commanded by Colonel Lauman] found itself in the thick of the action, taking on the role of shock troops. Colonel Dougherty, in charge of the 2nd Brigade (to which the 7th Iowa and 22nd Illinois belonged), wrote, 'Regardless of obstacles, the 2nd Brigade advanced as rapidly as possible, and stayed in line. The enemy obstinately resisted, and a storm of musketry raged along our whole line... The 7th Iowa throughout the battle fought like veterans. Iowa may well feel proud of her sons who fought at Belmont.' [OR 3, pp 272-298] Jacob Lauman had his horse shot from under him; he advanced with his men on foot, and during a 'storm of musketry' took a shot to the leg [the minie ball passed through the thigh, and just missed the bone.] Colonel Lauman was carried from the field, and successfully evacuated aboard a steamboat. His wound was dressed, and he was sent home to Iowa to recuperate. His wound healed sufficiently after a few weeks, and Colonel Lauman rejoined his regiment. But, prior to the Siege of Fort Donelson, Lauman was elevated to command of the 4th Brigade of the 2nd Division (BGen C.F. Smith.) Colonel Lauman accompanied his brigade on the afternoon of February 15th, when under orders of U.S. Grant to 'Take that Fort,' Charles F. Smith advanced his division until Lauman's Brigade (spearheaded by the 2nd Iowa Infantry) broached the outer works... and was only brought to a halt by the setting of the sun (with the conclusion promised on the morrow.) But, there was no resumption of aggressive action: the Confederate commander surrendered before hostilities could resume. Deemed to be 'courageous, aggressive, and bold,' Jacob Lauman was promoted to Brigadier General on March 21st, 1862. Jacob Gartner Lauman was born in Maryland in 1813, but grew up in Pennsylvania. As a young man, he engaged in commercial activities in the Keystone State, but was drawn by the promise of opportunity available in the Territory of Iowa (which had been opened to settlement following the removal-by-treaty of the Sac Fox Indians.) Lauman arrived in Burlington in 1844, and set himself up in business -- JG Lauman & Brother, wholesale and retail providers of groceries, clothing and hardware. And, Jacob became involved in the local militia organization -- the Burlington Grays -- as a Lieutenant. He continued involvement with the militia, and eventually was promoted to Major of the 1st Battalion of Iowa Volunteers... the post he occupied at the time of Fort Sumter. Put to work by Governor Samuel Kirkwood as a recruiter of soldiers, Lauman was commissioned as Colonel in July 1861 and given command of the 7th Iowa Infantry Regiment. After the Battle of Shiloh, Lauman remained with Hurlbut's Division and commanded a brigade during the Crawl to Corinth. He was still with Hurlbut, operating in vicinity of Memphis, when the Confederates attacked Corinth on October 3rd. Sent to reinforce Rosecrans at Corinth, the 4th Division was incorporated into a force under the command of General Edward Ord, and diverted towards Davis Bridge in an effort to block Van Dorn's retreating force. The action of October 5th became known as the Battle of Hatchie Bridge, and although recorded as a Union 'victory,' was not regarded by participants as having been 'correctly fought' (including Jacob Lauman, who may have been too vocal in expressing his interpretation of Ord's leadership.) [Sherman's Memoirs, Vol 1, pp 262-4] and [wikipedia 'Battle of Hatchie's Bridge'] and [The Civil War Siege of Jackson by Jim Woodrick, pages 64-66], Regardless, Lauman was elevated to Division Command by General W.T. Sherman in November 1862; and upon the promotion of Stephen Hurlbut to command of Memphis, BGen Lauman was put in charge of Hurlbut's old 4th Division (soon to become part of General Cadwallader Washburn's 16th Army Corps, at the Siege of Vicksburg. Lauman's Division contributed significantly to the Union success at Vicksburg, which officially ended with the surrender of General Pemberton on July 4th, 1863.) [Memoirs of US Grant, Vol 1, p 456] But, there was still work to be done: General Joseph Johnston's Army had been advancing to the relief of General Pemberton at Vicksburg... but was too late. Johnston was stalled at Jackson, Mississippi, and his force was seen as a threat that had to be neutralized: US Grant put WT Sherman in charge of an expedition to accomplish that mission. Sherman assembled the 15th Army Corps, the 9th A.C. and the 13th A.C. (MGen Ord took charge of the 13th Army Corps upon the removal of John McClernand in June.) Two brigades of Jacob Lauman's Division were assigned detached duty with the 13th A.C. -- and BGen Lauman took charge of that detachment. Sherman's Jackson Expedition commenced on July 9th. By July 11th, the encirclement of Jackson, Mississippi was nearly complete. On the 12th, Lauman's detachment advanced in line with Hovey's Division (on his left) across heavily wooded, undulating ground... until Colonel Pugh, in charge of the 1st Brigade, halted the advance: something about the ground in front did not look right. Lauman came to Pugh, had a discussion, and skirmishers were sent forward. But when the skirmishers drew no significant fire, Lauman ordered Pugh to advance [Crosley p. 375] There is debate whether Lauman was following orders, or acting recklessly. In any event, Pugh's Brigade advanced into a trap, and was cut down by a dozen Confederate guns firing canister, and by lines of Rebel infantry firing from behind protective earthworks. Four hundred men became casualties in a matter of minutes, with almost no loss to the Rebels. Eventually, MGen Ord arrived on the scene, found a distraught Lauman still attempting to retrieve the situation... and ordered Lauman to conduct a muster of his troops. BGen Lauman had no idea how to conduct the numerical assessment while under fire; Ord relieved him of command, and assigned his division to Hovey. And Jacob Lauman was sent away in disgrace to report to MGen U.S. Grant at Vicksburg [OR Serial 38 page 506.] It is evident from their writings that both US Grant and WT Sherman were sympathetic to the plight of Jacob Lauman. But, as Sherman admitted, 'I deem it most important to support Army Corps commanders, so must sustain Ord [over Lauman] for the time being.' [Papers of US Grant vol 9, page 45] Jacob Lauman was sent back to Iowa 'to await orders' that never came. He was given a brevet promotion to Major General at the end of the war. And he continued to suffer from lingering effects of the wound from Belmont... which may have contributed to his death on February 9, 1867. He died in Burlington, and is buried in Aspen Grove Cemetery there. Ozzy References: Papers of US Grant, volume 9, pages 37-45. Annals of Iowa, vol 11, no. 6 (1914) pages 461-5 'General J.G. Lauman Collection.' Annals of Iowa, vol 1, no. 5 (1894) pages 371-381 'Lauman's Charge at Jackson' by Geo. W. Crosley. OR Serials 3, 7, 10 and 38 The Civil War Siege of Jackson, Mississippi by Jim Woodrick (2016) History Press of Charleston, SC wikipedia Memoirs of US Grant Memoirs of William T. Sherman
  14. Ozzy

