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Found 115 results

  1. Ozzy

    Shiloh Primary Sources No.2

    https://archive.org/details/catalogueoflibra00nichuoft/page/696 Catalogue of Library of LtCol John P. Nicholson (published 1914.) LtCol Nicholson must have been engrossed with the History of the Civil War; during the course of his life, he amassed the best collection of references (superior, even, to most University libraries.) Containing reference to diaries, letters, memoirs, biographies, this catalog acts as a bibliography revealing the existence of most known, and many obscure, Civil War resources. Found during my own perusal were resources concerning U.S. Grant, William T. Sherman, Leonidas Polk, PGT Beauregard, Whitelaw Reid. Maps of battlefields. MOLLUS records. (The above link at archive.org opens to the entries for works by David W. Reed.) After learning of the existence of a reference, search Google (or other search engine) and find its current location... Cheers Ozzy N.B. See also "Shiloh Primary Sources" of 20 SEP 2018 at Shiloh Discussion Group.
  2. Ozzy

    Hero of Chattanooga

    Hero of Chattanooga The 1864 Biography of Ulysses S. Grant Have given this particular article its title due to the fact it refers to the first biography of General U.S. Grant, published by Julian K. Larke of New York in March 1864 (after the stunning victory of Grant’s Army at Chattanooga, and before it was known “how the war would end.”) For our purposes, pages 50 – 97 are the most interesting, beginning with “the Seizure of Paducah” on 6 SEP 1861 (we are informed that John Fremont had no role in Grant’s decision to take possession of that strategically important Ohio River port.) Battle of Belmont runs from pages 53 – 58 (with excellent List of General Grant’s Staff Officers.) Also, an interesting relationship with Eleazer Paine is introduced, concerning atrocities committed by Southern citizens of Missouri against U.S. troops at Bird’s Point; and subsequently details “imperfect plans” provided to the Press, and potential spies, by General Grant, to keep real intentions and military movements from being known. Fort Henry occupies pages 66 – 69 (and John McClernand’s assignment as commander of the First Division is revealed.) The description of Fort Donelson is a good summary, except it ignores the roles played by John McClernand and John McArthur in facilitating the breakout attempt of Saturday morning 15 FEB 1862. Also, no credit is accorded Lew Wallace for sapping the momentum of the Confederate breakout. And, of course, ample coverage is provided to the Unconditional Surrender (although, the breaching of the topic of “Grant’s intemperance” following victory at Fort Donelson is unexpected; as is possible complicity by Henry Halleck...) Beginning with “Grant’s new District of West Tennessee,” leading to the occupation of Clarksville, followed by the Return to Federal control of Nashville (with no mention made of Grant’s role there) and concluding with “Grant’s army moved up the Tennessee River,” the two or three weeks following Fall of Fort Donelson are carefully massaged to present U.S. Grant in the best light. The buildup to the Battle of Shiloh begins page 84, with emphasis on destroying Confederate railroads. And the Battle, itself – including Buell’s importance; the issue of “surprise” and the role of Prentiss; and the inclusion of William Carroll’s Battle of Pittsburg article – all are covered pages 86 – 97 (which concludes with mention of Sherman’s advance on April 8th.) General Grant and his Campaigns by Julian K. Larke (published 1864) is of value for learning how the Hero of Chattanooga was perceived, before he was called to Washington… before he ended up winning the war. https://archive.org/details/generalgrantandh00larkrich/page/n5 N.B. For those in search of "something more," the description of the Public Dinner attended by General Grant in St. Louis on 26 JAN 1864 is to be found pages 455 - 462; "Grant's Appearance and Character" are described pages 463 - 468. And in the Appendix, pages 15 - 23, a remarkable justification for General Grant's performance at Shiloh, presented before the House of Representatives on 2 May 1862, by Elihu Washburne. Julian K. Larke at find-a-grave https://www.findagrave.com/memorial/172074446/julian-k.-larke. https://onlinebooks.library.upenn.edu/webbin/book/lookupname?key=Larke%2c J. K. (Julian K.)&c=x other works by Julian K. Larke
  3. Ozzy

    Diary of Edward Bates

    The War from the Other End of the Telegraph Sometimes a valuable diary is to be discovered, written by someone other than a participant on the battlefield. Such is the case with this diary kept by Edward Bates: Missouri politician, serious contender for the 1860 Republican Presidential nomination, and a man who years earlier served as a sergeant during the War of 1812. In February 1861, President-elect Lincoln called Bates to Washington, and on March 5th incorporated the man onto his Cabinet as Attorney General. The sections of Edward Bates’ diary most of interest: Pages Dates 121-130 APR-JUN 1860 Presidential aspirations. 143-167 SEP-DEC 1860 “The Country is coming apart.” 175 5 MAR 1861 Bates enters the Lincoln Administration. 180 March “The Florida forts must be held, with or without Sumter.” 182 15 APR War footing recommendations. 201 15 NOV “Halleck has gone to take charge in Missouri.” 215 December “France intends to side with England, in event of a provocation…” 217 31 DEC “We expect to hear of a battle near Bowling Green soon…” 218 31 DEC Bates advises Lincoln to “take personal command of the Army.” 220 31 DEC “Nobody knows McClellan’s plans…” 223 10 JAN 1862 “The boats and bomb rafts at Cairo are not ready.” 226 13 JAN Cameron has resigned; Stanton to be the new SecWar. 226 13 JAN General frustration, due to lack of military action. 228 2 FEB Bates describes Edwin Stanton. 228 3 FEB “The President has ordered action everywhere to commence by 22 FEB.” 230 5-11 FEB [Bates makes no mention of Fort Henry.] 232 14 FEB “It is said Fort Donelson was attacked today.” 232 17 FEB “We have certified information of our success at Fort Donelson.” 232 20 FEB “Willie Lincoln has died; his brother, Tad, is gravely ill.” 235 21 FEB Bates evaluates meaning of success at Fort Donelson. 239 11 MAR Stanton Report; McClellan removed as General-in-Chief. 239 11 MAR The Experiment begins: Stanton/Lincoln co-commanders. 242 15 MAR Telegrams from Halleck, Foote, Pope (IRT their intentions.) 246 5 APR No news… 246 8 APR “While in Cabinet Council, news arrived from Island No.10” 247 8 APR “We expect news from General Grant…” 247-249 April The news from Pittsburg Landing. 249 April Bates believes: “Once New Orleans falls, it is over.” 253 28 APR “The news comes that we have taken New Orleans…” 260-261 4 JUN 1862 “Things have not gone well recently…” The Diary of Edward Bates, published 1933: https://archive.org/details/diaryofedwardbat00bate/page/n5
  4. Ozzy

