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Found 51 results

  1. Ozzy

    Earliest News Report

    Have uncovered what I believe to be the earliest newspaper report of the Battle of Shiloh, published Monday morning 7 APR 1862 at New Orleans. Had searched for this using "Shiloh" and "Pittsburg Landing" as search terms, but without success (when the article is read, it is discovered "another name" was given to the battle.) Battle of Shiloh Report on page 1, column 1, top. http://chroniclingamerica.loc.gov/lccn/sn82015753/1862-04-07/ed-1/seq-1/#date1=1862&sort=date&rows=20&words=Beauregard&searchType=basic&sequence=0&index=6&state=Louisiana&date2=1862&proxtext=Beauregard&y=0&x=0&dateFilterType=yearRange&page=5 New Orleans Daily Crescent for 7 April 1862 [provided by Library of Congress, Chronicling America.]
  2. Ozzy

    10th Mississippi Story

    Captain E. T. Sykes and the 10th Mississippi at Shiloh Edward Turner Sykes was born in 1838 in Alabama, but was living in Columbus Mississippi when the Secession Crisis broke out. Joining Doctor Lipscomb’s Southron Avengers early in 1861, that company was soon incorporated into Colonel Seaburne M. Phillip’s 10th Mississippi as Company E and in March arrived in Florida and placed under command of Major General Braxton Bragg (whose expanding force was soon to become known as the Army of Pensacola.) The 10th Mississippi Infantry took part in placing guns in a crescent around the north and west edge of Pensacola Bay, extending from the Navy Yard to Fort McRae; and the men of the regiment were trained in the operation of those artillery pieces (used during the November bombardment of Union-occupied Fort Pickens.) As well as being trained to operate artillery, the men of the 10th Mississippi took part in the October 8/9 Battle of Santa Rosa Island (a successful nighttime raid against Federal forces camped outside Fort Pickens, involving colonels Chalmers, Jackson and Anderson.) During service at Pensacola, Seaburne M. Phillips became incapacited due to illness (he died before October 1861) and 25-year-old Robert A. Smith was elected Colonel in his place. University-educated E. T. Sykes was installed as Adjutant, with the rank of Captain. The 10th Mississippi remained in vicinity of Fort Barrancas and Mobile until after the February 1862 Disaster at Fort Donelson, when the regiment was ordered, along with most of Bragg’s Army, north to Corinth Mississippi. At Corinth the original 12-month term of enlistment expired; and in March the “New” 10th Mississippi was mustered into service (but with only half the 840 men of the original regiment.) What follows is Edward Sykes’ 1873 recollection of his regiment’s part in the Battle of Shiloh: “Having organized his splendid troops, General Albert Sidney Johnston, with General PGT Beauregard as second in command, put in motion on the morning of the 3rd of April, 1862, the “Army of the Mississippi,” to offer battle to the invaders of our soil. The attack was to have been made on the 5th, before Buell, who was marching to the assistance of Grant, at Pittsburg Landing, could possibly reach him, but owing to the bad roads the Confederates were unable to reach the destined point in time. Resting for the night in order of battle, a short distance from the enemy’s camp, with only now and then a picket shot to relieve the suspense, we commenced to advance at early dawn, and by sunrise came fairly upon them. Hardie commanded the front line, with Gladden’s and Chalmer’s brigades of Bragg’s corps on his right; Bragg’s corps, less the two brigades above-mentioned, constituting the second line, followed about 400 yards distant. The corps of General Polk, following the second line at the distance of about 800 yards, in lines of brigades, deployed with their batteries in rear of each, protected by cavalry on their right. The reserves under General Breckinridge followed closely the third line in the same order, its right wing supported by cavalry. Well do I remember, being then Adjutant of the 10th Mississippi infantry, of Chalmer’s brigade, how all were spoiling for their maiden fight, in which, before they were through, they were willing to acknowledge that of choice, they would thereafter exhibit less of reckless anxiety, and more of prudent discretion. As the Tenth Mississippi (Colonel Robert A. Smith, commanding, and who was subsequently killed in the battle at Mumfordsville Kentucky, and than whom no braver spirit or better officer gave up his life during the war,) descended the last hill, in full view of the enemy’s camp, it was discovered by the position of “an Indiana regiment” standing behind an improvised breastwork of knapsacks, a little retired from the crest of the hill beyond, with “arms ready,” that we were too far to the left, and ordered to march by the right flank down the ravine, until our right opposed their extreme left. And now comes the strange part of this sketch: not a gun in our regiment was loaded. In the verdancy of our military career and ardour for fight, we had overlooked one of its most elemental precautions. I heard Colonel Smith, who was sitting upon his horse a few paces in front of his line, and from his elevated position, exposed to the enemy not fifty yards off, give the commands: “Order arms; Load; “Fix bayonets,” Shoulder arms.” Then followed this pertinent language: “Soldiers, we have been ordered to charge those fellows in blue (he pointed with his sword) and I want you when I give the order to forward, to advance steadily to the top of the hill, fire with deliberation, and then give them the bayonet.” “Forward, then,” was the next sound heard, and Smith’s orders, as always, were observed. Both parties fired about the same time with deadly effect, after which the enemy broke and fled in confusion. General Chalmers immediately rode up to Colonel Smith, and after remarking in my presence, that he deserved to be a Major General, commanded him not again to expose himself so recklessly; but it being a personal, and not strictly a military order, was not obeyed, until soon after Smith’s horse was shot from under him. Throughout that day, the right, under Bragg, did not sustain a reverse, but took position after position, in such quick succession as to justify the confident belief that the entire Federal army under General Grant would be annihilated before the close of the day. About 4 p.m., as we were halted in line of battle to reform, while a brigade of prisoners just captured were being escorted by our cavalry to the rear, and preparatory to our final attack on that day, General Bragg, who justly felt proud of his day’s work, was seen riding alone in front of his victorious lines, and rapidly approaching our front. As he reached us, General Chalmers, who was likewise exultant over the action of his brigade, raised up in his stirrups, and shouted, “Pensacola troops, three cheers for our beloved commander!” Recognizing the compliment, and feeling that he had troops to follow where he was prepared to lead, he reined up, faced the brigade, and with head uncovered, looked “the noblest Roman of them all.” The white-plumed Henry of Navarre never inspired his fiery Frenchmen with more ardent enthusiasm than did this scene of Bragg’s awaken the glow of patriotism in the breasts of his Pensacola boys. They – officers and private soldiers – mutually felt that the day’s victory beloged equally to both and all. Soon after this exhilarating scene, we were again put in motion to attack the enemy’s last stronghold, being twenty-two guns massed in a semi-circle on an elongated eminence protecting his center and left, and which proved a bulwark between us and their destruction or surrender. Amidst the confusion of orders, some to “advance,” some to “retreat,” occasioned by the general order of Beauregard to retire for the night, we were in a fated hour repulsed, never again to enjoy the pleasure of having them so near in our grasp. Time, such as Wellington prayed for on the plains of Waterloo, “Oh! For Blucher or for Night!” was given to them, and they profited thereby. Buell crossed the Tennessee, and the next morning, the 7th, was as disastrous to our arms as the day before had been propitious…”
  3. Ozzy

