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Everything posted by Ozzy

  1. Confederate uniforms As we know, Confederate uniforms were not mass produced to the extent that uniforms for Northern soldiers were: by the end of the war over 75 percent of Union uniforms were machine sewn, while less than 5 percent of Confederate shirts, jackets and trousers were machine stitched (primarily due lack of availability of sewing machines in the South.) However, one source for mass produced Confederate uniforms was located at Corinth Mississippi: Simon & Rubel, Dry Goods Merchants. Originally known as Simon & Dobbins, with the eruption of war in 1861 the manufacture of uniforms for Mississippi regiments commenced under that name; and in 1862 became Simon & Rubel. Before the Union occupation of Corinth, the company relocated to Memphis... and ceased trading with the fall of Memphis in June 1862. Reference: Goodspeed's Mississippi vol.2 page 710. N.B. F. E. Whitfield is mentioned as "in command of one of the units supplied with uniforms by E. Rubel in 1861."
  2. Goodspeed's Biographies Late in the 19th Century the Goodspeed Company (sometimes called Goodspeed Brothers) set about providing collections of Historical Records, based on counties and states. Prominent citizens of those counties and states were contacted, interviewed, and brief memoirs obtained (which were then rewritten as biographies.) The biographies were submitted to the interviewees, errors corrected, and the biographies published. An interesting six page biography of General PGT Beauregard is contained in Goodspeed's Louisiana, beginning page 272. “Mississippi in the War” begins page 150 and runs thirty pages in Goodspeed's Mississippi. General James R. Chalmers has a brief biography beginning page 535; Nathan Bedford Forrest and his cavalry are covered from page 159 to 165. General Albert Pike has his information in Goodspeed's Northeastern Arkansas, beginning page 70. Missouri and Indiana get pretty full coverage; and there is Goodspeed's Tennessee, and Goodspeed's Texas... For those conducting family history research (especially of Confederate officers, and veterans who enjoyed political and business success after the war) Goodspeed's deserves to be examined. References: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Goodspeed_Publishing List of States and Counties addressed by Goodspeed's http://onlinebooks.library.upenn.edu/webbin/book/lookupname?key=Goodspeed Publishing Co Goodspeed's Tennessee (Missouri, Indiana) https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/011441179 Goodspeed's Louisiana (1891) https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/100736861 Goodspeed's Mississippi (1891) https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/009567153 Goodspeed's Northeastern Arkansas (1889)
  3. Joe The period following Capture of Fort Donelson must have been one of unbelievable euphoria and stratospheric rise (for General Grant) followed by precipitous decline. And there is no doubt that Henry Halleck and George McClellan (with input from Don Carlos Buell, who had access to the telegraph) conspired to see if Ulysses Grant could be removed permanently, replaced by the more highly regarded Charles Ferguson Smith. And there is evidence that General Grant did offer to resign, or at least suggest his transfer out of Halleck's Department, twice, during this brief period (March 3rd until March 13.) But it is also known that U.S. Grant kept his own counsel; and only opened himself to his family (Julia) and closest associates (Rawlins, Hillyer, Lagow... and eventually William Tecumseh Sherman). And Colonel Thayer from Nebraska does not present as member of Grant's "inner circle." So it is one of those mysteries: "How did John Thayer really come across his story?" Did he overhear Grant talking to Rawlins? Did he overhear Rawlins talking to Hillyer? Because there is every likelihood that Colonel Thayer, despite his claim, did not receive Grant's "confession" first-hand. My considered opinion... Ozzy Reference: Papers of US Grant vol.4 page 331 and 334 and notes of page 352.
  4. [Above map found on page 8 of New York Herald of 29 SEP 1861 and is in Public Domain.] It is significant because the Rebel incursion into Kentucky had occurred earlier in the month, followed by General Grant's occupation of Paducah on September 6th. The New York Herald provided its readers with visual representation of the areas of importance; and inadvertently highlighted the foci of armed conflict to come, and staging areas for imminent offensive operations: Fort Columbus; New Madrid, Missouri (and the swamp General Pope had to march through to reach New Madrid for the Island No.10 campaign); Cairo Illinois (staging site for Naval operations and Army troop transports); Smithland; the locations of Fort Henry, Fort Donelson, Belmont (although not marked, easy enough to figure out due to state boundary lines and the siting of Columbus Kentucky.) One can never have too many maps... https://chroniclingamerica.loc.gov/lccn/sn83030313/1861-09-29/ed-1/seq-8/ New York Herald of 29 SEP 1861.