    Barrett's Battery B

    Review of To Rescue My Native Land by Wm. T. Shepherd It is not often that letters and diaries compiled by artillerymen during the Civil War are encountered, and this collection is a gem: the “Civil War Letters of William T. Shepherd.” Native of Wisconsin, who enlisted in Chicago as Private in Taylor’s Battery B, 1st Illinois Light Artillery 16 July 1861, Private Shepherd (sometimes spelled Shepard) is a gifted, intelligent writer who sent letters to friends and family back in Illinois on a daily basis. Encountered in the many letters: · Camp life (and looking forward to letters, newspapers and parcels from home) · Details of duty (and October 1861 Skirmish at Fredericktown) in Missouri · Description of duty (and Christmas) at Bird’s Point, Missouri. Letter of 10 NOV 1861 describes participation in Battle of Belmont. Letter of 9 JAN 1862 reveals “everyone at Cairo, Fort Holt and Bird’s Point is under Marching Orders” (which everyone believes is for “somewhere down the Mississippi River…”) Instead, a feint is conducted to the east of Fort Columbus, which “confuses everyone”). Letter of 1 FEB 1862: under Marching Orders, again… 8 FEB 1862: describes “how easily their Fort Henry became ours.” 16 FEB: Letter begins “while besieging Fort Donelson” and describes previous four days of activity, and ends abruptly when orders arrive to “reposition the Battery.” (See 21 FEB letter.) 28 FEB: “Our Captain Taylor has just returned from a visit to Nashville…” 12 MAR: aboard steamer Silver Moon, going up the Tennessee River… 21 MAR: at Savannah, returning to steamer for move up river… 23 MAR letter written from Pitsburg Landing. “Arrived aboard John J. Roe. There are 75000 men at this place, and more arriving constantly…” 25 MAR: “Captain Taylor has been promoted, and Lieutenant Barrett is now in command of the Battery.” Letters of 8 APR and 14 APR 1862: aftermath of Battle of Shiloh. And more good news: Private William Shepherd (who was promoted to Sergeant Major by the end of the War) also kept a Diary… Cheers Ozzy To Rescue My Native Land: the Civil War Letters of William T. Shepherd (edited by Kurt H. Hakemer) Tennessee University Press 2005 (365 pages) is available at amazon.con and better libraries. [Limited access: https://books.google.com.au/books?id=a6HQRB6UimYC&pg=PA331&lpg=PA331&dq=israel+p.+rumsey+letter&source=bl&ots=JG_cwqaoUX&sig=dQa8blZoWwiMXVAQGfu3JkaSAHE&hl=en&sa=X&ved=2ahUKEwiIg5yUx4nfAhUF448KHReGDdcQ6AEwBXoECAkQAQ#v=onepage&q=israel p. rumsey letter&f=false And for those able to visit Kenosha, Wisconsin: https://museums.kenosha.org/civilwar/wp-content/uploads/sites/4/2018/05/Wisconsin-Resources-for-Website.pdf Civil War letters and diaries on file
  5. Chicago Daily Tribune of Monday 31 MAR 1862 page one. Chigago Daily Tribune attempts to predict the future...
  6. Cleveland Morning Leader of 5 APR 1862 Page 2 Col.3 (from 41st OVI). [Just a reminder: the 41st Ohio Infantry was part of Hazen's Brigade, of Nelson's Fourth Division. Hazen's Brigade crossed the Tennessee River during the night of 6/7 April and took part in Day Two at Battle of Shiloh.] https://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=coo.31924077730160;view=1up;seq=365 OR 10 page 347 Report No. 111.
  7. As we know, Grant’s Army of West Tennessee consisted of six divisions at the commencement of Battle of Shiloh. Few consider how those six divisions developed: First Division. After experience with a variety of brigade-sized organizations, Brigadier General Grant reported to Cairo in September 1861, and almost immediately took a handful of infantry regiments and artillery to Paducah (which formed the nucleus of the Second Division.) What remained behind at Cairo, coupled with elements of John McClernand’s brigade, and other units that found themselves at Bird’s Point and Fort Holt, became the First Division. Initially taking command of this division, himself, Ulysses S. Grant, after Battle of Belmont provided all possible assistance to BGen McClernand, for that officer to act as commander of the First Division. And the turnover of command took place by 2 FEB 1862 (prior to that time, John McClernand was commander of Post of Cairo and commander of 1st Brigade.) And General Grant exercised overall command against Belmont as Commander, District of SE Missouri; and against Fort Henry as Commander, District of Cairo. Second Division. A loose collection of infantry, artillery and company-sized units of United States Cavalry gravitated towards Paducah; and under leadership of Charles Ferguson Smith, former Commandant at West Point and Mexican War veteran, acting as Commander, Post of Paducah, these units were moulded quickly into what became the Second Division (by the time of Belmont, at least two brigade-sized organizations had been organized, one of which conducted a demonstration to the east of Fort Columbus, commanded by Eleazer Paine.) Lew Wallace, who had arrived at Paducah mid-August, was promoted to Brigadier General and took command of the 2nd Brigade before the end of October 1861. And John McArthur replaced the out-of-favor Paine, in command of 1st Brigade. Third Division. Following success at Forts Henry and Heiman, Grant’s Army of Cairo marched east to envelope Fort Donelson; and General Lew Wallace’s brigade (and other spare troops) were left behind on the Tennessee River to garrison the captured prizes. After a few days, Lew Wallace and most of his force was called east to join the Campaign at Fort Donelson; and upon arrival BGen Wallace was given command of the new Third Division (losing his own brigade to Smith’s Second Division) but gaining Cruft’s Brigade (former 13th Brigade, Buell’s Army of the Ohio) and enough new-arrived units to form a brigade under Colonel John Thayer of Nebraska. The Third Division provided valuable service, in time to stifle the breakout attempt, which helped result in the Confederate surrender on 16 FEB 1862. Fourth Division. Brigadier General Stephen Hurlbut completed “drying out” at Benton Barracks and was sent to join General Grant at Fort Donelson… but arrived a day or two after the Rebels surrendered. Initially given minor tasks to perform on Grant’s behalf, on 21 FEB 1862 IAW General Orders No.7 BGen Hurlbut was issued command of a complete, three-brigade Division (Fourth Division); possibly the quickest generation of a full division (under four days.) In addition, during Grant’s occasional absences from Fort Donelson (to visit Clarksville and Nashville) Stephen Hurlbut was given acting-Command of Fort Donelson. Next Division. When William Tecumseh Sherman arrived at Paducah from Benton Barracks in February 1862, he was tasked with forwarding on troops to Grant’s Fort Donelson operation and given authority (from Major General Halleck) to “siphon off” spare troops, in order to create his own division (which Brigadier General Sherman called “First” Division [OR 7 page 595]. By early March enough force had been withheld at Paducah to justify title of Sherman’s Division; and that division was ready to deploy south, up the Tennessee River, in support of BGen Smith’s campaign against Confederate railroads (after Grant’s suspension from field command.) The units assigned to what ultimately became recognized as the Fifth Division were adjusted continually through March and April, especially cavalry and artillery assignments. References: Sherman’s Memoirs page 249 (Orders of 13 FEB 1862) and page 253 (taking units for own division at Paducah). Papers of USG vol.4 page 236 (Hurlbut arrives Fort Donelson) page 241, 252, 254, 276 (note.) Lew Wallace Autobiography OR 3 and OR 7
  8. Ozzy