    Axe about Abatis

    In a Letter written from his HQ at Cairo on 7 October 1861, Brigadier General U. S. Grant provided his latest intelligence from Kentucky to Major General Fremont at St. Louis. Of interest: "The Confederates at Fort Columbus are said to have been reinforced to about 45,000 men... They talk boldly about making an attack upon Paducah by the 15th of this month." Turns out, Grant had received the above information from Brigadier General C. F. Smith, in command at Paducah. On 6 OCT 1861 Smith wrote to Grant: "The latest news from Columbus comes through the Roman Catholic priest here, tho' he does not wish it whispered. Columbus is in his division of duties. He was told that the attack on this place might be looked for on or by next Thursday, the 10th, getting this from both officers and soldiers. I give the information for what it is worth. The prevalent idea is to make a feint on the front, and attack on the flanks -- three columns of 7000 each. The trees all round are fast falling to our axes, rendering an advance by the roads a necessity." The above "defensive preparations" (felling of trees for abatis to slow, and redirect the advance of an enemy) took place before the Battle of Belmont; and these measures were taken in spite of the prevailing belief that "no attack on Paducah was seriously threatened." U. S. Grant states in his Memoirs, vol.1 (page 356) that, "At the time of the Battle of Shiloh, the pick and spade had been but little resorted to at the West." And yet, trenches were not the only defensive works available as options to Grant and his Army in the lead-up to Shiloh: the abatis and blinds were also of potential value, yet both were ignored, or actively discouraged... Still a mystery Ozzy References: Papers of US Grant, vol.3 pages 24 - 25. Grant's Memoirs vol.1 page 356.
  4. Ozzy

    Bragg's Letter of April 8

    What follows is a letter written Tuesday evening, 8 April 1862 by Braxton Bragg to his wife, Eliza, and sent from Corinth. In it, General Bragg details his impressions of the two-day fight at Shiloh; why Day Two was necessary; and other observations. Written so close to the actual event, this letter provides insights not to be found elsewhere, including "Bragg was nearly shot twice," the "difficulty" with Randall Gibson on Day One, the capture of Ross' Michigan Battery on Sunday afternoon, and "the intelligence" provided by General Prentiss. [Found in Braxton Bragg: General by Don C. Seitz (1924) pages 111 - 3 at http://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=mdp.39015000586084;view=1up;seq=127 ]:
  5. Ozzy

    Puzzler

    Here's a question to ponder: Which three generals (from either side) benefited most -- professionally -- from the Battle of Shiloh? Justify your selections. Ozzy
  6. Ozzy