  5. Mona, you are correct! Thanks for persisting with this Quiz Question, one that has been a puzzle for many years (after uncovering the posted Battle Honors for 5th Ohio Cavalry and the 72nd Ohio Infantry and struggling to determine where the reputed engagement took place, and with whom.) Surprisingly, the engagement in question links to the Picket Skirmish of 4 April 1862 (which for the longest time was assumed to have taken place further south “on the road to Corinth.”) But while investigating the physical location of the Picket Skirmish versus Clanton's Alabama Cavalry it was realized that there were multiple roads to Corinth (all referred to as Corinth Road by William T. Sherman, the acting camp commander.) There was the Main Corinth road and the East Corinth Road, with which we are all familiar. There was a Corinth Road leading from Hamburg (which is a major reason why General Grant was intending to locate Buell's campground for the Army of the Ohio in vicinity of Hamburg.) And the fourth Corinth Road was the one that ran south from Adamsville, passed adjacent to Mickey's, through to Monterey and south. And this fourth Corinth Road was bolstered by a spur that ran northeast towards Stoney Lonesome, an improvement completed by late March 1862 which became known as the Shunpike. Until 3 April 1862, with the River Road impassable due to the flooded Snake Creek (making Wallace Bridge unusable) the Corinth Road running north past Mickey's with deviation right onto the Shunpike, became the quickest route to Crump's Landing from Corinth, for anyone so inclined... As a result of the Picket Skirmish of April 4th, fought in vicinity of General Meek's Place, there must have been discussion, “What do we call this engagement?” The Battle of General Meek's Place? The Battle of the Corinth Road? The Battle of the Shunpike? General Grant, as result of the April 4th Picket Skirmish, came to believe Crump's Landing was the proposed target of a Confederate raid (and is one of the reasons no significant orders were issued to Lew Wallace early morning April 6th.) Therefore, since the April 4th engagement COULD be interpreted as disrupting a Rebel movement north towards Stoney Lonesome, it is my interpretation that this is the reason the Picket Skirmish of April 4th was given the more impressive name of 'The Battle of Crump's Landing, Tennessee.' Cheers Ozzy References: SDG topic “General Meek's Place” [especially Atwell Thompson map]. SDG topic “Friday 4 April 1862 and the Picket Skirmish”
  6. [Just to provide clarity, the above Regimental Record of the 5th Ohio Volunteer Cavalry is attached (the 5th OVC was the only other Federal regiment credited with involvement in the “Crump's Landing” engagement of April 4th).]
  7. Ozzy

    Belgian musket

    "We were provided with Belgian rifles which we soon decided were worth more as scrap iron than as weapons of war. In our target practice I soon experienced the worthlessness of the beech-stock-rifles. At a target four hundred yards distance, I missed it by four feet and got knocked down. So we very soon concluded that we need not aspire to sharp shooting in such practice as these afforded. After shooting a few shots our shoulders were so sore that we were unfit for further practice. Our departure for the front was delayed four days by having such guns. Our Colonel went to Chicago to see headquarters regarding the guns and succeeded in having arrangements made for other weapons. Soon we were supplied with new Enfield rifles, and they were splendid guns" -- Corporal Michael Hileman, 96th Illinois Co.H.
  8. One of the speaking phenomenons of the past year or two is Victor Davis Hanson, a university professor from California who possesses vast knowledge of “the classics” of ancient literature; and who also dabbles in farming, and the study of military history. Over the years, Professor Hanson has written a number of books on military engagements, from ancient times to the present day. As an example, “The Ripples of Battle” was published in 2003; and three “historically important contests” were reviewed and examined in order to determine their long-lasting effects on the culture, as well as how they altered the participants. And it turns out that one of the battles discussed is Shiloh. [Hanson indicates he included Shiloh because he has a family connection to Albert Sidney Johnston.] While promoting his book in 2003 Professor Hanson gave a presentation at Santa Cruz, California which devoted nearly the entire hour to Battle of Shiloh and two key men involved (Albert Sidney Johnston and William Tecumseh Sherman). Other participants (U.S. Grant and Lew Wallace) gain an airing. The discussion of Shiloh begins at 13:30 minute mark; Sherman (and Grant) begins at 18 minute mark; 23:20 begins Albert Sidney Johnston; 29:30 begins Lew Wallace: 35:30 begins discussion of Ben-Hur (and how it related to Shiloh, Wallace and Grant); 39:30 begins examination of Nathan Bedford Forrest. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=EvBG-H9XqGo cspan2 presentation "Ripples of Battle" by Victor Davis Hanson (added to YouTube 13 OCT 2018.)
  9. And in this Digital Age, there are electronic device accessible databases that assist with marker location: https://www.tracesofwar.com/sights/100038/Where-is-General-WHL-Wallaces-2nd-Division-Headquarters-Marker.htm European system, relatively new, but gives detailed information. A work-in-progress that should improve over time (as there is increasing interest in American Civil War in Europe.) https://www.hmdb.org/m.asp?m=21840 HMdb has been around for a while, and its information is pretty good. http://www.shilohbattlefield.org/searchops.html Shiloh Battlefield Markers. The most accurate and complete database.