    Nixon at Shiloh

    From the Civil War Diaries Collection at Auburn University comes this Shiloh battle record, compiled by L. I. Nixon of Limestone County, Alabama. Incensed by hearing of the Confederate defeats at Fort Henry and Fort Donelson, 38-year old Liberty Independence Nixon left his wife and seven children and joined Malone's Company... and on February 24th 1862 was on his way to Corinth. After a brief stay, Malone's Company of the 1st Battalion of Alabama Volunteers returned south to vicinity of Mobile Bay to gather supplies; then a return to Corinth on the M & O R.R. took place on March 4th. Camping a few days about a mile north of Corinth, Private Nixon and his fellows rode the train north to Bethel Springs (and may have heard the exchange of gunfire between Confederate soldiers and Lew Wallace's party, tasked with tearing up the railroad -- page 18.) Returning to Corinth on March 20th, Nixon indicates "they resumed the exact same camp ground, as before." And then, Private Nixon relates the story of "Beauregard's bodyguard finding a barrel of whiskey..." which led to Malone's Company being briefly assigned as bodyguard to General Beauregard. While in close proximity to Tishomingo Hotel, Private Nixon confirms "a rush" made on the hotel (also mentioned in Braxton Bragg's Letter of 20 March 1862.) Pages 24 - 27 reflect on camp life in Corinth. Page 27 records the units making up Gladden's Brigade: 1st Louisiana Infantry, 21st Alabama Infantry, 22nd Alabama, 25th Alabama, "Robisson's" Regiment of Artillery, and Nixon's unit, the 1st Battalion Alabama Volunteers commanded by Major Chaddick. Next day (March 30th) four new companies are added to the 1st Alabama Battalion -- now known as 26th Alabama Infantry Regiment. On page 28, the orders to cook three days' rations (3 April). Same day: "We left early and took up the line of march." Pages 28 - 30 recount the march north, the rain, and wagons getting mired in the mud. Page 31 records knowledge of the Picket Skirmish of April 4th (Private Nixon observed Yankee prisoners being moved south.) Pages 32 - 34 record the final approach towards the Federal camp; and about dark on April 5th Private Nixon and his fellows are sent forward on picket duty... The entire diary is only 46 pages long (and the first four pages are water-damaged from attic storage, so almost unreadable.) Fortunately, every page is transcribed at bottom: http://content.lib.auburn.edu/cdm/compoundobject/collection/civil/id/23854/rec/20 Private Nixon's Shiloh Diary.
  9. Ozzy

    Parker's Office

    The above image depicts a scene sketched at Pittsburg Landing in April 1862 that most have never seen before. What was "Parker's Office?"
  10. On the back page of the Daily Missouri Republican of 25 MAR 1862 is noted: "The Iatan arrived yesterday from the Tennessee River." Three days later, in the Friday edition, the paper reported: "Captain James Gormley has resigned command of the steamer Empress and taken charge of Iatan. He will depart with her on Saturday..." The voyage on Saturday from St. Louis was a short one: just a couple of miles south, where Iatan pulled up to Arsenal Dock. After spending much of the day loading stores, Captain Gormley was replaced by Captain Edds; and late on Saturday/ early on Sunday the steamer got underway "on a Government trip," down the Mississippi, up the Ohio, up the Tennessee... and briefly stopped at Fort Henry to report, and to pick up passengers (Lieutenant Derickson of the 16th Wisconsin, as well as several recovered patients from Illinois hospitals are known to have embarked.) Iatan continued up the Tennessee River and may have paused briefly at Savannah before reaching Pittsburg Landing, where she arrived on Tuesday, April 1st carrying enough munitions to start her own war: 200 pieces 24 # solid shot 4800 # 200 pieces 32 # solid shot 6400 # 100 8-inch shells(Columbiad) 5000 # 45 barrels explosive powder 4680 # 43 boxes of gunpowder 6361 # 2 boxes gunpowder 386 # Total weight of munitions 27,627 pounds References: L.B. Parsons Papers AQM Office (St. Louis Arsenal) Bill of Lading for 29 March 1862 Scapegoat of Shiloh by Kevin Getchell Daily Missouri Republican editions of March 25, 28 & 30 of 1862
  11. It's not often you find an eyewitness account of "that march" conducted by Lew Wallace on Sunday, April 6th... Johann Stuber migrated with his parents and siblings from Switzerland in 1854, and settled in Cincinnati. In October 1861, the 23 year old, trained as a typesetter, joined the 58th Ohio Volunteer Infantry, Company A, and was soon promoted to Corporal. First seeing action at Fort Donelson, the 58th Ohio remained with Lew Wallace's Third Division; and when that division was sent to Crump's Landing in March 1862, the 2nd Brigade (Colonel John Thayer) comprising the 58th OVI, 68th OVI, 23rd Indiana and 1st Nebraska, established its brigade camp in vicinity of Stony Lonesome, midway between Adamsville and Crump's Landing. Corporal Stuber's report for April 6th 1862: "In the morning we heard from the vicinity of Pittsburg Landing a heavy cannonade, which soon developed into an unbroken roar, which persisted as the morning wore on. From the Landing (where our provisions were kept), there came a "rabbit-footed messenger," who had arrived by boat. He loudly reported that he was a member of the 57th Ohio, and that upon being aroused from his sleep by the noise of battle, raced for the Landing and took a boat to Crump's, to deliver the news: but not for us to hurry to help, but to flee for our lives downriver. Knowing that our Army had 50,000 troops at Pittsburg, confirmed by Captain Markgraff during his recent visit, we refused to believe this refugee's report. "About midday, we received the orders preparatory to marching: ammunition was distributed, and we packed necessities and rations for ten days. After about an hour, we began to march south with our heavy knapsacks (instead of taking the boats, as we believed we would). It was dreadfully hot, and the soldiers of the regiments ahead of us threw away their blankets and excess clothing during the march, so that a carpet of clothing lined both sides of the road. We had hiked about seven miles, and were about one mile from our destination, when a report came that we were going the wrong way. We were turned around, and told to take another road -- which caused us to go double the distance in order to arrive where we were wanted. "It was during twilight that my regiment reached a dark woods, at the edge of a swamp, and were told to wait. And while we waited, we were not allowed to do anything -- no pipes or cigars -- because we were told the Rebels could be on the other side of the swamp, only 500 yards away. Finally, we passed through that swamp and reaching the other side, were told we had arrived. We continued marching, and the gunboats were firing, supposedly in the direction of the Rebels. We had gone about a mile when we entered a Union camp, totally abandoned by its owners, but with the tents filled with wounded, who all seemed to be moaning and crying from their wounds. We continued past this camp, and entered a dark woods, where we halted and attempted to rest beneath the boughs of the trees. But the gunboats continued firing; and it started to rain... a thunderstorm, no less. As bad as it was for us, we could not help feeling pity for the wounded, caught in the open with no shelter. We could hear them, away out there, somewhere, in the darkness, calling for help, and for water. And we could not help them. The pickets were not far from us; and the enemy's pickets were not far from our pickets. During the night, firing occurred between the lines of pickets, so heavy at times it seemed the Battle had resumed..." [Above record translated and edited; entry from "The Diary of Johann Stuber" for 6 April 1862.] Ozzy Reference: http://archive.org/stream/meintagebuchuber00stub#page/22/mode/2up
  12. Ozzy