    Bait and Switch

    The result of much research has determined there was "bad blood" between Don Carlos Buell and Ulysses S. Grant. This may have been the result of Grant sending wounded Confederate soldiers to Hospitals in Buell's jurisdiction after Fort Donelson. Or it may have resulted from Grant sending Nelson to take possession of Nashville (just hours ahead of Buell.) Possibly, there was some pre-war animosity that simply festered, exacerbated by the above incidents... One thing that becomes evident upon a close read of the Official Records and Papers of US Grant vol.4: when Buell began the march of his Army of the Ohio from Nashville on March 15th, he believed he was to go to the support of Charles F. Smith [see OR 11 pages 38 and 44.] Upon Buell's arrival at Savannah (where he was told by Halleck that Smith was established) Brigadier General Smith would have been junior to Major General Buell... so Buell would assume de facto command of the operation (pending the arrival of Major General Halleck.) Buell was aware of the removal from "command in the field" of Major General U. S. Grant: as late as March 14th, Buell received a telegram from Grant -- sent from Fort Henry -- in which Grant requested a gunboat on the Cumberland River be sent to him [see Papers of US Grant vol.4 page 361.] And Halleck kept up the deception -- as late as March 17th -- directing Buell: "Move on as ordered, to re enforce Smith." [Grant had been restored to command on March 15th and arrived at Savannah March 17th -- OR 11 page 44 and 38.] In Shiloh Revisited, page 490, Buell expresses dissatisfaction with the arrangement: "US Grant was restored to command, and arrived at Savannah March 17th, and he converted the encampment of Pittsburg Landing into the point of rendezvous." It is obvious that Buell felt the sting of the "bait and switch" pulled on him: he was expecting Smith; but sometime after the march commenced, he found out that Grant was in command. This could help explain: the excessive delay of Buell's arrival at Savannah; the attempt by Buell to camp his Army at Waynesboro (and await the arrival of Halleck at Savannah) the convenient delay Sunday, April 6th to make his way to Pittsburg Landing (by whatever means necessary). But most unsettling: a close read of Buell and Grant's interactions, beginning Sunday afternoon and continuing through April 7th, are not especially inspiring. In fact, the only real coordination between Grant and Buell appears to be, "You take the left, and I'll take the right." The important, "We'll move forward in the morning," seems to have been unspoken, merely assumed. No way to run a railroad... Ozzy
  7. In the 2017-18 series "Legends & Lies: Civil War," directed by Kevin R. Hershberger (and now available on YouTube), thought it might be of interest to investigate what sort of treatment was accorded the Battle of Shiloh. What follows is strictly my review, and does not reflect the viewpoint of Management of Shiloh Discussion Group: The total coverage of Battle of Shiloh is contained within Episode 2. Beginning at 24 minutes 45 seconds, the illness and subsequent death of 11 year old Willie Lincoln sets the scene (as Lincoln's attention would have been absorbed by his son's illness and subsequent death on 20 February 1862, possibly diverting attention from events taking place in the Western Theatre.) A brief interlude featuring Major General George McClellan reveals the conflict that existed and festered between that military commander and President Lincoln (and Edwin Stanton). And the coverage of the Western Theatre commences at: 26.40 Fort Henry (five seconds of mention) 26.50 Fort Donelson (featuring a poetic-license meeting between Simon B. Buckner and U.S. Grant) 32.30 Shiloh. Narrator says, "In the west, U.S. Grant chases the Rebels through Tennessee to Corinth, Mississippi. Grant stops near a church called Shiloh and waits to attack the Rebels. Grant says, effectively, 'Take five; and we'll wait for reinforcements.'" [Almost no mention of Pittsburg Landing. No mention that Grant was following "orders to wait" issued by Henry Halleck.] 33.30 Shiloh is declared "the first great slaughter of the war." The emphasis is on U.S. Grant and his performance. William Tecumseh Sherman is introduced, giving every indication that Shiloh was the start of the great friendship. [Wallace, Hurlbut, McClernand and Prentiss are not mentioned. Neither is Sunken Road, the Crossroads, the Hornet's Nest, Peabody nor Powell. Or the gunboats. Or any of the Confederate commanders...] 35.30 Day Two. Focus shifts to Confederate Samuel Todd (Mary Lincoln's brother, soldier at Shiloh.) Union reinforcements arrive overnight and facilitate a Federal offensive, conducted by Grant and Sherman, early on April 7th. 37.00 Grant ekes out a narrow victory at Shiloh. [No mention of Don Carlos Buell. No mention of General Beauregard claiming victory. No mention of Nathan Bedford Forrest's successful rearguard action on April 8th.] Since Shiloh (and Fort Henry, Fort Donelson, Vicksburg and Chattanooga) get such scant coverage, the attempt was made to discover "the purpose" of this Civil War series; and it appears to be an effort to "determine how the numerous leaders, of both sides, of various capabilities filtered themselves out over the course of the war, eventually pitting Lee versus Grant." As evidence, Robert E. Lee receives substantial coverage throughout the series. Ulysses S. Grant has the entirety of Episode 7 devoted to him. Stonewall Jackson's importance to Lee is discussed, as is John Rawlin's importance to U. S. Grant. There are "items of interest" revealed in the series, as a whole: in Episode One, the poetic-license interview of John Brown by John Wilkes Booth (Booth was known to have been present at Brown's execution, but anything further is unproven); also in Episode One, the role of Benjamin Butler in getting his Massachusetts troops to Washington, D.C. (and delayed arrival of those troops encouraging President Lincoln to suspend the Writ of Habeas Corpus); and the personal friendship of Abraham Lincoln and Elmer Ellsworth is well-covered... Unfortunately, the Battle of Shiloh seems to be included, merely as "the starting point" for General Grant's successful career. Ozzy References: http://www.imdb.com/title/tt4465100/?ref_=fn_al_tt_1 Legends & Lies entry at IMDB http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=iGaWl8eXPaA&index=12&list=PLniqIe7xEtGMklmbe9pYqUrGLqmBOh2ut Legends & Lies: Shiloh (Episode 2) posted by Nicky Nice 1 APR 2018
  8. [Sketch of Corinth Mississippi by Adolph Metzner, on file with Library of Congress.] The following Letter of 20 March 1862 from Braxton Bragg to wife Eliza is of interest due the following: Bragg reveals the lack of discipline discovered upon his arrival in Corinth; "draconian measures" put in place by Major General Bragg to instill discipline at Corinth; discusses feeble health of General Beauregard (who is still at Jackson Tennessee, attempting recuperation) reveals pre-planning stage, before General Johnston arrives (and before decision taken on "what is to come in April.") Corinth, Miss. 20th March My dear Wife, By a hasty note from Bethel Station I announced my sudden departure for this place. Since that time I have had no time to write. Everything was in disorder and confusion here, troops arriving in large numbers without supplies, and greatly disorganized by hasty and badly conducted arrangements. Weather bad, and no accommodation, even for the sick. The [Tishomingo] Hotel a perfect pandemonium, thousands of hungry men standing against the barred door, ready to rush in and sweep the tables, regardless of sentinels or officers. Even the