    Scott's Louisiana Regiment

    Regarding the above excerpt from the New Orleans Daily Crescent, the "additional comment" continuing beyond the bottom of the Louisiana Cavalry article was left attached, to provide tangible evidence of European visitors to the Confederate Capital at Richmond, all intent on celebrating a promised Rebel Victory in the field... somewhere (which would then justify according President Davis's Government with Official Recognition.) The presence of these European observers helped inspire Confederate leaders to "gild the lily," and claim Shiloh as a Victory... and persist with that claim, despite evidence to the contrary, until the argument was made moot... by the Federal Occupation of New Orleans.
  15. Ozzy

    Another Flag of Truce

    Why is the above report of a Flag of Truce on Sunday, April 13th important? Although there is mention of several communications between Halleck and Beauregard taking place during Halleck's March on Corinth (which commenced end of April 1862) I was unaware of any contact made with Grant's Army after General Beauregard (via messenger under Flag of Truce) attempted to arrange for burial of Rebel remains, a day or two after Battle of Shiloh. Also included in the brief article of 15 April: Who the Confederate Flag of Truce sought out (Brigadier General Nelson) Confirmation that Major General Halleck was present. "Captain Richards was blindfolded" to prevent him seeing anything of military value. In addition, the article mentions a skirmish on 13 April 1862 involving Forrest's Cavalry (which would have been conducted by a junior officer, because Colonel Forrest was away having a wound tended.)
  16. Ozzy