    Failure to Report

    Sometimes, facts hide in plain sight... While re-reading the history of events that took place from just after midnight (in the wee hours of April 6th 1862) it occurred to me: General Prentiss in his Shiloh report records sending notice of the attack in progress to Commanders of the 2nd Division and 4th Division, and to Colonel Stuart; and requests for assistance from the 2nd and 4th Divisions. But, Prentiss does not indicate that he informed the Acting Campground Commander (W. T. Sherman) of the Confederate attack. Why not? In General Sherman's Shiloh report, he admits to requesting reinforcement from McClernand (1st Division) and to "alerting Hurlbut to the need to reinforce Prentiss" ...and to General Prentiss, "alerting him that the enemy was in our front, in force." As Prentiss's Sixth Division was obviously under attack for some time before Sherman's own 5th Division felt the sting, this "sending of alert to Prentiss" smacks of mild rebuke, "for not informing the Campground Commander -- acting, of what was taking place." The question: "Why did not Prentiss notify Sherman?"
  13. Ran across the following Shiloh report in the New Orleans Daily Crescent of 30 APR 1862:
  14. It appears another Flag of Truce was sent by the Confederates to Union commanders at Pittsburg Landing, a week after Battle of Shiloh: [from Chronicling America The Semi-Weekly Shreveport News of 22 APR 1862 page 1.]
  15. I begin this post with a fact unknown to most Shiloh aficianados: Charles Ferguson Smith, although referred to as "General" Smith, was technically still Colonel Smith through the Fort Henry Campaign. When General Grant learned shortly afterwards that Smith's appointment had been held up in the U.S. Senate, Grant complained to Elihu Washburne (on about 10 FEB 1862) that "Smith must be confirmed, immediately." During the investment of Fort Donelson, C.F. Smith was informed by Major General Halleck (on 14 FEB) that the Senate had finally confirmed him as Brigadier General, with effective date of rank 31 AUG 1861. Why this matters? The frequent, and difficult to predict, promotion of Colonels to BGen, and BGen to Major General during the Civil War -- on both sides -- had potential to upset military planning and execution of those plans in the field (as evidenced during March and April 1862 during the lead-up to events that took place at Pittsburg Landing.) Seniors refused to be commanded by juniors (upheld by Laws of USA and CSA.) And, because Seniority between and among general officers was of some importance, listed below are Union general officers -- with association with Pittsburg Landing -- relative seniority effective on particular dates: April/ May March on Corinth: MGen Halleck -- Grant -- Buell -- Pope -- McClernand -- CF Smith (died 25 APR) -- Lew Wallace -- Ormsby Mitchel -- George Thomas -- WT Sherman -- EOC Ord -- Brigadier General T. W. Sherman (not WT Sherman) -- Hurlbut -- Sturgis -- Wm."Bull" Nelson -- Garfield -- Thos. Davies -- Isaac Quinby -- Oglesby -- John P. Cook -- WHL Wallace (died of wounds 10 APR) -- McArthur -- McCook -- Lauman -- John Logan -- Speed Fry -- Dodge -- Buford -- Ross -- Crittenden -- Hovey -- Veatch Pittsburg Landing on 18 MAR 1862: MGen Grant -- BGen Sherman -- Hurlbut -- Prentiss -- McClernand -- CF Smith -- Lew Wallace (Seniority among selected Colonels on 18 MAR: WHL Wallace -- McArthur -- Lauman) Pittsburg Landing after 21 MAR 1862: MGen Grant -- MGen Buell -- McClernand -- CF Smith -- Lew Wallace -- Brigadier General WT Sherman -- Hurlbut -- Prentiss -- Bull Nelson -- Oglesby -- John P. Cook -- WHL Wallace -- McArthur -- Lauman -- John Logan -- Ross Reference: https://archive.org/details/generalorderswa00deptgoog/page/n8 General Orders of the War Department [Charles F. Smiths late confirmation by the Senate was likely due to unfounded rumours, spread by his personal enemy, Eleazer Paine, detailing "improprieties in Paducah" which Henry Halleck had to personally investigate -- OR 7 page 929 and Teacher of Civil War Generals by Allen H. Mesch, pages 208 - 9. General Grant response to learning that Senate had not yet confirmed Smith as General on 10 FEB 1862 found in General E. A. Paine in Western Kentucky by Dieter Ullrich, et al... page 162, and Papers of US Grant, vol.4, page 188 (and 189).]
  16. Ozzy