  10. Southern Bivouac Monthly (1882 – 1887) Much like the Union Veteran's National Tribune, the Southern Bivouac provided a forum for Southern Veterans wanting to air views on battles and leaders. Published by the Southern Historical Association of Louisville, Kentucky from 1882 until 1887 the monthly magazine benefited from the quality of its editors: Wm. N. McDonald, R. W. Knott and Basil Duke. All six volumes are available at HathiTrust at the below link: https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/002909878 Southern Bivouac Monthly Magazine And for SDG readers, these are some of the most interesting articles: Vol.1 – “General John H. Morgan” (pp.45 – 49; 149 – 151); Island No.10 (pp.55 – 62); Morgan's Men and the Camp Douglas Conspiracy (pp.65 – 67). Vol.2 – “General Joseph Wheeler” (pp.240 – 244); “General Cheatham” (pp.145 – 150); “General N. B. Forrest” (pp.289 – 298; 337 - 345 ); Shiloh by editor (pp. 150 – 162); Shiloh by Basil Duke (pp.201 – 216); “Bagwell vs. Hicks: Two Illinois men meet at Shiloh” (pp.270 – 1.) Vol.3 – “Grant at Shiloh” (pp.305 – 307); “Incident at Shiloh” (pg.418). Vol.4 – “Morgan's Escape” by Thos. Hines (pp.49 – 60); Grant as General (pp.60 – 62). “Liddell's Record of the Civil War – A.S. Johnston vs. President Davis” (pp.411 – 420). Vol.5 – “Grant vs. Lee: a comparison” (pp.279 – 283); A.S. Johnston (pp.320 – 325). Vol.6 – “INDEX” (pp.777 – 1050). N.B. The run of Southern Bivouac ended in 1887 by being sold to Century Magazine. Additional Note: To easily find a subject of interest, select a volume; SEARCH for topic in that volume (i.e. Shiloh, or Morgan, or Bragg); select one of the HITS returned. This will have to be done for each of the six volumes. [Alternatively, an INDEX is included in Volume SIX beginning page 777.]
  11. Ozzy

    Value of the POWs

    A Potential Game Changer at Shiloh [Above "Southern Bivouac" vol.3 (1884) relates attempted escape of Major Leroy Crockett, 72nd OVI.]
  12. Part of the relevance of the above list of battles: each engagement would be memorialized on the Regiment flag. But, there was a problem with the Regimental flag of the 72nd Ohio Volunteer Infantry, best explained in the below link: https://dan-masters-civil-war.blogspot.com/2017/06/this-afternoon-i-had-opportunity-to.html Dan Master's 72nd OVI site. And for information on the National Colors of the 72nd OVI: http://www.users.miamioh.edu/vascikgs/georgevascik/72ndOVI.html
  13. On the below Regimental Record for the 72nd Ohio Volunteer Infantry is an entry dated 4 April 1862 titled, “Crumps Landing, Tenn.” Where did this engagement take place? What Confederate force was opposed? [From "Official Roster of the Soldiers of the State of Ohio in the War of the Rebellion" published 1888.] Note: The NPS Soldier and Sailors database also lists this action of the 72nd Ohio (under “Service”) https://www.nps.gov/civilwar/search-battle-units-detail.htm?battleUnitCode=UOH0072RI
  14. Ozzy

    Lloyd's Map

    Lloyd's Map of Southern States (1861) As was soon discovered by the newspaper reading public during the Secession Crisis, the maps and sketches provided by newspapers lacked detail and accurate scale. And the precise maps provided by Frank Leslie's Illustrated News and Harper's Weekly were not generally available until 1862. Before Rand – McNally it was James T. Lloyd that furnished the maps the travelling public demanded. Available from early 1861 and produced by J. T. Lloyd & Company of Cincinnati “Lloyd's Map of the Southern States” was the primary reference tool available to members of the public for use in tracking the location of Civil War battles and troop movements. Sold for 25 cents (and with free postage) Lloyd's Map was available via mail order by Jonathan R. Walsh of Chicago. https://www.loc.gov/resource/g3860.cw0014300r Lloyd's Map of the Southern States (1861) https://chroniclingamerica.loc.gov/lccn/sn84031490/1862-04-10/ed-1/seq-4/ Advertisement page 4 col.1 for "Lloyd's Map" N.B. From 1856 Lloyd's also provided a “Steamboat Directory” https://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=hvd.32044024217887&view=1up&seq=5 and from July 1861 “Lloyd's American Railroad Map – North and South” https://digital.library.illinois.edu/items/59d8ab00-82d5-0134-1f08-0050569601ca-a#?cv=1&xywh=-1%2C-822%2C15015%2C7587
  15. Aftermath William Tecumseh Sherman convinced himself that he yet had the situation under control: there was “only a brigade” of Rebels that had been moved into his vicinity; there was only a single battery of “horse artillery” in company with that enemy brigade. US Grant became concerned that, “Crump's Landing may be the intended target” and acted on that assumption during the subsequent two days. [See Papers of USG vol.5 pp.8 – 13]. There was a higher state of readiness (at least higher level of anxiety) across the Pittsburg Campground following the events of Friday. And General Sherman never explained the events of Friday; never informed the other Division commanders what had taken place, never directed remedial actions to be taken. This lack of guidance permitted rumors and false information to fill the void and determine both the story and subsequent actions. Sherman removed Ricker's 5th OVC from the Fifth Division, before calling the replacement cavalry forward (and left himself blind for the subsequent two days.) [WHY? Was this punishment for “almost bringing on a general engagement?” Or was the 5th OVC “too successful” ...a loose cannon operation that Sherman could not control? Or was he merely attempting to “spread the experience” around to different units? Officially, Sherman stated, “The 5th Ohio Volunteer Cavalry was armed with inferior weapons.” General Orders No.33 (under signature of Rawlins) dated 2 APR 1862 directed “redistribution of cavalry and artillery as specified in those orders.” But Sherman had power to adjust these orders, and notify General Grant that he was doing it, and why, as Acting Camp Commandant; and Grant and Sherman, being on increasingly good terms... nothing would be thought unwise about holding on to experienced cavalry...] Walden's 6th Iowa Co.D Picket Post, just to the west of Owl Creek Bridge was subsequently reinforced: one gun of Behr's Battery (operated by Lieutenant Mussman) and an additional company of infantry (6th Iowa Co.K) were sent west of Owl Creek Bridge as reinforcements. Debate ensued: “How strong was the Rebel artillery in vicinity?” It was eventually surmised that, “it was flying artillery, often attached to Rebel cavalry” [Sherman's Memoirs p.258 ]. Sherman's knowledge of the Shunpike is obvious: he made use of it in crossing Owl Creek Bridge to the point where he deployed his two regiments of infantry on Friday afternoon. The entirety of this express route connecting Lew Wallace and Pittsburg Campground, and the fact that it was completed, had to be known to BGen Sherman. Did no one ( Lew Wallace, WHL Wallace) subsequently make it known to US Grant? Did not the Acting-Commandant of Pittsburg Campground make General Grant aware of the completion and potential for emergency use of the Shunpike? The rebuild of Wallace Bridge over Snake Creek. Likely the receding flood waters in the Tennessee River and adjoining creeks was noticed “by someone.” Someone became aware that Snake Creek was falling; and restoration of the bridge would act to better connect Lew Wallace (strategic reserve) to Pittsburg Landing via the River Road. But the bridge was not completed (no ramps leading onto or off from the structure straddling the deepest channel, in the middle of a muddy morass.) And Lew Wallace did not believe it was yet possible to get his artillery to Pittsburg Campground via the River Road (indicates knowledge of “receding flood of Snake Creek” Autobiography pages 449, and 453 (Owl Creek Bridge strengthened) and page 457 (artillery on April 5th could still not cross via the Snake Creek Wallace Bridge.) Total Rebel casualties during the Picket Skirmish: 18 reported. Most as POW by combined reports of Buckland and Ricker, some of whom were wounded. No confirmed KIA. Private Chester Buckland indicates two Rebels were mortally wounded; but these do not show up in official reports. Total Union casualties: 20. Eight enlisted and three officers captured. Some of these likely wounded, as well; and 9 other enlisted wounded (and returned to Union lines.) No known Union KIA [Sherman report.] All three officers caught up in the Picket Skirmish of 4 APR 1862 (captured by Rebels) eventually found their way to Madison Prison, Georgia and are recorded in POW manifest. [And Fremont Ohio Journal of 18 APR 1862 pg.2 col.3 (“The Capture of Major Crockett”) has the writer's interpretation of how that incident took place.] After the Battle of Shiloh, General Grant's concerns with Militia General Meeks (and likely free use of his property as sanctuary for Rebels) intensified to the point, on 17 APR 1862 General Grant determined “Gen. Meeks is playing us false,” and directed Colonel Buckland: “Bring him in.” But when a party from Buckland's Brigade visited Meek's Place, the General was found to have already relocated himself to Mississippi [Papers of USG vol.5 pp.354 – 355.]
  16. In view of the fact that railroads played a central role in the March/ April 1862 operation up the Tennessee River (the North trying to destroy key rail lines and the South trying to preserve them) thought the attached link might deserve a viewing: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Ytd7tKEvz2M Best three minutes from Buster Keaton's, "The General." Happy Birthday, Mona! Ozzy
  17. The following link is to a brief, but in my view, accurate biography of George H. Thomas which does him justice: https://www.smithsonianmag.com/history/catching-up-with-old-slow-trot-148045684/ "Catching up with Old Slow Trot." Cheers Ozzy
  18. In Summary: a Timeline Timeline [based on eruptions of gunfire/ thunder & lightning.] This identifies the points at which the Picket Skirmish intensified, perpetuating an isolated event into an all-day production. 2 – 2:30 pm. Picket post of 70th OVI attacked [heard and investigated by Colonel Ralph Buckland.] 4 pm. Just before commencement of a heavy downpour, a second eruption of gunfire is heard by Colonel Buckland as he returns to the 70th Ohio picket post after briefly visiting headquarters at Camp Shiloh. Unknown to Buckland, Major Crockett (investigating the earlier incident) has just been captured by elements of Clanton's Alabama Cavalry; and the same Rebel cavalry have captured 1/Lt Geer. Perhaps forty men belonging to 72nd OVI Company B are engaged in a gun battle perhaps a quarter mile southwest of the picket post against Clanton's Cavalry, which is in process of reinforcing. 4:30 pm. Leading forward Company H of the 72nd OVI Colonel Buckland climbs a rise and witnesses a reinforced Rebel cavalry give a cheer preparatory to charging Company B. Buckland hurries his own Company H (A, D and I) forward and a volley of muskets unloads on the Rebel cavalry. And as Clanton's Cavalry attempts to regroup, Ricker's 5th Ohio Cavalry powers forward, forcing the Rebel cavalry to turn towards the south and race away from this new danger. 4:30 – 5 pm. The 5th OVC and 72nd Ohio Companies A, B, D, I and H chase south after the Rebel cavalry. But after about half a mile the Rebels are discovered to have reached the safety of their line: estimated by Colonel Buckland as two regiments of infantry and a battery. Cannon fire three distinct shots (heard four miles away by General Sherman) and Buckland and Ricker decide it is prudent to disengage and return to Camp Shiloh. 