kitchen was not safe, meals were seized from off the fires, and the life of the hotel keeper threatened for expostulating. Poor Mr. Lea -- you remember him as the Steward at the Sweet Springs -- said he was over-matched for once. No promise of a fashionable (3 o'clock) dinner would appease the hungry multitude -- but all is now changed. With Gladden in command, and the La. regiments to charge bayonets, the swine are driven back, and the town is quiet and peaceable. It is most difficult to see what is to be our future. The enemy is threatening both flanks. At Island No.10, which is now our highest point up the river, we hold with heavy guns. But the pressure is very great against it, and the evacuation of New Madrid exposes us to be cut off from below. We have another strong position still lower, near Randolph Tenn, but not yet in good condition. My heavy guns from Pensacola are going there, and some of my old troops are there, but they need good commanders. The name of the place is unfortunate -- Fort Pillow. If we can keep them back on the Mississippi, I shall not despair at all of our losses elsewhere. We are to a great extent, however, reduced to the Fabian Policy. Our troops and our supplies are so limited and so disorganized that effective operations are out of the question unless we can have a little time to restore tone and confidence. My forces united to Genl Ruggles are here, about 22.000. Polk's and Johnston's are coming in hourly and taking position on my right and left. Your advice in your letter of the 12th is fully adopted in my own of today, organizing my command. All Tennesseans are scattered among better men in small squads, so that we can hold them in observation. I never realized the full correctness of your appreciation of them, until now. A general order, of which I enclose a copy, was predicated on their infamous proceedings, and I am glad to say had its effect. No plundering has taken place since. It is my fixed purpose to execute the first one caught in such acts. But the order, itself, and the arrest of a Colonel, have produced a very wholesome reform. Genl Beauregard has re-published the order to the whole Army, and ordered its observance. Towson was several days with the fair ladies at Jackson, and had every opportunity of seeing their merits and deficiencies, though ladies ought not to have the latter. Suffice it to say neither will please him. He has not said a word, but I will answer for him -- it is unnecessary to set forth objections. Robert and Mr. [Fader] are still with me. Bob will never do much with the Army, as he cannot stand the hardships -- exposure of any kind, or the inequality of camp life soon disables him. And we are far from being comfortable here. But still, for several days it was very hard to live at all. Genl Beauregard is still in Jackson, but proposes coming here in a few days. His health is still very feeble, and as long as he is distressed and worried, as he has been, he cannot improve. Every interview with Genl Polk [shunts] him back a week. But for my arrival here to aid him, I do not believe he would soon be living. His appeal for plantation bells was somewhat on the order of the "Under the enemy's guns at Castroville [Texas]" -- sensational. We have more guns now than instructed men to serve them. And metal in New Orleans for many more. May God protect and preserve you, Your Husband Braxton Bragg [Handwritten original http://repository.duke.edu/dc/braggbraxtonpapers-000846347/secst0300 at Duke University Library, Braxton Bragg Papers, items 52 - 55.] Thanks to Duke University for making this letter available online. Ozzy References: http://www.loc.gov/item/2017646911/ Tishomingo Hotel sketch by Adolph Metzner (1862) at Library of Congress. http://archive.org/stream/earlysettlersind00sowe#page/n593/mode/2up/search/Castroville resource provided for explanation of Castorville Texas. http://www.thefreedictionary.com/Fabian+policy definition of Fabian Policy.
  9. Staff officer to General Grant, officially designated as ADC after Fort Donelson, William R. Rowley commenced his Civil War career as a First Lieutenant in the 45th Illinois (known as the Lead Mine Regiment) in November 1861. Familiar with Congressman Elihu Washburne of Galena, Captain Rowley communicated frequently with his Member of Congress (and sometimes on General Grant's behalf.) The following link connects to a Letter written by Captain Rowley at Pittsburg Landing on 19 April 1862 to an associate of Elihu Washburne, Edward Hempstead. Hempstead copied Rowley's letter, and sent that transcript to Congressman Washburne (which is where this version of the Letter was found, in the Washburne Papers.) http://www.usgrantlibrary.org/usga/newsletters/volume10.asp [Rowley Letter of 19 April 1862 at top of page, courtesy of Ulysses S. Grant Presidential Library, and contained in Newsletter of January 1973 (Volume 10).] On Sunday morning, April 6th, Captain Rowley was at Savannah and heard the firing of cannon from 9 miles away, to the south-southwest. Travelling in company with General Grant aboard Tigress, Rowley arrived at Pittsburg Landing between 9- 9:30 a.m. and was in company with General Grant (or delivering orders from General Grant) during much of Day One at Shiloh. Of particular interest: Captain Rowley was riding west from the Landing, in company with General Grant, just after 1 p.m., when the second messenger returned from his "visit" to General Lew Wallace. After hearing Cavalry officer Frank Bennett's report, General Grant sent Rowley, in company with Lieutenant Bennett, back north across Wallace Bridge to confront Major General Wallace and demand that he come to Pittsburg Landing via the River Road. Captain Rowley was equipped with authority to "provide orders in writing" if Lew Wallace so demanded. Captain Rowley and his escort departed about 1:20 p.m., and arrived at Pittsburg Landing -- in company with the Third Division -- after sunset. [These details need to be kept in mind when reading Rowley's letter.] The other thing to keep in mind: this letter from William Rowley was written in response to a Letter of 14 April 1862 from Edward Hempstead, in which Hempstead asked five specific questions [with Rowley's response in brackets]: Had General Grant been drinking, prior to the battle of Shiloh? [No. Rowley indicated he had only ever seen Grant take three or four drinks, total, during the entire time he knew him. And he had had no alcohol prior to Battle of Shiloh.] Was General Grant really at Savannah when the Battle started? [Yes... (although Rowley shaves substantial time away from Grant's absence from Pittsburg Landing).] Did General Grant really lead the Last Charge on Monday? [Yes. And Rowley gives details...] Does General Grant have any political aspirations? [No. And do not worry, he has no intention of ever becoming President.] Why were there no entrenchments at Pittsburg Landing? [Rowley provides an answer you'll have to read for yourself.] As significant as is William Hillyer's letter (also on this SDG site), William Rowley's response to Edward Hempstead provides details of Grant's decisions, operations and movements, not to be found anywhere else; and this four-page Letter (written after the arrival of Henry Halleck at Pittsburg Landing) is highly recommended, and worth the twenty minutes required to read and digest. Cheers Ozzy Other references: Autobiography of Lew Wallace, vol.1 (1906) pages 466 - 474 (for Lew Wallace's impression of Captain Rowley.) OR 10 pages 178 - 180 [Rowley's April 1863 report detailing his meeting and discussions with Lew Wallace on April 6th 1862.] "Eye Witness account, William S. Hillyer" posted by Idaho Native at SDG.
  10. Ozzy