    Naval Achievements

    Achievements of the Navy (on the Tennessee River, from the fall of Fort Henry) It is a struggle to come to grips with this topic, because “The Navy” was not technically part of the war effort on the inland waters until October 1862. So, up until that time (including the contribution made in support of Grant’s Army at Pittsburg Landing) the Timberclads and Ironclads (and from late April 1862, the Tinclads) were part of the Union Army, operated by competent officers and enlisted men of the U.S. Navy… except in the case of Ellet’s Rams, but that’s another story. Beginning with the initial raid up the Tennessee River, commenced immediately upon the fall of Fort Henry, the accomplishments of patrols and multi-vessel raids are many and varied: · Denied Rebel use of MC & L R.R. bridge at Danville · Capture of nearly complete ironclad, Eastport · Shock & awe of Confederate citizens along the Tennessee, as far as Florence, AL · Destroyed (or encouraged self-destruction) of almost every Rebel steamer on the Lower Tennessee River… except two, hidden until mid-April 1862 · Found important pockets of Union support (most notably at Savannah, Tennessee) · Intelligence collection · Second raid found M & C R.R. near Iuka too strongly defended · Strong Union support at Savannah confirmed · Confiscated massive amount of Rebel flour at Clifton, Tennessee · Moved controversial figure, Fielding Hurst, to safety at Cairo · Intelligence collection · Third raid recruited crew members at Savannah for Timberclad service · “Recruitment Picnic” broken up at Savannah (and leaders of that picnic – J.B. Kendrick of Captain Fitzgerald’s Company of Tennessee Volunteers and Clay Kendrick of Colonel Crew’s Regiment – taken into custody and removed to Cairo · Engagement at Pittsburg Landing on March 1st drives Rebels away from the bluff. Members of Company C and Company K of 32nd Illinois Infantry – acting in capacity of “sharp shooters” – participate as landing party. (The 32nd Illinois later takes part at Shiloh, attached to Hurlbut’s Fourth Division.) · As component of General C.F. Smith’s Expedition, the Lexington and Tyler provided support and protection to the transport fleet · Whenever discovered, ferry vessels were destroyed · Support to Sherman’s raids (attempted cut of M & C R.R.) · Reconnaissance and intelligence collection · In company with USS Cairo on April 1st, the gunboats conducted a reconnaissance of creeks as far upstream as Chickasaw Bluff (likely an attempt to uncover the hiding place of two Rebel steamers) · During the Battle of Shiloh, gunfire support (directed by General Hurlbut) commences just before 3 p.m. and intensifies until night halts the action of April 6th · Overnight, the Timberclads lob explosive shells into Rebel-held portions of Shiloh battlefield, every 15 minutes, until 5 a.m. Can you think of any other Naval contributions to add to the list? [Most information found in OR (Navy) vol.22 and Chicago Daily Tribune.]
  17. On April 9th 1862, a much-anticipated report detailing events at the recent Battle of Shiloh began making its way to the newspapers of the North. Written by Major General Grant, the concise description of that bloody engagement is below presented, as it appeared in the Coudersport, Pennsylvania weekly, The Potter Journal of Wednesday 23 APR 1862. Filling most of two printed columns (on page 2, beginning column 4) and titled, "Battle at Pittsburg: Official Report of Gen'l Grant," this published account is as close as Ulysses S. Grant ever got to an Official Report. Click on the below image, and zoom in... [provided by Chronicling America, a project of the Library of Congress.] If the expanded image is unclear, try this direct link: https://chroniclingamerica.loc.gov/lccn/sn86081096/1862-04-23/ed-1/ (and select Page 2).
  18. Beginning almost immediately after the Battle of Shiloh, and for all the years since, people have attempted to make sense of the late arrival of Major General Grant at Pittsburg Landing, his flagship, Tigress, nosing into the bank as much as four hours after first contact with the enemy. What follows is a proposed progression of General Grant's efforts to "get into the fight" that Sunday morning, 6 April 1862: 7:11 a.m. While having breakfast at the Cherry Mansion in Savannah, Grant heard booming cannon. 8:30 (approx.) Grant and members of his Staff, aboard Tigress, stop at Crump's Landing and direct Lew Wallace to "Wait in readiness..." 9 - 9:30 After meeting with one (and possibly two) steamers enroute, sent to alert him, Grant arrives at Pittsburg Landing. Grant and members of his Staff ride up the bluff, and meet with BGen WHL Wallace. Convinced of a major engagement, Grant sends away Rawlins with orders to "release the officers in arrest," and "bring up Lew Wallace." AAG Rawlins relays the orders for Lew Wallace to AQM Baxter, who rides Tigress to Crump's Landing. 10 a.m. Grant meets with Sherman. Either just before, or just after meeting Sherman, General Grant encountered the 2nd Illinois Cavalry, lined up, awaiting orders. Grant places Captain Hotaling on his Staff, for the day, and directs him to "place and fight Birge's Western Sharpshooters." Grant sends away Cavalry officer Frank Bennett (north along the River Road) with orders to "escort Lew Wallace back to here." 10:30 (approx.) Riding south down the road to Hamburg, General Grant meets with BGen Hurlbut. Leaving Hurlbut, Grant rides west and meets BGen Prentiss... and tells him, "Hold this position at all hazards." Do you agree with the above timeline? Is there a time or location that seems improbable? Is there another significant action/ decision that should be added? Please feel free to offer suggestions... Ozzy
  19. Ozzy

    Derickson Papers

    Richard P. Derickson was a First Lieutenant in the 16th Wisconsin Infantry, Company K, at the time the Battle of Shiloh erupted. On that fateful Sunday of 6 APR 1862, he was at his duty station aboard "wharf boat" Iatan, acting in capacity of AQM for the Sixth Division (a position he had occupied since April 3rd, assigned by BGen Prentiss.) Part of Lieutenant Derickson's duties involved him creating and maintaining precise records, accounting for possession and distribution of Government stores... Kevin Getchell made use of Lieutenant Derickson's records in constructing his 2013 work, Scapegoat of Shiloh: the distortion of Lew Wallace's record by U. S. Grant. The author indicates that he "encountered the Derickson Papers at an auction, and purchased them." Exact copies of several of the documents created by LT Derickson are contained in Scapegoat of Shiloh. These records are valuable for determining activities of the embryonic Sixth Division in the days leading up to that contact in Fraley Field. Less well known: Kevin Getchell made copies of the original documents, and left those on file with Shiloh NMP https://www.jacksonsun.com/story/news/2015/04/02/shiloh-battlefield-commemorate-rd-battle-anniversary/70862666/ Jacksun Sun of 2 APR 2015.
  20. Ozzy