6 – 6:15 pm. Buckland and Ricker approach Owl Creek Bridge just before sunset and are confronted by two regiments of infantry belonging to the 4th Brigade, lead by Brigadier General Sherman. He demands an explanation, and written reports. [Upon hearing booming enemy artillery, Sherman likely directed his AAG Hammond to inform General Grant of the situation as it then stood: a courier is raced away on horseback; and this man subsequently commandeers a steamer at Pittsburg Landing.] Alerts from the Fifth Division and McClernand's First Division are hand-delivered to Savannah and General Grant. 6:23 pm. Sunset on 4 April 1862. The 26th Alabama Infantry responds to “pickets firing to the east” by busting a cap on their own muskets. In the Federal encampment, regiments hear the trilling of the Long Roll in Sherman's Division... and then McClernand's Division... and the return of heavy rain with lightning and thunder likely encourages the calling of men further and further east into line. The Second Division is called into line after sunset; after 8 pm BGen WHL Wallace and LtCol McPherson ride away to the west to confer directly with General Sherman. 9:30 – 10 pm. General Grant arrives at Pittsburg Landing aboard a steamer and rides away west to confer with General Sherman. The rain has eased, but the going is slow. On the way, he encounters WHL Wallace and James B. McPherson riding back from their visit to Sherman at Shiloh Church. General Wallace relays details of the Fifth Division Picket Skirmish (as reported by Sherman.) Satisfied that the situation is under control, and the emergency at an end, Grant tasks McPherson with surveying a camp for the Army of the Ohio in vicinity of Hamburg on the morrow. And the two parties take their departure: Wallace and McPherson ride north, and the Second Division is dismissed from ranks; and General Grant rides east (and suffers his horse fall on the rain-affected road.) Midnight. The last regiments, North and South, are dismissed from ranks. The emergency that began as a Picket Skirmish at 2:30 in the afternoon is at an end.
  19. Edward Jonas Tracking this man is difficult because there were two Edward Jonas, both accorded credit as belonging to the 50th Illinois, an Uncle (1817 - 1867) and his nephew, and it is obvious that researchers have combined the experiences of the two; and in some cases credit has been given to the wrong man for accomplishments of the other. The subject of interest is Edward Jonas, the nephew. Edward was born into one of the first Jewish families in Quincy: his father, Abraham is recognized as bringing Freemasonry from his native England to Illinois; and Abraham had many and varied business interests; and Abraham Jonas belonged to a circle of friends that included Senator Orville Browning and the politician Abraham Lincoln. Following the Inauguration of Lincoln as President, Abraham Jonas, with support from Orville Browning was installed as Postmaster of Quincy. And Edward Jonas was appointed as Principal Assistant to the Postmaster (and he was only 17 years old in 1861.) Later that year the 50th Illinois Volunteers began recruiting; and on September 12th the underage Edward got his father's approval and became a Private in Company C. About that same time in September 1861 Brigadier General Benjamin Prentiss was back in Quincy, cooling his heels, under arrest for failing to obey the lawful orders of his superior officer, Brigadier General U.S. Grant. The Court Martial expected by Prentiss failed to eventuate; and General Prentiss was returned to duty in Northern Missouri. And the 50th Illinois was sent to St. Joseph Missouri (in Prentiss' District) and operated between that Missouri River port and Hannibal, on the Mississippi River, from October through December 1861. And it was most likely during this period that Benjamin Prentiss, still short of staff, found a position for Private Edward Jonas as Orderly (some references record “Secretary.”) The 50th Illinois Infantry left Missouri in January and joined General Grant's operation in Kentucky at Smithland. And General Prentiss left Missouri mid-March and joined General Grant's operation on the Tennessee River no later than the First day of April 1862. The next time Private Jonas appears in the historical record is in the Madison Georgia Prison manifest on page 10, his name and Robert Porter's name just below the line entry for Brigadier General Prentiss; so Jonas, Porter and Prentiss were all captured on 6 April 1862. And they all remained confined together until the 7 OCT 1862 release of all the Shiloh Federal officers from Madison Prison, after which Private Jonas likely remained in company with General Prentiss to Illinois, enjoyed a welcome respite with his family at Quincy; and early in 1863 returned to duty (as Second Lieutenant) as Prentiss (promoted to Major General) gained assignment as commander of the District of Eastern Arkansas. The Battle of Helena was fought in July 1863; and soon afterwards General Prentiss resigned from the Army. Suddenly in need of employment, Lieutenant Jonas was initially incorporated on the staff of Major General Stephen Hurlbut. But in 1864 Lieutenant Jonas was taken onto the staff of Major General Grenville Dodge: Edward Jonas is 4th standing man from right. [Above image of Major General Grenville Dodge and his Staff in the Public Domain.] Performing the duties of ADC, Edward Jonas was promoted to Captain, and gained two brevet promotions before the end of the war. After the war, Edward Jonas briefly returned to Quincy. But, his father, Abraham, had passed away in 1864; and most of the Jonas family relocated to Louisiana. Edward soon joined them and settled in New Orleans, where