    Louisiana Diary

    Sarah Lois Wadley was not in Tennessee during the Fort Henry and Fort Donelson Campaign; she was living in a small town along the New Orleans, Jackson & Great Northern R.R. in northern Louisiana. And in a diary she had kept since 1859, now 18-year old Sarah recorded her own thoughts and news reports in regard to the fight at Fort Donelson on pages 61 and 62: "February 17, 1862 -- Bad news comes in from Tennessee..." and "March 2, 1862 -- We have heard nothing but reverses: Fort Donnelson was taken by the 17th last month. And since that, Nashville has been surrendered. And now, Fort Columbus is threatened..." Sarah Wadley's Diary is available online via the Louis Round Wilson Special Collection at University of North Carolina, at the link attached below. She covered the entire Civil War (the last diary page available is for May 1865); and some of the other "items of interest" for those of us at SDG include: Sunday March 16, 1862 -- "General Price has defeated the yankees in Arkansas [Pea Ridge] and our battering ram, Virginia, sunk one of the blockading ships last week..." April 13 -- "Oh! what a time this is, the past week has been one of feverish excitement. Tuesday we received news of a great battle, near Corinth..." Easter Sunday, April 20 -- "The battle near Corinth was another added to our Victories [but it is said we had to move the army south to avoid a reinforcing army...]" Other events included in Sarah's Diary: the Fall of New Orleans; the struggle to maintain Vicksburg; and "the work of her Father (William Morrill Wadley)" who was a Railroad Superintendent in Louisiana, but who appears to have taken on a more powerful role, over time (his frequent visits to Richmond expanding into conferences involving forty other Confederate Railroad superintendents, those meetings led by Wadley, and often taking place in Georgia.) The Civil War Diary of Amite, Louisiana resident Sarah Lois Wadley is worth a read, to get a Southern civilian's take on significant events; to appreciate "the spin" provided by Southern newspapers; and to get a better understanding of "the Southern experience on the Home Front" during the war years. Cheers Ozzy References: http://docsouth.unc.edu/imls/wadley/wadley.html [scroll down to Sarah Wadley's Diary] http://www.csa-railroads.com/Essays/Biography_of_William_M._Wadley.htm Bio of Railroad Superintendent Wadley at "Confederate Railroads" http://www.csa-railroads.com/ Confederate Railroads [best site available for Civil War railroads operated in the South].
  11. Major General Grant had only just returned to Fort Donelson (from Nashville, late on February 28th), when he received: [from Sherman's Memoirs, page 224.] A bit tongue-in-cheek, because there were no orders to Shiloh; and the above directive to MGen U.S. Grant (a telegram sent from Halleck at St. Louis on March 1st 1862) does not contain an "Orders Number." Yet, this is the communication that started it all, and it reads more as "a collection of thoughts," than an actual set of orders (perhaps sent to alert General Grant to what General Halleck intended Grant to do next -- a sort of "pre-orders orders" -- which may be why the telegram does not contain an Orders Number.) The March 1st "directive" could not have come at a worse time: Sherman, in his Memoirs (page 224) indicates that, "the telegraph line was rickety" and may have resulted in a February 25th telegram from Halleck not being received. [The 25 FEB 1862 telegram directed General Grant to move across from Fort Donelson to Fort Henry and establish his HQ ...(notice where the March 1st telegram is sent to).] General Halleck was in process of the delicate negotiation to expand his Department (and absorb Don Carlos Buell into that new Department; while remaining on cordial terms with Buell.) [If Buell complained or raised a fuss (as he did about "Rebel wounded from Fort Donelson being dumped in his hospitals"), or suddenly decided to "take care of that pesky East Tennessee Problem that President Lincoln so urgently desired," it could have upset Halleck's Grand Plan.] Shortly after sending the telegram of March 1st, General Halleck discovered, "something unusual had taken place at Nashville." First came word that C.F. Smith had gone over there [and Halleck ordered him back.] Then, Halleck learned that U.S. Grant, himself, had gone over there -- to Nashville -- and General Halleck knew that he had sent a directive (via what Halleck considered to be a reliable telegraph line) on February 25th, ordering Grant to set up HQ at Fort Henry. Soon as Grant's unauthorized visit to Nashville became apparent, the ball was set in motion for Grant "to set up those HQ at Fort Henry, and stay there." And C.F. Smith (also mentioned in the March 1st telegram) was directed to take command of the Tennessee River Expedition. Provided for a bit of clarity... Ozzy References: http://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=yale.39002009162026;view=1up;seq=230 Sherman's Memoirs N.B. The 1 MAR 1862 telegram, Halleck to Grant, is also to be found OR 7 page 674 and Papers of US Grant, vol.4, page 310 (note at bottom of page.) "Danville" was the site of the MC & L Railroad Bridge, a few miles south of Fort Henry, destroyed by Curtis Horse Federal cavalry in February 1862.
  12. Ozzy

    16,000 Telegrams...

    Ran across the below Smithsonian Magazine article, dated 28 June 2016, by accident, while searching for orders sent by Henry Halleck. The report caught me by surprise, as I assumed all the Civil War telegrams still in existence (North and South) had been de-coded, already. Just goes to show: there is a lot of material still out there, some of which may turn one theory or another on its head... Ozzy http://www.smithsonianmag.com/smart-news/you-can-help-decode-thousands-top-secret-civil-war-telegrams-180959561/ 16.000 Telegrams yet to be De-Coded
  13. Ozzy

    Ft. Donelson witness

    Charles C. Nott was practicing law in New York when the Rebellion broke out, and somehow ended up in the Fremont Hussars; and shortly afterward, became a part of Curtis Horse (5th Iowa Cavalry, Company E) of which, 34-year old Nott became Captain. After the war ended, Charles Nott wrote a book of his exploits in the west; and Chapters 2 and 3 detail his accidental involvement with the Fort Donelson Campaign. Accidental, because Curtis Horse had been assigned to Fort Henry, but the steamer Captain Nott and his friend from the 14th Iowa Infantry climbed aboard carried the 2nd Iowa Infantry, bound for the Cumberland River. Nott describes many of the men of the 2nd Iowa, met during the brief voyage; sights along the banks of the Cumberland; and the snow (and attempting to seek shelter from the cold) in the semi-circle of Federal troops, ringing the west side of Fort Donelson (where Captain Nott "joined" the 14th Iowa, "on detached service." The activities of February 15th are discussed as closely as anyone who heard about the "Confederate breakout attempt" without participating, could... followed by awareness that his unit, way up north of the activity further south, is to take part in storming the Rebel fort. The action force was led by the 2nd Iowa, followed closely by 52nd Indiana, 25th Indiana, 7th Iowa and 14th Iowa (while off to the right was a "feint" led by the 12th Iowa, 50th Illinois, and Birge's Western Sharpshooters.) Descending into a gully, climbing up the other side (under fire), watching the fate of the Federal troops in front; followed by awareness they have carried "the last significant position" ...and Captain Nott turned his attention to the wounded, and assisted in carrying many to Hospital. [Chapter One of his book also describes a Hospital experience, significant in that he inadvertently captures the "outbreak of sickness" that gripped St. Louis in Winter 1861/62.] Charles Nott was seriously injured a couple of months after Fort Donelson, and returned to New York to recover. While there, he was "assigned" to a New York infantry regiment that took part in operations in Louisiana (during which he was captured at Brashear City, and spent 13 months a captive at Camp Ford, Texas.) After the war, Colonel Nott returned to New York, and was eventually appointed Chief Justice of the United States Court of Claims. A remarkable man, with an incredible story... Ozzy http://archive.org/stream/sketchesofwar01nott#page/n11/mode/2up Sketches of the War, by Charles C. Nott (1865). http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Charles_C._Nott everyone's favourite, wikipedia... http://www.scriptoriumnovum.com/c/nott.html Charles Nott bio at 5th Iowa Cavalry (Curtis Horse) website.
  14. Under construction for about ten years, Essential Civil War Curriculum is an ambitious attempt to compile a one-stop-shop for Teacher Lesson Plans and ideas of "what can be taught in the classroom." And, to be be fair, if students read only what was advised by this online site, they would come away with a solid grounding in "History of the American Civil War." However, in later years they might wonder if mention was made of "Island No.10" or "Pensacola." Or the importance of Fort Columbus or Cairo Illinois or Mother Bickerdyke or PGT Beauregard... A "horn of plenty" exercise that introduces many of the key elements of the War of the Rebellion, each vignette offers a summary of a person, place or event that had a connection to the 1861 - 1865 conflict. Items of interest are listed alphabetically, and can be accessed by selecting a desired letter (much like a dictionary) and scrolling down. Alternatively, key words can be placed in the Search Box (correct spelling important) and results acquired. (Although no listing is to be found under "B" for John Brown, searching John Brown (without use of quotations) in the Search Box locates "John Brown's Raid" listed under "J"). Although suffering from Eastern Theatre Bias (in my opinion) the information regarding James Buchanan and Braxton Bragg and many other noted characters from the War of the Southern Secession is presented in a creditable fashion; and all entries have extensive Reference Lists, allowing extended study. In all, Essential Civil War Curriculum is worth a read, in order to "see what is being taught in the classroom today." Ozzy http://essentialcivilwarcurriculum.com/j/ Essential Civil War Curriculum
  15. Ozzy