    Grant's second AAG

    We tend to accept that Ulysses S. Grant and John Rawlins, both residents of Galena, Illinois, enjoyed one of the premier partnerships of the Civil War, pre-dating Grant & Sherman. And many assume that the partnership of Grant & Rawlins continued, uninterrupted, and unchanged, through the war years and beyond, into the first year of Grant's Presidency. But, such is not the case: a year or so after Shiloh, John Rawlins was promoted to Brigadier General, and elevated to become Grant's Chief of Staff... which necessitated replacement for Rawlins as Assistant Adjutant General. The man selected, a Veteran of the Battle of Shiloh, served as Grant's AAG through the end of the war. Who was this man? [Bonus: What caused this man to cease working for General Grant? ]
  21. William McMichael David W. Reed made a valiant attempt to get to the facts in compiling his history of Shiloh; and he incorporated those facts into his written work, The Battle of Shiloh and the Organizations Engaged (manuscript completed 1900), and in marking out important sites on the Shiloh NMP with definitive tablets. Unfortunately, even the cautious, precise Major Reed, got his facts wrong on occasion… which leads to the biography of this man: William McMichael. Born in Philadelphia in 1841, during the Civil War William McMichael became one of the “Fighting McMichaels” (his brothers Clayton, and Morton, Jr., fought at Gettysburg). Their father, Morton McMichael Sr., was a prominent Philadelphia newspaper publisher, active in politics, and important supporter of President Lincoln and the Union War Effort. Prior to March 1862, the graduate of University of Pennsylvania, William McMichael, was promoted to Captain, and installed as AAG to Brigadier General Charles F. Smith (who had ties to Pennsylvania.) Captain McMichael accompanied BGen Smith on the Tennessee River Expedition; and Generals William Tecumseh Sherman and Lew Wallace reported to Smith on a number of occasions, through AAG McMichael [OR 10 pp.9, 10, 22 & 25 and OR 11 p.53]. A close read of the above communications is important, especially BGen Sherman’s report dated 20 MAR 1862 and found OR 11 page 53, because on that date the injured and ill General Smith was recuperating aboard Hiawatha; Captain McMichael “acted on Smith’s behalf” at Pittsburg Landing; and Colonel Jacob Lauman was “Acting Commander of the Second Division.” Fast forward to 2 APR 1862: Captain McMichael was still at Pittsburg Landing; Jacob Lauman was removed from the Second Division (and reported to Hurlbut’s Fourth Division); and new Brigadier General WHL Wallace was assigned “temporary command of the Second Division, during the absence of Major General C.F. Smith.” (According to a letter written by Wallace on April 3rd, he did not physically remove himself to the Second Division until April 4th, where he would have found Captain McMichael already operating as AAG of the Division.) Whose Assistant Adjutant General was William McMichael? Technically, he was the AAG to Major General Smith, in command of the Second Division. He remained at Pittsburg Landing while C.F. Smith was “absent, ill,” first aboard Hiawatha, and then upstairs in the Cherry House. He was never AAG to Jacob Lauman; and he was never AAG to WHL Wallace (although it would be reasonable to assume that he acted as AAG for those officers, in their temporary status while attached to the Second Division.) On the morning of April 6th1862, Captain McMichael accompanied BGen Wallace during his efforts to alert General Grant at Savannah (and may have been the messenger sent by Wallace aboard the steamer John Warner… which would explain why that steamer rounded to and returned to Pittsburg Landing – enabling McMichael to further assist WHL Wallace [still looking for evidence of this – Ozzy].) Captain McMichael acted on the battlefield as courier and AAG for BGen Wallace, up until the time General Wallace was shot from his horse. It was McMichael who reported that sad news to General Benjamin Prentiss; and Prentiss records that, “Captain McMichael, assistant adjutant-general,attached to the division commanded by General Wallace, joined me upon the field when his gallant leader fell. He is entitled to special mention for his conduct while so serving” [Shiloh Report of BGen Prentiss]. In addition, McMichael gains mention in the “unofficial” Shiloh report of General Grant: “Captain William McMichael is missing; probably taken prisoner” [OR 10 page 110]. And General Grant was correct: William McMichael was indeed taken prisoner (although he managed to return North after May 1862, due to a “special exchange” arranged through his father, Morton McMichael, and implemented by Major General Halleck through negotiations conducted by MGen John Pope with General Beauregard on 27 May 1862 [OR Series 2, vol.3 No.116 – Prisoners of War, pages 600 – 1].) Afterwards, McMichael was promoted to Major, and then Lieutenant Colonel, and is reported to have served on the staff of Generals Halleck and Rosecrans. He was mustered out in March 1866, and returned to Philadelphia, where he established a Law practice. He served in President Grant’s Administration as Assistant Attorney General. William McMichael, brevet-Colonel, died in New York City in April 1893 and was buried in Philadelphia. Cheers Ozzy References: http://www.findagrave.com/memorial/46715015/william-mcmichael   BVT- Colonel William McMichael http://philadelphiaencyclopedia.org/archive/consolidation-act-of-1854/10422_166616/ Mayor of Philadelphia (1866 - 69) Morton McMichael David W. Reed, The Battle of Shiloh and the Organizations Engaged (1909) pages 25 and 38. http://chroniclingamerica.loc.gov/lccn/sn92053945/1893-04-21/ed-1/seq-4/#date1=1893&index=0&rows=20&words=Mc+McMichael+Michael&searchType=basic&sequence=0&state=Illinois&date2=1893&proxtext=McMichael&y=0&x=0&dateFilterType=yearRange&page=1 Rock Island Argus 21 APR 1893 page 4 col.4 "Death of Colonel McMichael" OR 10, 11 and 116
  22. It appears baseball was played by General Grant's troops, during their abundant leisure time, after the victory at Fort Donelson. The game may have been introduced to regiments undergoing training at Benton Barracks. Alternatively, one or more of the regiments from Milwaukee, Chicago, or Ohio may have imported the game when they arrived at Pittsburg Landing in March 1862. It is confirmed that a baseball was discovered on Shiloh Battlefield, a few days after the carnage, by a civilian working for the Union army. G. F. Hellum was so impressed by his find, he etched details of the location of his discovery into the hide, turning the lemon-peel ball into a trophy. Now, consider the story of Sgt. Edward Spalding, Co. E, 52nd Illinois. In action on Sunday, the 6th of April, he was twice wounded, but refused to be removed from the field. He remained fighting, in open ground, until the close of the battle. Finally taken to Hospital at Pittsburg Landing in time to have wounds to his left arm dressed, he should have made a full recovery. But, days passed, and his condition worsened. Somehow, Ed Spalding's parents found out about their son's predicament; his father, Asa, journeyed to Pittsburg Landing and took him home, to Rockford, Illinois. The improvement in care, furnished in a loving home, probably saved his life. But, it still required time for his wounds to fully heal. While recuperating, he was visited by his 11-year-old cousin, Albert, to whom he introduced the rules of the game of Baseball. Edward returned to his regiment in November 1862, was promoted to second lieutenant, and continued to serve until mustered out in December 1864. Albert Spalding took to his cousin's game so well, that he went on to become a professional baseball player, playing as pitcher, centerfielder, and first baseman, for the Boston Red Stockings, and the Chicago White Stockings. In 1876, he co-founded A. G. Spalding Sporting Goods; he continued to promote 'the National Pastime' for the rest of his life.
  23. Ozzy

