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Found 121 results

  1. Beginning almost immediately after the Battle of Shiloh, and for all the years since, people have attempted to make sense of the late arrival of Major General Grant at Pittsburg Landing, his flagship, Tigress, nosing into the bank as much as four hours after first contact with the enemy. What follows is a proposed progression of General Grant's efforts to "get into the fight" that Sunday morning, 6 April 1862: 7:11 a.m. While having breakfast at the Cherry Mansion in Savannah, Grant heard booming cannon. 8:30 (approx.) Grant and members of his Staff, aboard Tigress, stop at Crump's Landing and direct Lew Wallace to "Wait in readiness..." 9 - 9:30 After meeting with one (and possibly two) steamers enroute, sent to alert him, Grant arrives at Pittsburg Landing. Grant and members of his Staff ride up the bluff, and meet with BGen WHL Wallace. Convinced of a major engagement, Grant sends away Rawlins with orders to "release the officers in arrest," and "bring up Lew Wallace." AAG Rawlins relays the orders for Lew Wallace to AQM Baxter, who rides Tigress to Crump's Landing. 10 a.m. Grant meets with Sherman. Either just before, or just after meeting Sherman, General Grant encountered the 2nd Illinois Cavalry, lined up, awaiting orders. Grant places Captain Hotaling on his Staff, for the day, and directs him to "place and fight Birge's Western Sharpshooters." Grant sends away Cavalry officer Frank Bennett (north along the River Road) with orders to "escort Lew Wallace back to here." 10:30 (approx.) Riding south down the road to Hamburg, General Grant meets with BGen Hurlbut. Leaving Hurlbut, Grant rides west and meets BGen Prentiss... and tells him, "Hold this position at all hazards." Do you agree with the above timeline? Is there a time or location that seems improbable? Is there another significant action/ decision that should be added? Please feel free to offer suggestions... Ozzy
  2. Ozzy

    Shiloh Masters Thesis (2)

    Another day, another master’s thesis… and this one, submitted by William J. McCaffrey in 1970 is revealing, compelling, shocking. Although 140 pages long, this work grips the student of Battle of Shiloh by the throat, and does not let go. It examines “whether or not there was surprise at Pittsburg Landing on April 6th 1862”…and just who was surprised. On page three, a list of six items is posted: flawed conditions of readiness, at least one of which must be present to allow a Defender to get surprised by an Attacker. William McCaffrey devotes the remainder of his thesis to providing evidence of the presence of many of those six conditions of “un-readiness” at Pittsburg Landing in the days, hours and minutes leading up to General Albert Sidney Johnston’s attack. This report contains maps, an excellent list of references, and is constructed by a man concerned about “the lessons of History, and how to avoid the mistakes of History.” Have a read, and decide for yourself how close William McCaffrey, West Point Class of 1958, comes to the mark. Masters Thesis by William J. McCaffrey (1970) “Shiloh: a case study in Surprise” submitted to U.S. Army Command and General Staff College at Fort Leavenworth, KS and on file with National Technical Information Service: https://apps.dtic.mil/dtic/tr/fulltext/u2/733391.pdf
  3. It appears baseball was played by General Grant's troops, during their abundant leisure time, after the victory at Fort Donelson. The game may have been introduced to regiments undergoing training at Benton Barracks. Alternatively, one or more of the regiments from Milwaukee, Chicago, or Ohio may have imported the game when they arrived at Pittsburg Landing in March 1862. It is confirmed that a baseball was discovered on Shiloh Battlefield, a few days after the carnage, by a civilian working for the Union army. G. F. Hellum was so impressed by his find, he etched details of the location of his discovery into the hide, turning the lemon-peel ball into a trophy. Now, consider the story of Sgt. Edward Spalding, Co. E, 52nd Illinois. In action on Sunday, the 6th of April, he was twice wounded, but refused to be removed from the field. He remained fighting, in open ground, until the close of the battle. Finally taken to Hospital at Pittsburg Landing in time to have wounds to his left arm dressed, he should have made a full recovery. But, days passed, and his condition worsened. Somehow, Ed Spalding's parents found out about their son's predicament; his father, Asa, journeyed to Pittsburg Landing and took him home, to Rockford, Illinois. The improvement in care, furnished in a loving home, probably saved his life. But, it still required time for his wounds to fully heal. While recuperating, he was visited by his 11-year-old cousin, Albert, to whom he introduced the rules of the game of Baseball. Edward returned to his regiment in November 1862, was promoted to second lieutenant, and continued to serve until mustered out in December 1864. Albert Spalding took to his cousin's game so well, that he went on to become a professional baseball player, playing as pitcher, centerfielder, and first baseman, for the Boston Red Stockings, and the Chicago White Stockings. In 1876, he co-founded A. G. Spalding Sporting Goods; he continued to promote 'the National Pastime' for the rest of his life.
  4. Ozzy

    Corinth, interrupted...