he appears to have become a property developer. Edward Jonas died in New Orleans in 1918. But, for those of us at SDG the revelation with most potential interest was brought to my attention by Author and SDG contributor, Joseph Rose: Edward Jonas wrote a paper titled, “Reminiscence of Battle of Shiloh.” In 1889/ 1890 Mr. Jonas was contacted in New Orleans by Henry M. Cist, a former soldier in the Volunteer Army from Ohio (several different regiments; who rose from Private to Brigadier General) who at the time was corresponding secretary for the Society of the Army of the Cumberland. In response, Edward Jonas provided a 14-page paper (and it appears that document is on file with the Missouri Historical Society.) I will be in contact with them soon – COVID 19 permitting – in order to arrange to get a copy of Edward Jonas' recollection. [There is also indication of an early April 1862 (April1st?) Letter from Private Edward Jonas to his parents in Quincy. ] References: Madison Prison manifest Rosen, Robert N. “Jewish Confederates” ( 2000) Uni. South Carolina Press, page 152. https://civilwar.illinoisgenweb.org/r050/050-k-in.html 2/Lt Jonas to Co.K 50th Illinois. Dodge, MGen Grenville, “The Battle of Atlanta and Other Campaigns” (1911) page 137 for above Staff photograph. New York Times of Monday 21 APR 1862 page 8: “Edward Jonas, son of the Postmaster of Quincy was wounded and taken prisoner with Gen. Prentiss.” https://www.findagrave.com/memorial/89149678/edward-jonas Find-a-grave Edward's uncle (1817 - 1867). https://www.findagrave.com/memorial/82425289/edward-l-jonas Find-a-grave Edward Jonas b.1844 mohistory.org Civil War manuscripts. St. Tammany Farmer of 7 JAN 1905 pg.5 col.2 “Judge Bossier is now connected with Mr. E. Jonas of New Orleans, a brother of Mr. Jonas of the firm Farrar, Jonas & Kruttschnitt.”
  20. A few years ago I visited Estonia for the first time (an easy ferry ride south from Sweden) and was pleasantly surprised by the medieval historic charm and friendly people of Tallinn. Once this COVID-19 emergency is over and we're out and about travelling once more, I can highly recommend adding Tallinn to your European travel itinerary. Anyway... Have you ever wondered what Europeans think of the American Civil War? Artur Rehi of Estonia presents a video evaluating the Battle of Shiloh. Prior to this introduction to the War in the West, Artur had only ever heard of Gettysburg and Antietam (the danger of too much condensing of History.) It is entertaining and enlightening to hear the “accepted wisdom” espoused even in Europe as upon introduction of Ulysses S. Grant, Artur brightens up and announces... you'll have to listen to one of many evaluations of General Grant for yourself. The video runs just over twenty minutes, and is aided by simultaneous running of “Kings and Generals: The Battle of Shiloh.” Beginning with an introduction to Forts Henry and Donelson, and Union possession of Nashville, the move down the Tennessee River (with Buell anticipated to join at Savannah before offensive action takes place) sets the stage for the North; as Albert Sidney Johnston and PGT Beauregard unite their armies for the pending strike at Corinth. Have a viewing: see what Artur Rehi gets right; and what he gets wrong. And along the way you will find out what you really know about the Battle of Shiloh. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cU3XsW6vcn4 The Battle of Shiloh was Insane! by Artur Rehi (2020).
  21. Continuing Discussion of Grant Was thinking about my post of Friday regarding General Grant's readiness to be called east, and thought the question might be addressed another way... How about if one compiles two lists: What did Grant bring east in 1864? and “What would Grant have brought east in 1862 ?” 1864 Grant arrives in Washington as Lieutenant General-select. Grant has impressive successes at Vicksburg and Chattanooga behind him. Everyone (the public, the politicians, and his military peers) accord him credit. The General has honed his no-nonsense persona: fired his former friend William Rosecrans; removed both the meddling John McClernand and the one-time rising star Lew Wallace. [Chinese saying: "Punish one, teach one hundred."] Grant's Circle of Friends – his Champion Team -- is nearly complete (although this will take a major hit with the death of McPherson in July 1864.) Gravitas. Veiled ruthlessness. Determination. Support base consisting of strong personalities in their own right. 1862 Grant is just another Major General, junior to some in the east. Grant's greatest success is Fort Donelson (Unconditional Surrender Grant.) The Victory at Fort Henry is the Navy's victory. Shiloh was a tainted victory: many survivors and their families still desired to see Grant forever removed from command. Corinth did not shine as Grant's victory (only Halleck and Pope truly benefited from Corinth.) Grant seriously considered resigning after Corinth (momentary lack of confidence.) Grant has no real Army support base besides Sherman. Eventually that support base will include an Intelligence Expert (Dodge); Fixer (Ord); Go-to guy (Logan); Grant's eyes (Sheridan); Grant's Left arm (McPherson) and Grant's Right arm (Sherman). In 1862 Grant has demonstrated tactical skill, drive, determination and aggression. But he lacks tact; he lacks political savvy, and he allows impatience and boredom to affect the flow of his work. Further Reading: https://msstate.contentdm.oclc.org/digital/collection/USG_volume/id/10388/rec/10 Papers of US Grant vol.10 pages 186 – 190 begin with Grant's Nashville Letter to Sherman of 4 MAR 1864 (and includes Sherman's reply Letter of 10 MAR 1864 pp.187 – 188). Have a read and be the Judge: “Could Grant and Sherman have expressed such confidence in Summer 1862?”