    Scott's Louisiana Regiment

    The above article attributed to "S.R." of Scott's Louisiana Regiment holds surprising claims... one of which, "we made a forced march of 90 miles in two days," seems implausible... until it is realized that Colonel John S. Scott's unit was a Regiment of Cavalry. In addition to riding 90 miles, it appears that twelve of those miles were covered during the morning of April 6th. Given the above distances, Scott's Louisiana Regiment of Cavalry was likely on the line of the Memphis & Charleston Railroad, in vicinity of Decatur, Alabama, when orders were received on April 4th 1862 to, "Come west to take part in the fight." Of especial interest: Scott's Louisiana Regiment is not mentioned in the official Shiloh Confederate Order of Battle. Yet, the author of the above article indicates that his cavalry unit was present at the battle, both days. How can that be?
  17. Ozzy

    Odd Interlude

    The above image, to be found on the back page of Harper's Weekly for 26 April 1862, is presented to illustrate the confused state of affairs, perceived in the North in April 1862. With unexpected delight, Northern newspaper readers awoke to news that "Fort Henry is Ours!" followed in quick succession by great news from Fort Donelson (indicated by the Lincoln figure, at left in above image tallying the score), the capture of Clarksville and Nashville, and the Occupation of the Gibraltar of the West (Fort Columbus). So certain that "the Southern Confederacy was running out of steam in the West," anticipation ran high among the Northern civilian leaders, Northern generals (including Halleck and Grant) and the reading public that "the Rebels were on the ropes." It was only a matter of time before things wound up in the West... allowing the focus to shift on Virginia and South Carolina. People became impatient with the slow progress after Pope captured New Madrid in March 1862; and were relieved when news of the pre-ordained Capture of Island No.10 hit the headlines of Northern papers (marked as "Island X" in above image.) But, note what is missing from the above image: any mention of Shiloh... on 26 April 1862. General Beauregard, associated with Battle of Shiloh, was also overall commander of Rebel defences along the Mississippi River (and hence, associated with Loss of Island No.10). Everyone knew that a "great concentration" was taking place near Savannah Tennessee; and everyone knew that the object of that concentration of force was Corinth Mississippi, the important railroad junction, where the outmatched Rebels under Johnston and Beauregard were anticipated (by Northerners) to make a futile Last Stand... but the fight did not take place at Corinth but at a place most people could not find on a map, called Pittsburg Landing. And, although Northern leaders "claimed" Victory, so did Southern leaders. And every day, the casualties reported were even greater -- and more shocking -- than the day before. No two reports from that Battlefield were the same, with one reporting "early captures, and bayoneting in bed of sleeping Union soldiers," another proclaiming that a Union General "got lost within six miles of the battlefield," and yet another reporting that "General Grant was not even with his Army when the battle began." The smell of impropriety and incompetence were so strong, that Northern readers (especially those with family members in Grant's Army) could not come to grips with a Victory that resulted at such great cost. Was it a Victory? The creator of the above image was apparently undecided, on April 26th 1862.
  18. Ozzy

    Odd Interlude

    Jim When I first encountered the above image in Harper's Weekly, it did not seem to make sense to have Beauregard at the "receiving end" of Andrew Foote's deliveries. (How could he be at Island No.10 when he was at Shiloh?) After discovering that PGT Beauregard was responsible for the Confederate defences along the Mississippi River, north of Louisiana... the image not only made sense, but became "clever" in what it was attempting to portray. All the best Ozzy Reference: https://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=hvd.hwajtr;view=1up;seq=769 OR 8 pages 759 - 760, 762 & 772. Van Dorn had control of the Trans-Mississippi (which appears to have included territory west of the Mississippi) while Beauregard headed the Department of the Mississippi (which included the River, and points east) and General Johnston commanded Department No.2 with an undefined boundary between Albert Sidney Johnston's Department and Beauregard's Department (which did not matter, end of March 1862, with the two armies associated with those departments united at Corinth... excluding the defenders of the Mississippi River fortifications.
  19. Ozzy