    From the Union standpoint, the Battle of Shiloh was not supposed to happen. Federal troops were sent south, under command of Brigadier General C.F. Smith, with intention of cutting rail lines and disrupting Rebel communications (between Fort Columbus and Corinth; and between Florence and Corinth.) Abundant Spring rain and effective Rebel defences (and M & O R.R. repair crews) curtailed railroad track disruption. Although an initial base of operations was sited at Union-friendly Savannah, Tennessee, the intention was to establish the Federal base much further south (between Hamburg and Florence) but the grossly swollen Tennessee River turned those prospective campgrounds into sodden, mosquito-infested marshes; and Pittsburg Landing was selected, by default (selected by Brigadier General William T. Sherman, and approved by General Smith.) The high plateau stretching west of the towering bluff overlooking – and out of reach of – the Tennessee River being the primary feature favouring selection of the site. It is said, “There is nothing more permanent than a temporary solution.” Major General U.S. Grant arrived at Savannah on March 17th 1862 and inspected the de facto campgrounds at Crump’s and Pittsburg established by his predecessor, and pronounced them sound. [Part two] With so many operations on his plate, Major General Henry Halleck did not have manpower or war materials in sufficient quantity to permit combat operations to take place concurrently. Priorities had to be determined from among operations taking place in Northern Missouri (Prentiss), SW Missouri (Curtis), SE Missouri (Pope), Island No.10 (Foote) and Savannah/ Pittsburg (Smith, replaced by Grant.) With North Missouri deemed “under control,” followed by Battle of Pea Ridge securing southern Missouri, manpower and ammunition was freed to be sent elsewhere. (Additional manpower was of no use at Island No.10 so those extra regiments went to General Grant, instead.) And with Henry Halleck’s elevation to Commander, Department of the Mississippi, another source of manpower eventuated: Buell’s Army of the Ohio, based in vicinity of Nashville. But, before U.S. Grant’s operation (with passage of time, confirmed to focus on Corinth) would be permitted to commence, the joint operation (Pope, at New Madrid and Foote, approaching Island No.10 from the north) would be given every opportunity to reach a successful conclusion. And General Grant was ordered, “Do nothing to bring on a general engagement.” References: SDG “Do you know Bragg?” post of 18 May 2018: Confederate Daniel Ruggles assigned to Post of Corinth on 9 March 1862 and begins construction of defences soon after. SDG “Jackson HQ” post of 5 May 2017: General Albert Sidney Johnston arrived at Corinth on March 24th, with concentration of Confederate troops (to this time strewn along the M & C R.R. and the M & O R.R.) gaining pace, and most everyone moves to Corinth. OR 10 (part 2) pages 11 – 12: Henry Halleck has information on March 6th that, “Beauregard has 20,000 men at Corinth.” Sherman reports similar concentration at “Eastport and Corinth” that same day. SDG “Not just pictures…” post of 5 July 2017: Report of Agate (Whitelaw Reid) dateline Savannah Tennessee on 1 April 1862, “There are rumors that General Halleck will take the field here, in person, soon as the Island No.10 agony is over. And there will be four or five corps [marching to Corinth] commanded by Major Generals Grant, Smith, Wallace, Buell and McClernand.”
  5. Ozzy

    Civil War in 4 Minutes

    Stumbled upon this site on YouTube by accident, and believe it to contain informative, well-researched general knowledge facts suitable for starting a discussion, or generating interest in a research project: http://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLZrhqv_T1O1vGjphtbnTVXpNpiFKUpVy8 Civil War in4 from Civil War Trust ( website civilwar.org). For our purposes here at SDG, the most interesting videos: Civil War Photography http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kDzYkygdJO8 Civil War Flags https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gnYRJ4SleEM Zouaves https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_Zx5hqIdb-o Civil War Logistics https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ISDQGsdtvX4 General U.S. Grant https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=73WC1LHUGqQ Railroads https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Ko3wexxTxjY The War in the West https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=40DZh5NXjC4 The Civil War Generation https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HRUFNBNYoPg In addition, Civil War Trust has expanded into videos of the American Revolution https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bmkK9Gx7fqw We're less than ten years from the 250th Anniversary of that momentous event, so a great opportunity presents to become re-familiar with aspects of that earlier conflict... four minutes at a time. Ozzy
  6. Ozzy