    Court-Martial records

    Available on the Internet since 2011, over 1000 pages of documents briefly describing over 700 Court Martial proceedings in Major General Henry Halleck's Department of the Missouri during 1861, 1862 and 1863 ...nearly one per day, beginning December 1861 and includes accused men (officers and enlisted) from 8th Illinois, 2nd Iowa, 35th Illinois, 18th Indiana, 23rd Indiana, 6th Iowa, 8th Missouri, 41st Illinois, 11th Indiana, 40th Illinois, 1st Nebraska, 17th Illinois, 77th OVI, 25th Missouri (and many other regiments ultimately connected with Army of the Tennessee.) The Military Court proceedings were conducted in St. Louis; in the field in Missouri; at Paducah; and elsewhere. Some of the names you may recognize (acting as President of the Court) include Colonel James Tuttle (2nd Iowa); Colonel Morgan Smith (8th Missouri); Brigadier General Ben Loan (replaced Benjamin Prentiss in District of Northern Missouri in March 1862); Colonel E. P. Wood (17th Illinois); and Colonel David Stuart (55th Illinois). The offences charged are varied, and include: disobeying orders; assaulting an officer; falling asleep on guard duty; horse theft; theft of civilian property (often pigs and chickens, but sometimes more valuable items); absent-without-leave; desertion. Surprisingly, many civilians were caught up in the Military Justice System (members of unrecognized guerrilla bands; assisting the Rebel Cause, without belonging to a recognized Rebel fighting unit; Violating Oath of Allegiance). Punishment (for those found guilty) included forfeiture of pay and reduction in rank; dismissal from the service. If confinement was awarded, the sentence (from six months to "duration of the War") was served at Military Prison, Alton, Illinois. It appears Courts Martial consisted of three or four members (officers, of equal or higher rank than the accused.) But, in a capital case, the minimum was five members. The General Court Martial Orders from the HQ of Department of the Missouri, 1861 - 1863 is arranged chronologically; and there is no index (so it requires approximate knowledge of date of offense in order to find it in this resource.) The main case I was hoping to uncover -- details of the March/April 1862 Court Martial at Savannah Tennessee of Colonel David Moore, 21st Missouri -- I have yet to find. But if it is included, I will attach the page numbers in a later post. A resource with a difference... Ozzy http://lcweb2.loc.gov/service/lawlib/law0001/2012/20120020399879A/20120020399879A.pdf Record of Courts Martial, DEPT of MO, from Library of Congress http://blogs.loc.gov/law/2012/11/civil-war-military-trials/ Civil War courts martial records from other Departments
  16. Ozzy

    Robert Cartmell diary

    Not Hardin County, or McNairy County... but Madison County, a bit to the northwest. Robert Cartmell was a married, 33-year-old farmer working a property just outside Jackson, Tennessee when war broke out in April 1861. Since 1859 he maintained a diary (and faithfully recorded daily entries through April 1862.) Because Jackson was HQ for the Mobile & Ohio Railroad; and because the telegraph ran to Jackson, farmer Cartmell had access to timely news reports (often within hours or a day of the event) and Robert Cartmell would walk into town nearly every day to get the latest news, and then record that news (and his analysis) in his diary. Some of the more noteworthy entries: page 37 1859 Robert visited Corinth and recorded his impression of that soon-to-be famous railroad junction; (94) 14 Apr 61 The contest at Fort Sumter confirmed; (107) 8 Jun 61 Robert cast his ballot for Tennessee to secede; (149) 24 Jan 62 The defeat of Crittenden and Zollicoffer in Eastern Kentucky reported; (151) 8 Feb 62 "Went to town this evening and learned Fort Henry has fallen" (151) 10 Feb "Beauregard has arrived at Bowing Green (and gunboats have gone up the Tennessee River to Florence) (152) 16 Feb "Walked into town and learned Fort Donelson had fallen" (154) 24 Feb "The Governor wants the people of Madison County to volunteer (and he has gone to Memphis)" (154) Robert Cartmell joined a "militia company of married men" (Ford's Company at Jackson) (155) 3 Mar "A continuous stream of soldiers arriving at Jackson [from evacuation of Fort Columbus]" (155) "General Beauregard is here (and may make Jackson his HQ)" (155 - 162) Reports steamers carrying Federal troops up the Tennessee River; reports the arrival of Confederate soldiers in vicinity, until on April 5th he estimates 100,000 Rebels and 150,000 Federal troops are poised for a contest (all the while recording the daily weather; time spent at drill with Ford's Company; and work done on his farm...) A "diary with a difference," this record kept by Robert Cartmell is available online courtesy Tennessee Virtual Archive at: http://teva.contentdm.oclc.org/cdm/compoundobject/collection/p15138coll39/id/268/rec/302 Robert Cartmell diary (mostly recorded at Jackson Tennessee). Cheers Ozzy
  17. Ozzy