    6th Division, 1st contact

    Peabody started the Battle of Shiloh “Peabody started the battle with the patrol he sent out” says WI16thJim, as summarized by Hank. And it is likely that in 2018 no one (with an interest in History of Shiloh) disputes this. But, the devil is in the details… and nine months after the Battle of Shiloh, no one was sure how the battle began: many of the key participants were dead (Colonel Peabody, Major Powell.) The opportunity for survivors to get together and hash out a story did not present itself due some being sent away wounded (Colonel Moore) and some spending months in captivity (Brigadier General Prentiss and Colonel Madison Miller.) Much like “The Blind Man and the Elephant,” everyone held a piece of the puzzle, but it was only upon combining those unique pieces that the picture was revealed. In 1903 (two years after the death of Benjamin Prentiss) Andrew Hickenlooper reported: “The bugle’s cheery notes aroused the camp at the dawn of day [reveille was sounded at 6 o’clock.] Breakfast was over and all was ready for an early morning drill, when the faint reports of distant picket shots were heard…” [Sketches of War History p.412.] [And included to not only illustrate the “acoustic cloud” reported by many Federal commanders (which many believed was due a strong easterly breeze blowing from the Tennessee River, and which muffled the sound of musket fire less than two miles away), but also Hickenlooper’s claim “he heard an exchange of picket fire.” ] In his report published 1891, advocate for Shiloh Memorial Park, former member of 41st Illinois E.T. Lee, recalled, “At 3 o’clock on Sunday morning Colonel Moore with five companies of his regiment again went to the front, and at break of day he drove the advance pickets of the enemy in and engaged their advance line” [SDG “Shiloh Memorial Park,” post of 29 June 2018.] This statement is derived (and repeated almost verbatim) from General Benjamin Prentiss’s November 1862 Shiloh Report.] Then, there is O. P. Newberry’s information, released broadly before his death in 1874. As a Lieutenant in Company I of 25th Missouri, Oliver Newberry was one of the few witnesses to the encounter between Benjamin Prentiss and Everett Peabody, at or after 6 a.m. on Sunday morning; and may have been present at the meeting that resulted in Major Powell being sent forward in the darkness of pre-dawn Sunday morning. Letters sent to family members after the battle hint at “more awareness of what took place,” than was available to senior commanders. Unfortunately, with Peabody and Powell dead, who supports (or negates) Newberry’s claims? Still, what claims existed (end of 1862) were these: · Pickets, correctly placed by General Prentiss, started the Battle of Shiloh; · Colonel Moore, responding to picket firing, started the Battle; · Colonel Peabody, without authority, sent Powell to start the Battle of Shiloh. Beginning with the claim, “the picket line, correctly placed and strengthened by General Prentiss initiated contact that led to Battle of Shiloh,” this version of events had majority support in 1862 and is recorded in Prentiss’s November 1862 report; and in the April 1862 report of Colonel David Moore (in which it is apparent that Colonel Peabody mentioned “contact with the enemy, experienced by pickets” as justification for sending Moore and five companies forward.) “Colonel Moore responded to picket firing and started the Battle of Shiloh,” is how General Prentiss documented the events of Sunday Morning, April 6th 1862. Trying to make sense of how the whole affair started, Prentiss knew that he sent forward “the remainder of the 21st Missouri” at Colonel Moore’s request, upon waking up Sunday morning. And he may have had opportunity to query Colonel Moore, briefly, as that seriously wounded officer was removed from the front, on his way to Pittsburg Landing for treatment. (If so, Colonel Moore would have mentioned that he was “responding to the firing of the pickets.”) In any event, Colonel Moore, by virtue of his response, is accorded claim for “initiating Battle of Shiloh” in Prentiss’s official report. The claim that Major Powell, under orders of Colonel Peabody, is responsible for initiating the Battle of Shiloh is more problematic, and was not “shouted from the rooftops” at the time because of those inherent problems: obvious disregard (disrespect) of a senior commander; working outside the Chain of Command; usurping authority… Which is probably why details leaked out gradually over time (without possibility of putting the whole story together until all the facts were revealed much, much later.) Timeline Of Events affecting Sixth Division Sunday morning 6 APR 1862 [prior to 6 APR] BGen Prentiss strengthens his picket line. [after midnight] Following consultation with like-minded subordinates, Colonel Peabody sends away Major Powell with mission, “to capture Rebel cavalryman and return him to camp of 1st Brigade, Sixth Division for interrogation.” [after midnight] Major Powell detaches a small group from the picket force and leads them away towards a house, believed to be a base of Rebel cavalry [report of Private Baker 25th Missouri.] Finding the number of Rebel troops in vicinity too strong for his small force, Major Powell retraces his steps; and back at camp, bolsters his force with three companies each belonging to 25th Missouri and 12th Michigan. 3 a.m. (est) Major Powell leads his bolstered force, intent on the Capture Mission, away towards the suspected Cavalry outpost. Before arriving (and in vicinity of Fraley Field) Powell’s reconnaissance draws fire from “a Confederate vedette.” [Sergeant Ed. A. Gordon of Co.A 57th OVI on picket duty recalls Major Powell and "three companies of the 25th Missouri" passing his picket post "at about 3 a.m., long before daylight." Sergeant Gordon records in National Tribune of 26 APR 1883 p.2 Col.6 that "Major Powell informed us that he was going to catch some Rebels for breakfast." ] 5:15 (or 4:55) Recorded time of above contact: Rebels vs. Major Powell. 5:30 (est) Upon hearing engagement taking place, Colonel Peabody alerts Colonel Moore and tells him, “Contact with our pickets has occurred.” Moore is sent away by Peabody with five companies of his 21st Missouri to investigate “the picket firing.” As he heads in the direction of the sound of gunfire, Colonel Moore encounters the 25th Missouri (Major Powell) returning to camp. Moore turns Powell around, and also takes control of elements of the 16th Wisconsin, Company A (Captain Saxe) and continues forward. 6 a.m. Reveille in Camp of Sixth Division. 6 a.m. A messenger sent from Colonel Moore reports to BGen Prentiss and reports “contact with the pickets.” Further, Colonel Moore requests the remainder of his 21st Missouri (which Prentiss sends away to bolster Colonel Moore.) The sound of gunfire away in the distance becomes more distinct (although most soldiers north of the Sixth Division do not hear the sound of musketry due to “acoustic shadow.”) Just after 6 a.m. The Long Roll is sounded (either by orders of Prentiss or Peabody.) And Prentiss confronts Peabody. 6:30 (est) The lines of infantry and two batteries of artillery move forward. 7 a.m. Hickenlooper begins firing. Munch begins firing. 7 a.m. Prentiss sends messengers to Smith (2nd DIV) and Hurlbut (4th DIV) explaining developments and “requesting reinforcements.” 7:11 General Grant (at Savannah) hears the booming of artillery. [Corrections and additions most welcome, as long as references provided – Ozzy.]
  24. Ozzy