    Unplanned delay at Savannah

    There was a moment when this author entertained the thought that, “Perhaps General Grant intended for Rebels to attack his forces at Pittsburg Landing” [which would explain “no trenches or abatis” – used as bait; seemingly haphazard arrangement of camps at Pittsburg – bait, to lure the Rebels north; lack of extensive cavalry patrols (to avoid bringing on engagement, too far south, which would allow Rebels to fall back to formidable defences at Corinth); and cavalry patrols that were conducted, seemingly without any coordination with infantry pickets…] But, the more research is conducted, the more apparent becomes the fact: Ulysses S. Grant was caught by surprise. There was no intention; no “offering Federal troops as bait” to lure the Rebels north. The April 6 attack by Rebels upon Grant’s forces at Pittsburg Landing was unanticipated… at least, on April 6. Prior to that bloody Sunday [but, we get ahead of the story...] When Major General Grant arrived at Savannah Tennessee on 17 March 1862 (released from limbo, and returned to command in the field) he had every expectation of “conducting an operation against the Rebels, further south.” Pittsburg Landing and Crump’s Landing and Savannah were merely temporary sites, staging grounds for assembling and preparing the Federal force that would drive south (at the time and place of General Grant’s choosing.) But, initiation of that operation was anticipated to take place soon. (Sherman’s frequent raids and probes offered potential to initiate more robust offensive action, “requiring” substantial forces from Pittsburg Landing be rushed forward to assist Sherman. But no solid opportunity for increased engagement presented.) Therefore, Grant’s operation at Savannah, Crump’s, Pittsburg evolved over time into, “Wait for Buell.” But, as time dragged on, General Grant must have realized that, “He had been caught in a trap of his own making.” The situation on April 1st (as Sherman launched yet another raid) revealed Federal troops camped at uncoordinated sites (close proximity to fresh water deemed more important than mutual defense); no trenches or abatis; contrary to Jomini, his force was “on the wrong side of the river” (although use of Lew Wallace’s division as “grand reserve” offset this danger); and Grant’s own HQ was maintained at Savannah (for reasons not adequately explained.) With Rebel moves against Lew Wallace (about April 2nd) and the Picket Skirmish (April 4th) there would have been cause for concern. And Grant would have had time for reflection that, “he had occupied his time – an unexpectedly long time, as it turned out – focused on minutia.” And, there may have been “rising cause for concern” end of March/ early April, as Rebel probes became increasingly aggressive, and Buell remained remarkable for his lack of presence. The cloud would have lifted on April 3rd with the report by telegraph of Bull Nelson’s arrival at Waynesborough (allowing Grant to view the Picket Skirmish of April 4th through a rosy lens.) And, when Jacob Ammen and Bull Nelson appeared at Savannah on April 5th (with promise of the remainder of Army of the Ohio arriving in short order) any concerns held by General Grant would have evaporated. So confident became General Grant of his invincibility, that he joked with Jacob Ammen about “steamers taking him across the Tennessee River in a few days,” and directed Major General Buell not to hurry, but to report on April 6th. So confident became Major General Grant (in his apparent safety, and the impending operation against Corinth moving ahead) that he organized an “engagement” that took place Saturday afternoon (mentioned by Grant to Ammen, to which Brigadier General Ammen was not invited.) References: OR 10 pages 330 – 331 [Jacob Ammen’s diary.] SDG topic “Why Stay at Crumps?” 14 NOV 2017. Papers of US Grant vol.5 page 7 “Letter to Julia of 3 April 1862.” Papers of US Grant vol.5 page 6 “Telegraphic reply to BGen Nelson at Waynesborough.” Papers of US Grant vol.5 page 9 “4 APR 1862 instruction to BGen Sherman to be prepared to provide support to MGen Lew Wallace, if necessary.” Papers of US Grant vol.5 page12 “4 APR 1862 instruction to BGen WHL Wallace to be prepared to reinforce MGen Wallace, if necessary.” Papers of US Grant vol.5 page 13 “5 APR 1862 communication sent from Savannah to MGen Henry Halleck at St. Louis, advising arrival of advance of Buell’s Army, with reported strength of enemy at Corinth.” Papers of US Grant vol.5 page 16 “5 APR communication from Grant to Buell, advising ‘[Grant] will be hear April 6th to meet you.” [Sent in reply to Buell’s communication, found in Notes, top of page 17.]
  7. Ozzy