  22. [Image taken circa 1890 and in the Public Domain; on file with Library of Congress. From left to right in above image: Major Cavander (Second DIV Chief of Artillery), Andreas (12th Illinois, involved with creation of the Shiloh Cyclorama displayed in Chicago), Judge Dickey ( 4th Illinois Cavalry, father of Ann Wallace), BGen Tuttle (Second DIV, 1st Brigade, led the last bit of Second Division away north before collapse of Hornet's Nest on April 6th 1862), Major George Mason ( Secretary of State of Illinois “Shiloh Battlefield Commission”), General Prentiss (stands on the actual spot where he surrendered his command on Sunday 6 April 1862 at 5:29 pm), Doolittle (18th Michigan Infantry), Cuthbert Laing (2nd Michigan Light Artillery).]
  23. General Grant's part in the Story It appears at approximately 8 pm General Grant was informed: Sherman's AAG Hammond likely sent a courier with a hurried note to Pittsburg Landing; a convenient steamer was commandeered; and the steamer arrived at Savannah. The courier delivered the note to General Grant, and the message indicated such potential urgency that the General decided to voyage to Pittsburg Landing, ride to Shiloh Church, and discuss the details of the day's engagement with Brigadier General Sherman. General Grant arrived at the Landing after dark and commenced to ride away towards the west along the Pittsburg - Purdy Road. As Grant later wrote: “The night was one of impenetrable darkness, with rain pouring down in torrents.” Along the way to Shiloh Church, General Grant encountered BGen WHL Wallace in company with LtCol James McPherson returning from having visited General Sherman. Grant stopped with them, learned of their recent meeting, and enquired the details of Sherman's engagement. General Grant advised WHL Wallace to be prepared to reinforce MGen Lew Wallace, if necessary. And Grant directed McPherson to spend the following day, April 5th in vicinity of Hamburg plotting a campground for MGen Buell's Army of the Ohio. With necessary information exchanged, the two groups took their departure: WHL Wallace and McPherson turned to the north towards Wallace's command HQ tent (and the men of the Second Division were dismissed from formation); and General Grant, satisfied with the report relayed by BGen Wallace, and confident that no other surprises were likely that evening, turned his horse about and commenced return to the Landing... and enroute, the horse misstepped, took a tumble, and crunched on its side into the ground, with the Generals leg briefly pinned beneath the fallen animal. After man and beast regained their feet, the return to the Landing was continued. And General Grant subsequently returned to Savannah (possibly via a stop at Crump's Landing, according to Whitelaw Reid.) The meagre sounds of “battle” from the Picket Skirmish could not be heard at Savannah or Crumps: now that MGen Grant and all of Pittsburg Campground were aware of the outcome of the day's emergency, it makes sense that General Grant would pause at Crump's on his return to notify MGen Wallace (and prevent unwanted rumors from alarming the Third Division) OR10 p.89 report of 5 APR to Halleck: “notes came from the AAG's of Sherman and McClernand.”