    Shiloh primary sources

    The following link leads to 21 pages of titles/ authors of primary sources (created through about 1920) relating to Battle of Shiloh: http://www.civilwardigital.com/Shiloh-_Guide_to_Collection.pdf Guide to Shiloh primary sources Cheers Ozzy
  25. Alvin P. Hovey “History can teach no lesson where the Truth is untold.” The significance of this quote will be revealed later, after introducing the subject of this discussion. Alvin P. Hovey was born in Indiana in 1821, and orphaned when he was 15 years old. Apprenticed to learn the trade of bricklayer, but more interested in Law, he studied law at night after spending all day at physically demanding employment. In 1843, the focused, determined young man was admitted to the Bar. Married the following year, Hovey became a member of the Democratic Party and benefited by his subsequent association with senior officials: appointed to the Indiana Supreme Court (for six months, to fill a vacancy); involved in construction of the State’s new Constitution; and in 1855 appointed by Democrat President Franklin Pierce as United States Attorney for Indiana. But, following the election of Democrat President James Buchanan, things took a turn for the worse for Alvin Hovey: caught up in the internal strife polarizing the party, Hovey lost his position as State’s Attorney; and because of his views on “the issue of the day,” he was expelled from the Democratic Party. After a brief period as an “Independent,” Alvin Hovey ultimately joined the Republican Party as storm clouds gathered on the National horizon. Following breakout of war, Hovey helped organize the Indiana State Militia; and was afterwards appointed Colonel of the 24th Indiana Volunteer Infantry (mustered into service 31 July 1861.) Sent to Missouri in August, the 24th Indiana took part in Fremont’s Expedition against Springfield; and then remained in defence of Missouri until February 1862, when Colonel Hovey and his regiment were ordered to join Grant’s Campaign in Tennessee (but arrived too late to take part in the Fort Donelson operation.) In meantime, the 24th Indiana became attached to the Third Division (Lew Wallace) First Brigade (Morgan Smith) and in early March accompanied the expedition up the Tennessee River (at that time commanded by BGen Charles F. Smith.) Debarking at Crump’s Landing, the 24th Indiana set up camp not far to the west along the Purdy Road, with the rest of Colonel Smith’s 1st Brigade. On Sunday 6 April, Hovey’s 24th Indiana became part of the circuitous march conducted north, and within earshot of the Shiloh Battle; but did not reach the battlefield until late that day, after combat had ceased with the onset of night. The following morning, the 24th Indiana was placed at the extreme left end of Major General Wallace’s line and took a noted part in the general advance of Day 2 (and incurred a high percentage of the casualties suffered by the Third Division); the operation to drive the Rebels from the battlefield achieved successful conclusion by late afternoon. For his role, Alvin Hovey gained mention in MGen Wallace’s battle report; and subsequent to his impressive performance at Shiloh, Hovey was promoted to Brigadier General, effective April 28th 1862. (This April promotion proved to be timely, because when MGen Lew Wallace “left” the Third Division in June 1862, it was Hovey – in the right place, at the right time – who took over acting command in Wallace’s absence.) As concerns combat performance, Alvin Hovey is most noted for his contribution to the Union victory at Champion Hill: then in command of the 12th Division of McClernand’s XIII Army Corps, both Hovey and McPherson gained recognition from Major General Grant during that action. Not long afterwards, just a few days after surrender of Vicksburg, it was Hovey who took command of Hurlbut’s old Fourth Division (after General Lauman’s debacle at Jackson Mississippi, where he led his men into an ambush.) The death of his wife in November 1863 seems to have affected General Hovey greatly. He returned home to Indiana to arrange her funeral and organize for care of his children; but he ended up away from the battle front a long time. And when he did return in mid-1864 (in time for the Atlanta Campaign) he discovered he no longer had the necessary enthusiasm for the fight, and returned to Indiana. Although remaining “on the rolls” until October 1865, brevet-Major General Hovey’s war career effectively ended in August 1864. A year after the war ended, President Andrew Johnson appointed Alvin Hovey as Minister to Peru; he remained in Lima, serving as Minister until 1870. Upon return to the United States, Hovey distanced himself from politics and resumed his Law practice. In 1886, he again felt “a calling” and won election to the U.S. House of Representatives; followed two years later by election as Governor of Indiana. It was while serving as Governor that Alvin Hovey passed away in 1891 at the age of seventy. In my estimation, Alvin Hovey performed competently during his Civil War career; and, when compared with similar “political generals,” was outperformed by only John A. Logan and perhaps a half-dozen others. Cheers Ozzy References: http://archive.org/details/hoveychaselifeof00walk Alvin Hovey and Ira Chase (1888) by C. M. Walker. Staff Ride Handbook: Vicksburg by Dr. Christopher Gabel http://books.google.com.au/books?id=LKJvCwAAQBAJ&pg=PT137&lpg=PT137&dq=assessment+of+general+alvin+p+hovey&source=bl&ots=PFwEf6SqQF&sig=ssIxhgh599ixRN_1LE2xV6cWS44&hl=en&sa=X&ved=2ahUKEwjh_-6g-P3cAhVHQd4KHbrFCTI4ChDoATAFegQIBRAB#v=onepage&q=assessment of general alvin p hovey&f=false Stand No.18. OR 10 pages 173 - 4 (Lew Wallace Shiloh report) http://archive.org/stream/battleofshilohor00unit#page/92/mode/2up D. W. Reed's Battle of Shiloh pages 92 - 3. wikipedia
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