    Most important times

    After a bit of deliberation, came up with the following as The Most Critical Times at Shiloh: 4:55 a.m. First contact. (Some record this time as 5:15, probably due to watch error.) 9:05 Brigadier General Prentiss retires with most of his artillery (and the sturdy bits of his infantry) to what will become the Hornet's Nest. 10 a.m. The "key time" for General Sherman: after meeting with General Grant, things start to fall apart on the Union Right. 2 p.m. Buell arrives at Pittsburg Landing and meets with Grant (despair caused by "no reinforcements" evaporates, replaced by Hope.) 2:30 Colonel Webster begins assembling Grant's Last Line (from all available artillery.) General Albert Sidney Johnston dies. 5:29 The exact time recorded by General Prentiss that he, and those stalwarts with him, surrendered. 6:25 p.m. Sunset. General Beauregard calls a halt to offensive operations. Can you think of any other times on Sunday 6 April 1862 more deserving of inclusion on the above list?
  8. Ozzy

    Barrett's Battery B

    Review of To Rescue My Native Land by Wm. T. Shepherd It is not often that letters and diaries compiled by artillerymen during the Civil War are encountered, and this collection is a gem: the “Civil War Letters of William T. Shepherd.” Native of Wisconsin, who enlisted in Chicago as Private in Taylor’s Battery B, 1st Illinois Light Artillery 16 July 1861, Private Shepherd (sometimes spelled Shepard) is a gifted, intelligent writer who sent letters to friends and family back in Illinois on a daily basis. Encountered in the many letters: · Camp life (and looking forward to letters, newspapers and parcels from home) · Details of duty (and October 1861 Skirmish at Fredericktown) in Missouri · Description of duty (and Christmas) at Bird’s Point, Missouri. Letter of 10 NOV 1861 describes participation in Battle of Belmont. Letter of 9 JAN 1862 reveals “everyone at Cairo, Fort Holt and Bird’s Point is under Marching Orders” (which everyone believes is for “somewhere down the Mississippi River…”) Instead, a feint is conducted to the east of Fort Columbus, which “confuses everyone”). Letter of 1 FEB 1862: under Marching Orders, again… 8 FEB 1862: describes “how easily their Fort Henry became ours.” 16 FEB: Letter begins “while besieging Fort Donelson” and describes previous four days of activity, and ends abruptly when orders arrive to “reposition the Battery.” (See 21 FEB letter.) 28 FEB: “Our Captain Taylor has just returned from a visit to Nashville…” 12 MAR: aboard steamer Silver Moon, going up the Tennessee River… 21 MAR: at Savannah, returning to steamer for move up river… 23 MAR letter written from Pitsburg Landing. “Arrived aboard John J. Roe. There are 75000 men at this place, and more arriving constantly…” 25 MAR: “Captain Taylor has been promoted, and Lieutenant Barrett is now in command of the Battery.” Letters of 8 APR and 14 APR 1862: aftermath of Battle of Shiloh. And more good news: Private William Shepherd (who was promoted to Sergeant Major by the end of the War) also kept a Diary… Cheers Ozzy To Rescue My Native Land: the Civil War Letters of William T. Shepherd (edited by Kurt H. Hakemer) Tennessee University Press 2005 (365 pages) is available at amazon.con and better libraries. [Limited access: https://books.google.com.au/books?id=a6HQRB6UimYC&pg=PA331&lpg=PA331&dq=israel+p.+rumsey+letter&source=bl&ots=JG_cwqaoUX&sig=dQa8blZoWwiMXVAQGfu3JkaSAHE&hl=en&sa=X&ved=2ahUKEwiIg5yUx4nfAhUF448KHReGDdcQ6AEwBXoECAkQAQ#v=onepage&q=israel p. rumsey letter&f=false And for those able to visit Kenosha, Wisconsin: https://museums.kenosha.org/civilwar/wp-content/uploads/sites/4/2018/05/Wisconsin-Resources-for-Website.pdf Civil War letters and diaries on file
  9. Lieutenant Israel Parsons Rumsey Chicago Light Artillery Battery B Born in 1836 in Genesee County, New York and product of a comfortable, loving home and efficient school system, Israel P. Rumsey heeded the call to “Go West,” and in early 1857 made his way to Iowa, where he intended to set himself up in the new State Capital, then building at Fort Des Moines. Unfortunately, young Rumsey crossed the Mississippi River as farm produce prices hit the skids (precursor to Panic of 1857, which gripped the Northern States a few months later) and hearing sad tales of other hopefuls returning east from Des Moines – “No work” – I.P. Rumsey altered course; he decided to try his luck in Keokuk, instead. Having experience as a clerk in wholesale and retail