    Larger than Life

    There are a number of figures, both North and South, that are iconic: they seem to encapsulate the essence of the American Civil War. For me, these include Grant and Sherman; Beauregard and Bragg; Robert E. Lee; Andrew Foote; George H. Thomas; N.B. Forrest and J.H. Morgan; and, of course, Jefferson Davis and Abraham Lincoln. Perhaps you look at my list of eleven names, and feel "someone important is missing" ...maybe David Farragut, or Raphael Semmes, or Stonewall Jackson. Regardless, if you accept that six-and-a-half of the "iconic figures" (Thomas arrived late), were present at Shiloh; can you think of another battle that featured as many icons, or more? Just another reason why the Battle of Shiloh is so remarkable... Ozzy
  18. Ozzy

    West Point at Shiloh

    Here is a test of your knowledge of West Point alumni present at Battle of Shiloh: Who were the three highest-ranked graduates in their USMA Class, present at Shiloh? (Hint: it wasn't U.S. Grant, ranked 21st in USMA Class of 1843; and it wasn't William Tecumseh Sherman, ranked 6th in his USMA Class of 1840... but these three graduates were ranked one, two and three in their respective USMA classes.) Which two U. S. Military Academy graduates, present at Shiloh, wrote books prior to Battle of Shiloh on military tactics, or military procedures? Name five of the six Military Academy graduates, present at Shiloh, who served as instructors, Superintendent, or Commandant of Cadets at West Point. (Hint: although George H. Thomas served as Instructor of Cavalry Tactics at West Point, he arrived too late to take part in Battle of Shiloh.) Which Federal officer at Shiloh graduated from the same USMA Class as Leonidas Polk? Who was the youngest West Point alumnus at Shiloh (Class of 1861, but resigned before graduation to join the Confederacy)? Which institution of higher learning had more alumni present at Pittsburg Landing/Crump's/Savannah on 6-7 April 1862: West Point ? or Upper Iowa University ? All the best Ozzy Another hint: all answers can be found through reference http://penelope.uchicago.edu/Thayer/E/Gazetteer/Places/America/United_States/Army/USMA/Cullums_Register/ and following the cues.
  19. We're all familiar with Federal units that were "off the grid" -- not directly involved with the Battle of Shiloh. Some were "on their way" (such as George Thomas' 1st Division, Army of the Ohio); others were guarding the Post of Savannah (53rd Illinois and 53rd Indiana... and for a while, the 14th Wisconsin Infantry); and others were further afield (such as the 31st Illinois, acting as garrison for Federal-controlled Fort Donelson.) But, what about the Cavalry organization most often referred to as "Curtis Horse" ? Although not at Pittsburg Landing, this unit was assigned directly to Major General Grant, and performed a useful role during the Siege of Fort Donelson; and was involved in significant operations during build up of force in vicinity of Crump's and Pittsburg Landing. Name the State affiliation and number of this Cavalry organization. Ozzy Bonus: 1) What was the significant mission accomplished prior to surrender of Fort Donelson? 2) Name a date and location (prior to Shiloh) that any of the three significant operations involving Curtis Horse occurred? (Someone clever can list all three.)
  20. Ozzy

    It's just a quiz...

    Here are four questions to challenge your Shiloh/Civil War Knowledge: After Virginia, which State had the greatest number of Civil War military actions within its borders? Which Confederate officer wrote an after-action report for Fort Henry... and for Fort Donelson (present at both; captured at neither)? [Hint: he was wounded at Shiloh.] "Complete Victory" was claimed in General Beauregard's report of April 6th to Richmond, following on the First Day at Shiloh. But, in conjunction with "Manchester Bluff" and "Come Retribution," the phrase "Complete Victory" had another important usage within the Confederacy. What was that other usage? One of Ulysses S. Grant's little-recognized skills was his ability to identify talented men, and put them to work for him. Often, these "talented men" belonged to someone else at the time (for example, Surgeon John H. Brinton technically "belonged" to Major General John Fremont before joining General Grant's staff in September 1861; and James B. McPherson "belonged" to Major General Henry Halleck, before joining Grant's staff in February 1862.) The following officers: W. F. Brinck (acting Ordnance Officer at Shiloh); J. D. Webster (Grant's Chief of Staff); and Benjamin Grierson (conducted a cavalry raid for General Grant, as diversion during Vicksburg Campaign)... all worked for the same Brigadier General, before finding employment with U.S. Grant. Name that Brigadier General. Good Hunting Ozzy
  21. Ozzy

    The Draft Riot

    We're all familiar with the story: that the Draft was suggested by the Governor as a "necessary emergency measure" ...how the citizens expressed dismay at the Government's decision... the way the local newspapers expressed outrage and disgust, and inflamed public opinion. On the day the Draft was initiated, there were riots and bloodshed; and the "draft lottery boxes" were destroyed by an angry mob... on Monday, December 2nd 1861 (not in New York City.) The story is told that the first National draft during the War of the Rebellion was initiated by the Confederate States Government on April 16th 1862. And President Lincoln's Government enacted its own Draft Act on March 3rd 1863. But forgotten are the many State draft laws attempted prior to initiation of the National legislation. So the question: What city experienced the Draft Riot of December 2nd 1861 and who was Governor of the affected State? Ozzy
  22. Ozzy

    Tennessee Governor

    Here's an easy question (or is it?) At the time of the Battle of Shiloh, who was the Governor of Tennessee? Ozzy
  23. Ozzy

    Confederate OR

    Official Reports of Battles, Published by Order of Congress at Richmond, Virginia by Enquirer Book and Job Press (1862). Every once in a while, a real gem appears on archive.org ...and this is one of them. If you ever wondered where the Confederate side of the story came from (which appears in the Official Records of the War of the Rebellion) this book answers the question: the Confederate Government published these records for use by Confederate Congress and other agencies within the government. This title begins with the Battle of Manassas (General Beauregard's report of August 26th 1861) on page 5; and concludes with the Battle of Richmond, Kentucky (fought August 29-30 of 1862). Two reports were added late: Colonel Adolphus Heiman's report of Fort Henry (submitted after his release from Northern prison); and Colonel N.B. Forrest's report IRT destruction of military stores just prior to February 1862 surrender of Nashville. Of course, the Battle of Shiloh is comprehensively covered... or is it? (Several curious omissions are apparent, when this "time capsule" constructed in 1862 is compared to the United States version of the same records, which began to appear in 1881. And not only Shiloh.) Comprehensive Index on page 573. Available online at archive.org (see link below). Ozzy http://archive.org/stream/southernhistoryo00conf#page/572/mode/2up Official Reports of Battles (CSA) 1862
  24. Ozzy