    Failure to Report

    "[...I was surprised to find another man] in charge of the division assigned to Major General Smith" -- from Shiloh Report of BGen Benjamin Prentiss. The identity of that "other man" has been removed, because in the current context, it does not matter: up until April 6th 1862, General Prentiss believed that Major General Charles F. Smith was in active command of the Second Division. If he was not specifically informed that General Smith was upstairs in the Cherry Mansion, recuperating from an injury to his leg, then he had no way of surmising such was the case (the ruse involving Smith's AAG, Captain McMichael, present at Pittsburg Landing and operating as if his General was there, too) may have worked too well, convincing General Prentiss that the Senior Officer, commanding the Second Division, was present on the campground of Pittsburg Landing. Therefore, when Prentiss informed Smith of what was taking place to his front, it was safe to assume Smith would disseminate that information to all those needing it (Sherman, McClernand, Grant) and make more active use of that information, as the on-scene Commander deemed necessary. The point: not only did the Shell Game (pretending C.F. Smith was senior to McClernand) prevent Major General McClernand from assuming his lawful seniority; and insistent reference to "Smith's Division" likely contributed to confused orders being delivered by Baxter to Lew Wallace... but the belief (by Prentiss) that the senior division commander was present on the field likely resulted in General Prentiss not sending notice to the "accepted acting-commander at Camp Shiloh," William Tecumseh Sherman. Efforts to deceive can have unintended consequences... Ozzy N.B. For those wondering, "What about couriers? Surely a dispatch rider delivering a message to General Smith at the HQ of the Second Division would realize that General Smith was not there." [The likely arrangement: Captain William McMichael took receipt of all communications.]
  20. Ozzy

    Odd Interlude

    I hate to admit it... but I've made another mistake (first dot point in above post.) See link, below: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Z1Dz_mDegZg (There's a bowling alley in Milwaukee where they still set pins by hand.) Humbly Ozzy
  21. Ozzy

    Odd Interlude

    Timing is everything… Additional aspects that make the above image fascinating: · It is likely that most viewers of the image in 2018 had little awareness that 10-pin bowling had developed to such an extent; and that the lanes used and size of ball in 1862 would so closely resemble those in use at Bowling Alleys today. (Pins were still reset by hand, outside major cities, until the 1950s). · The Battle of Shiloh took place 6 & 7 April 1862. And the Campaign for Island No.10 reached its conclusion on 7 & 8 April, with the Navy gunboats (Foote) taking the surrender of the gun emplacements late on April 7th; and the Rebel garrison (Mackall) attempting to escape by fleeing to Tiptonville. But, Major General Pope’s forces (along with two ironclads) had forced their way downstream of Island No.10 and crossed the Mississippi River, to approach the Confederate garrison from the rear. And, when it was realized what were General Mackall’s intentions, Pope raced his men to Tiptonville, and cut off the escape route, forcing surrender of over 7000 Rebel defenders on the afternoon of April 8th. · Timing is everything… Foote sent a communication late on April 7th (via dispatch boat to end of the telegraph line at Cairo) informing Halleck of surrender of the guns at Island No.10 and a second communication was sent by Foote morning of April 8th. Meanwhile, General Pope had extended the telegraph line south to New Madrid, and when he reported the capture of over 7000 men at 7 p.m. on April 8th, that telegram reached Henry Halleck within minutes. And Halleck relayed the great news to Washington, and began making plans for Pope to join Grant’s operation against Corinth (without yet realizing that a major battle had been fought at Pittsburg Landing.) · In the above image, the Lincoln figure at left gazes at the Scoreboard, hand holding the chalk, uncertain how to score The Battle of Shiloh. That quandary would be resolved a few days after the 26 April 1862 edition of Harper’s Weekly hit the streets, with the arrival of welcome news from New Orleans (bumping depressing news from Shiloh off the front page of Northern newspapers.)
  22. Ozzy