back East, the young man soon found employment in a local store (on a wage of $20 per month.) After a few months, he used that experience to acquire a newspaper route; and when his original Keokuk employer pleaded that he return (at nearly double his original wage) Rumsey sold the newspaper route to another man for $50 and a compass, and spent his remaining time in Keokuk working for Hitchcock’s… until learning that “Chicago was the place to be.” In 1858 I.P. Rumsey left Iowa, never to return. Following on two years of relative success in the commission business in Chicago, Rumsey got caught up in War Fever following the attack on Fort Sumter, left his business, and helped raise a company of men for the Chicago Light Artillery. Mustered into service on May 2nd 1861, the new unit was designated Battery B (and for his assistance in recruiting, Rumsey was appointed Second Lieutenant.) The new unit, under Captain Ezra Taylor, was soon sent south and helped defend Cairo and Bird’s Point, Missouri. In January 1862 Battery B became part of the buildup for an operation on the Tennessee River, assigned to McClernand’s Division. Following success at Fort Henry, the Battery followed McClernand’s Division east, and got caught up fighting against the Rebel breakout on February 15th. In the after-action report, McClernand gives Taylor’s Battery a glowing review; and in Colonel WHL Wallace’s Fort Donelson report, Lieutenant Rumsey, on Wallace’s staff, serving as AAG and ADC, receives favourable mention. In the buildup of Federal forces at Pittsburg Landing, Taylor’s Battery remained with McClernand’s First Division until the first week of April (when Battery B was transferred to the 5th Division; Ezra Taylor was promoted to Major and assigned as Sherman’s Chief of Artillery; and Samuel Barrett was promoted Captain and took command of Battery B.) And I.P. Rumsey remained with WHL Wallace when he was promoted to Brigadier General; and transferred with him to Smith’s Second Division (where Captain William McMichael was found established as Assistant Adjutant General). During the Battle of Shiloh, Lieutenant Rumsey acted as courier and ADC for General Wallace. (It was Rumsey who went in search of the fugitive Colonel Thomas Sweeny; requested, unsuccessfully, for General McClernand to “close the gap” and reconnect to WHL Wallace’s right; and found “McArthur’s force had been moved by someone, from where it was supposed to act in support of Colonel Stuart.”) After the war, back home in Chicago, Israel Rumsey revealed in his writings that, “the compass he acquired in Keokuk served him faithfully on the many battlefields where he found himself.” References: OR 7 pages 170 and 197 – 8. Life and Letters of General WHL Wallace by Isabel Wallace, pages 152, 160 – 3, 190 – 3. “Young Man on his Way Up” by Lida L. Greene, Annals of Iowa, vol.39 pp.546 – 550 (1969) Israel Parsons Rumsey Papers SDG "Epic Day of Hiking" post by Hank of 28 NOV 2012. SDG "Barrett's Battery B" created 6 DEC 2018. https://www.lflbhistory.org/media-gallery/detail/55/60 Lake Forest History Center bio of Israel P. Rumsey (with photo) http://taylors-battery.com/2nd Lt. Israel Rumsey.htm https://civilwar.illinoisgenweb.org/acm/art-1b.html Roster of 1st Illinois Light Artillery Battery B https://www.findagrave.com/memorial/133931276/israel-parsons-rumsey https://www.chipublib.org/fa-american-civil-war-photographs-and-images-and-grand-army-of-the-republic-photographs-and-images/
  10. Ozzy

    Shiloh Primary Sources No.2

    https://archive.org/details/catalogueoflibra00nichuoft/page/696 Catalogue of Library of LtCol John P. Nicholson (published 1914.) LtCol Nicholson must have been engrossed with the History of the Civil War; during the course of his life, he amassed the best collection of references (superior, even, to most University libraries.) Containing reference to diaries, letters, memoirs, biographies, this catalog acts as a bibliography revealing the existence of most known, and many obscure, Civil War resources. Found during my own perusal were resources concerning U.S. Grant, William T. Sherman, Leonidas Polk, PGT Beauregard, Whitelaw Reid. Maps of battlefields. MOLLUS records. (The above link at archive.org opens to the entries for works by David W. Reed.) After learning of the existence of a reference, search Google (or other search engine) and find its current location... Cheers Ozzy N.B. See also "Shiloh Primary Sources" of 20 SEP 2018 at Shiloh Discussion Group.
  11. Ozzy