  24. Ozzy

    See you in Memphis

    Aftermath The day before the Memphis & Charleston line between Memphis and Corinth was scheduled to re-open, a Confederate cavalry raiding party ambushed an eastbound train at La Fayette Station, derailed the cars, killed many Union soldiers (most of whom belonged to the 56th Ohio) and took the Colonel of that regiment prisoner. Federal survivors stumbled into Sherman's HQ at La Grange on foot, and revealed their story. It was the beginning of frequent destructive raids and deadly attacks against the M & C R.R. that left the line so crippled, and nearly impossible to keep in operation with so much damaged track and burned rolling stock, that the Stations at Grand Junction and La Grange were ultimately abandoned by Federal forces; and rail traffic from Memphis to Corinth subsequently re-routed via a triangular route that included Humboldt Tennessee at its northern apex. This disruption to the M & C R.R persisted through December 1862, when General Forrest launched a campaign against the triangular route, slowing trains to a crawl (in order to avoid sabotaged lengths of track) and culminated in the capture of Union City (just north of Humboldt) before Christmas; and the Federal rail supply base at Columbus Kentucky was cut off from both Memphis and Corinth, and Corinth was on the verge of being isolated [OR 17 part 1 page 567.] On 2 July 1862 MGen Halleck sent the following telegram to President Lincoln: https://www.loc.gov/resource/mal.1674800/?sp=1&r=0.037,0.28,0.837,0.322,0 [ Halleck comm of 2 July 1862 to President Lincoln, attempting to explain the deteriorating situation east of Memphis...] Chaplain Thomas Van Horne in his authorized bio of General George Thomas aptly describes this period of “Halleck's delusion” on pg.129 of “History of the Army of the Cumberland.” The “good news” anticipated from McClellan before Richmond... failed to arrive. The Seven Day's Battles brought McClellan's operation to a halt by 4 July 1862; and his Army subsequently was withdrawn from the Peninsula. [See note at top pg.188 Papers USG v.5 for “M.Jeff. Thompson celebrates CSA victory over McClellan...” ] Morgan's Raid of early July 1862 acted as signal gun for a renewed Confederate offensive in the West under Braxton Bragg: the “ghost Army” reported disintegrating by General John Pope in June 1862 had resurrected itself and went on the offensive in August. And as the Summer advanced, there was potential of much worse news for Federal forces in the West... It was mentioned in an earlier post that this writer believes Lew Wallace suffered a nervous breakdown, culminating in his departure from Memphis. These are the reasons for that assertion: Lew Wallace had criticized Henry Halleck for the slow crawl to Corinth while that operation was ongoing (his criticism was reported to Halleck, Wallace KNEW he had been informed upon, and such loose talk is not good for one's career) [see Autobiography pp.579 – 580.] General Wallace believed he was right in going to Memphis; everyone else believed he was wrong to have abandoned railroad repairs to “defend” against a phantom Rebel raid. General Wallace appears to have been unaware of the growing storm of indignation as regards his occupation of Memphis... until the storm broke. Major General Grant (now directly in command of Wallace and his Third Division) appears to have unloaded a full dossier of missteps, mistakes, disobeyed orders... and laid them in Lew Wallace's lap. It is unknown HOW this expose of shortcomings was revealed – calmly and assertively, or aggressively with spit and venom – but the volume of material weighed in the balance, with nothing to show on the other side of the scales (no obvious attack against Memphis): this must have been enough to convince General Wallace he had made an error in judgment; and he wanted a way out, or a means to prove the correctness of his actions... but there was no way. The realization likely hit hard, and is alluded to in Wallace's Autobiography, page 589: “Every life has its ups and downs... Now, suddenly, somebody in the dark gave me a push, and I fell, and fell so far that I could almost see bottom...” Lew Wallace papers over this confrontation with General Grant, and suggests HE (Wallace) requested leave in order to take care of personal business in Indiana. U.S. Grant in his own Memoirs pages 320 – 324 makes NO mention of Lew Wallace in Memphis, or their confrontation. Instead, General Grant fills that space with tales of minor irritation from the citizens of Memphis; and relates in detail a story of “how he almost got captured by a guerrilla band during his ride from Corinth to Memphis” (...which should not have even been possible, with “no Rebels within coo-ee of Memphis.”) [Note: the evaluation of “what happened to Lew Wallace” is informed speculation, based on the period reports of William T. Sherman, John A. McClernand, Henry Halleck and Ulysses Grant. There was an obvious fixation by Halleck's command on railroads; any interest in war-fighting was downplayed as unnecessary (following the occupation of Corinth). And in the end, Lew Wallace departed Memphis, supposedly for “business reasons.”] Additional References: OR 17 (pt.1) pp.10 - 20. OR 17 (pt.2) pp.28 - 34 and 36 - 41.
  25. The Emergency, which began at 2:30 continued... General Sherman likely ordered the trilling of the Long Roll in his Division [confirmed in Regimental History of 48th OVI], and with a handful of regiments (Sherman stated they were of the 4th Brigade) marched forward across Owl Creek Bridge... and this force, with General Sherman at its head, was met by the returning Colonel Buckland and Major Ricker from the direction of the setting sun as they proceeded back to camp. Undoubtedly, other Union regiments, hearing the long roll beat in the west, were confused; most had heard no exchange of gunfire, or merely dismissed it as sentries clearing their guns. But to be on the safe side, regiments further and further east from Shiloh Church, resembling a convoluted line of dominoes, beat the Long Roll and formed soldiers into line. And eventually, (and possibly encouraged by return of heavy rain, with lightning and thunder (imitating cannon shots?) Smith's Second Division was caught up in the Emergency. The men formed into line, and stood waiting... And the acting Commander, BGen WHL Wallace was uncertain what to do next: Wait for orders? March his men forward? Which way was forward? So, at approximately 8 pm Wallace, in company with LtCol McPherson, left the men standing in ranks; and rode away to consult with General Sherman, in order to learn, “what was expected of them.” References: Personal Memoirs of William Tecumseh Sherman pp.257 – 258. Life and Letters of General WHL Wallace page 181. https://www.48ovvi.org/ See 48th OVI history for April 1862.
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