    Naval Achievements

    Achievements of the Navy (on the Tennessee River, from the fall of Fort Henry) It is a struggle to come to grips with this topic, because “The Navy” was not technically part of the war effort on the inland waters until October 1862. So, up until that time (including the contribution made in support of Grant’s Army at Pittsburg Landing) the Timberclads and Ironclads (and from late April 1862, the Tinclads) were part of the Union Army, operated by competent officers and enlisted men of the U.S. Navy… except in the case of Ellet’s Rams, but that’s another story. Beginning with the initial raid up the Tennessee River, commenced immediately upon the fall of Fort Henry, the accomplishments of patrols and multi-vessel raids are many and varied: · Denied Rebel use of MC & L R.R. bridge at Danville · Capture of nearly complete ironclad, Eastport · Shock & awe of Confederate citizens along the Tennessee, as far as Florence, AL · Destroyed (or encouraged self-destruction) of almost every Rebel steamer on the Lower Tennessee River… except two, hidden until mid-April 1862 · Found important pockets of Union support (most notably at Savannah, Tennessee) · Intelligence collection · Second raid found M & C R.R. near Iuka too strongly defended · Strong Union support at Savannah confirmed · Confiscated massive amount of Rebel flour at Clifton, Tennessee · Moved controversial figure, Fielding Hurst, to safety at Cairo · Intelligence collection · Third raid recruited crew members at Savannah for Timberclad service · “Recruitment Picnic” broken up at Savannah (and leaders of that picnic – J.B. Kendrick of Captain Fitzgerald’s Company of Tennessee Volunteers and Clay Kendrick of Colonel Crew’s Regiment – taken into custody and removed to Cairo · Engagement at Pittsburg Landing on March 1st drives Rebels away from the bluff. Members of Company C and Company K of 32nd Illinois Infantry – acting in capacity of “sharp shooters” – participate as landing party. (The 32nd Illinois later takes part at Shiloh, attached to Hurlbut’s Fourth Division.) · As component of General C.F. Smith’s Expedition, the Lexington and Tyler provided support and protection to the transport fleet · Whenever discovered, ferry vessels were destroyed · Support to Sherman’s raids (attempted cut of M & C R.R.) · Reconnaissance and intelligence collection · In company with USS Cairo on April 1st, the gunboats conducted a reconnaissance of creeks as far upstream as Chickasaw Bluff (likely an attempt to uncover the hiding place of two Rebel steamers) · During the Battle of Shiloh, gunfire support (directed by General Hurlbut) commences just before 3 p.m. and intensifies until night halts the action of April 6th · Overnight, the Timberclads lob explosive shells into Rebel-held portions of Shiloh battlefield, every 15 minutes, until 5 a.m. Can you think of any other Naval contributions to add to the list? [Most information found in OR (Navy) vol.22 and Chicago Daily Tribune.]
  23. Stan Thanks for providing the link to Tim Smith's excellent article, detailing the use of the Cincinnati-built Timberclads, contracted by Commander John Rodgers, on Phelp's Raid up the Tennessee River, immediately upon the fall of Fort Henry. Just a couple of points to add: the Samuel Orr acted as both floating Hospital and ammunition transport; and its cargo of "submarine batteries" (also termed "torpedoes") was destroyed before they could be put into place elsewhere -- perhaps the approach to Fort Donelson? (The Hospital patients were removed before Samuel Orr blew up.) The capture of the MC & L Railroad bridge at Danville, along with capture of ironclad Eastport (subsequently converted to U.S. Navy use) and destruction of most of the powered watercraft on the Lower Tennessee River -- along with destruction of Samuel Orr -- were the highlights of Phelp's Raid. The low points, as mentioned in the article: the failure to destroy Bear Creek Bridge (perhaps too ambitious of a goal) and the escape of two Confederate steamers, hidden away in a creek near Florence (and feared by Union commanders to be converted into gunboats.) Subsequent raids (including General C.F. Smith's Expedition) focused on destruction of Bear Creek Bridge; and on tracking down those two missing steamers (their existence and escape mentioned in Southern newspapers.) But, it wasn't until after the Battle of Shiloh that Bear Creek Bridge was destroyed, and the two spectral steamers tracked down (one of these steamers became the first Tinclad, although it was officially registered as Tinclad No.21.) Cheers Ozzy
  24. On April 9th 1862, a much-anticipated report detailing events at the recent Battle of Shiloh began making its way to the newspapers of the North. Written by Major General Grant, the concise description of that bloody engagement is below presented, as it appeared in the Coudersport, Pennsylvania weekly, The Potter Journal of Wednesday 23 APR 1862. Filling most of two printed columns (on page 2, beginning column 4) and titled, "Battle at Pittsburg: Official Report of Gen'l Grant," this published account is as close as Ulysses S. Grant ever got to an Official Report. Click on the below image, and zoom in... [provided by Chronicling America, a project of the Library of Congress.] If the expanded image is unclear, try this direct link: https://chroniclingamerica.loc.gov/lccn/sn86081096/1862-04-23/ed-1/ (and select Page 2).
  25. Ozzy

    Grant's Shiloh Report

    Joe There is a maxim: "Never place yourself on report" (which U.S. Grant expanded to "never admit you made a mistake." For proof, refer to Grant's Memoirs, and count the number of times he makes use of that word -- mistake -- and to WHOM he applies that word.) "Mistake" is also a Chess term, used to describe the failings of an opponent. To me, U.S. Grant lived his life as if he was involved in a continuous game of Chess. Grant was also a Poker player, and appreciated the risk-taking (and skillful use of "bluff") associated with that game. Just an observation... Ozzy
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