    Bragg's Memoirs

    Along with George H. Thomas and Henry Halleck, Braxton Bragg is one of the Civil War leaders whose memoirs -- and raisons d'Etat -- I would most like to read. Many are the reasons given why General Bragg never got around to those musings; and this post suggests one more possibility, and it involves a man named Kinloch Falconer. An 1860 graduate of the University of Mississippi, Kinloch Falconer joined the 9th Mississippi as a Private and accompanied his regiment to Pensacola, Florida in March 1861, and became part of Braxton Bragg's force there, occupying the former U.S. Navy Yard and all the pre-war fortifications... except Fort Pickens. The key to control of access to Pensacola Bay, Fort Pickens was a thorn in the side of General Bragg (who ordered Colonel Chalmers to attempt a night raid against that facility 8/9 October 1861.) A month later, on November 22nd a gunnery duel erupted, pitting Confederate batteries at Fort Barrancas and Fort McRee against Union-held Fort Pickens and a squadron of Federal warships in the Gulf of Mexico. Because the guns at Pickens and Barrancas were not designed to fire all the way across at each other -- about three miles -- neither of these forts suffered much damage. Fort McRee (sometimes spelled Fort McRae) was another matter: only one mile from fort Pickens, on the opposite spit of land controlling the entrance to Pensacola Bay, Fort McRee was the most exposed of the Confederate positions. And it was just outside that wing-shaped fort that the 9th Mississippi was dug in, assigned to guns designed to prevent a landing by Federal troops. (The 10th Mississippi, under command of Colonel J.B. Villepigue, operated the big guns inside Fort McRee.) Over the course of 36 hours, the entire vicinity of Fort McRee was blasted by guns from Fort Pickens and warships USS Richmond and USS Niagara. Fort McRee was reduced to a smoldering ruin; but Colonel Villepigue's spirited defense of the position won acclaim from Braxton Bragg, and he was promoted to Brigadier General. Kinloch Falconer -- who had spent time clerking for General Bragg -- came to the notice of newly-minted General Villepigue, and was assigned as his Assistant Adjutant General. The 9th Mississippi left Florida in early 1862, and went on to fight alongside the 10th Mississippi at Shiloh. But Kinloch Falconer did not accompany his regiment; instead, he was promoted to Captain and followed General Villepigue to his new assignment: defense of Fort Pillow, on the Mississippi River. That position was evacuated just before the fall of Memphis (in June 1862) and John B. Villepigue (alumnus of The Citadel and 1854 graduate of West Point) next found himself assigned as Brigade commander (in Lovell's Division) Earl Van Dorn's Army of West Tennessee. Wounded during the October 3-5 Battle of Second Corinth, Villepigue succumbed to his wounds in November. And Captain Falconer found himself re-assigned to General Braxton Bragg, for whom he worked as AAG until early 1865... when he was again re-assigned, this time to the Staff of General Joseph E. Johnston. (When Johnston accepted terms offered by William Tecumseh Sherman on April 26th 1865 it was Major Falconer's signature that appeared on the Surrender Document.) Kinloch Falconer's war was over, but his usefulness was not. It was known that the AAG to several general officers had kept meticulous records -- and a diary -- during his years of service to the Confederacy. (One element of his diary, for the year 1865, is on file at Vanderbilt University at Nashville.) In the years after the war, General J.E. Johnston frequently contacted Falconer for precise details IRT Operations conducted during the War of the Rebellion. Braxton Bragg, too, contacted Falconer in 1870 with many questions IRT Bragg's military operations (which may indicate that Bragg was contemplating writing his memoirs, before his untimely death in 1876.) Kinloch Falconer, himself, met an untimely death in 1878. Then serving as Secretary of State for Mississippi, while on a visit to seriously ill relatives at Holly Springs he succumbed to the Yellow Fever epidemic then raging. His papers are now on file with the University of Mississippi. Ozzy References: http://clio.lib.olemiss.edu/cdm/compoundobject/collection/civil_war/id/2108/rec/8 Bragg's 1870 query to Falconer http://ufdcimages.uflib.ufl.edu/UF/00/08/56/93/00002/00067jc.pdf Falconer's involvement with Johnston's surrender 1865 http://clio.lib.olemiss.edu/cdm/search/searchterm/Kinloch Falconer Collection/mode/exact/page/1 Kinloch Falconer Collection http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Bordenave_Villepigue General J. B. Villepigue at wikipedia N.B. Thanks to David (Ole Miss) for providing access to the Kinloch Falconer Collection.
  25. Ozzy

    First Bowtie?

    A few days after the Battle of Shiloh, U.S. Grant notified recently-arrived Henry Halleck of intelligence from a "trusted source" IRT Rebel plans to cross the Tennessee River at Florence, march north, and attack Savannah. Grant proposed an expedition to cripple the bridge at Florence; and if possible, destroy the Bear Creek Bridge of the M&C R.R. east of Iuka. Halleck approved the operation, and on the evening of April 12th General Sherman led a brigade of infantry and 100 cavalrymen aboard two transports; and in company with timberclads Tyler and Lexington proceeded up the Tennessee River... but the bar at Chickasaw Bluff halted the progress of the expedition. Sherman landed his force at Chickasaw Landing at 7 next morning and rushed south. Drove away the Rebels guarding Bear Creek Bridge. Tore up the rails for five hundred feet west of the bridge. Burned the bridge. Then melted the collected-up railroad iron over a raging bonfire... Satisfied, and with few casualties, Sherman ordered his force back aboard the transports and returned to Pittsburg Landing evening of April 13th. Next day, he made his report to Grant (via Rawlins) [Papers of US Grant volume 5 pages 41-43]. Sherman had finally cut that railroad line (although General Ormsby Mitchel had beaten him by two days, cutting the M&C R.R. at Huntsville.) And the two rumored Confederate gunboats were still lurking somewhere upriver from Chickasaw. So the only real significance of the Expedition: Sherman bent up his first of many irreplaceable Confederate rails. (Over 90% of rails used by the Confederacy were imported from England.) Ozzy From Harper's Weekly of 1864, one of the more elaborate designs...
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