    Hero of Chattanooga

    Hero of Chattanooga The 1864 Biography of Ulysses S. Grant Have given this particular article its title due to the fact it refers to the first biography of General U.S. Grant, published by Julian K. Larke of New York in March 1864 (after the stunning victory of Grant’s Army at Chattanooga, and before it was known “how the war would end.”) For our purposes, pages 50 – 97 are the most interesting, beginning with “the Seizure of Paducah” on 6 SEP 1861 (we are informed that John Fremont had no role in Grant’s decision to take possession of that strategically important Ohio River port.) Battle of Belmont runs from pages 53 – 58 (with excellent List of General Grant’s Staff Officers.) Also, an interesting relationship with Eleazer Paine is introduced, concerning atrocities committed by Southern citizens of Missouri against U.S. troops at Bird’s Point; and subsequently details “imperfect plans” provided to the Press, and potential spies, by General Grant, to keep real intentions and military movements from being known. Fort Henry occupies pages 66 – 69 (and John McClernand’s assignment as commander of the First Division is revealed.) The description of Fort Donelson is a good summary, except it ignores the roles played by John McClernand and John McArthur in facilitating the breakout attempt of Saturday morning 15 FEB 1862. Also, no credit is accorded Lew Wallace for sapping the momentum of the Confederate breakout. And, of course, ample coverage is provided to the Unconditional Surrender (although, the breaching of the topic of “Grant’s intemperance” following victory at Fort Donelson is unexpected; as is possible complicity by Henry Halleck...) Beginning with “Grant’s new District of West Tennessee,” leading to the occupation of Clarksville, followed by the Return to Federal control of Nashville (with no mention made of Grant’s role there) and concluding with “Grant’s army moved up the Tennessee River,” the two or three weeks following Fall of Fort Donelson are carefully massaged to present U.S. Grant in the best light. The buildup to the Battle of Shiloh begins page 84, with emphasis on destroying Confederate railroads. And the Battle, itself – including Buell’s importance; the issue of “surprise” and the role of Prentiss; and the inclusion of William Carroll’s Battle of Pittsburg article – all are covered pages 86 – 97 (which concludes with mention of Sherman’s advance on April 8th.) General Grant and his Campaigns by Julian K. Larke (published 1864) is of value for learning how the Hero of Chattanooga was perceived, before he was called to Washington… before he ended up winning the war. https://archive.org/details/generalgrantandh00larkrich/page/n5 N.B. For those in search of "something more," the description of the Public Dinner attended by General Grant in St. Louis on 26 JAN 1864 is to be found pages 455 - 462; "Grant's Appearance and Character" are described pages 463 - 468. And in the Appendix, pages 15 - 23, a remarkable justification for General Grant's performance at Shiloh, presented before the House of Representatives on 2 May 1862, by Elihu Washburne. Julian K. Larke at find-a-grave https://www.findagrave.com/memorial/172074446/julian-k.-larke. https://onlinebooks.library.upenn.edu/webbin/book/lookupname?key=Larke%2c J. K. (Julian K.)&c=x other works by Julian K. Larke
  12. Ozzy

    Diary of Edward Bates

    The War from the Other End of the Telegraph Sometimes a valuable diary is to be discovered, written by someone other than a participant on the battlefield. Such is the case with this diary kept by Edward Bates: Missouri politician, serious contender for the 1860 Republican Presidential nomination, and a man who years earlier served as a sergeant during the War of 1812. In February 1861, President-elect Lincoln called Bates to Washington, and on March 5th incorporated the man onto his Cabinet as Attorney General. The sections of Edward Bates’ diary most of interest: Pages Dates 121-130 APR-JUN 1860 Presidential aspirations. 143-167 SEP-DEC 1860 “The Country is coming apart.” 175 5 MAR 1861 Bates enters the Lincoln Administration. 180 March “The Florida forts must be held, with or without Sumter.” 182 15 APR War footing recommendations. 201 15 NOV “Halleck has gone to take charge in Missouri.” 215 December “France intends to side with England, in event of a provocation…” 217 31 DEC “We expect to hear of a battle near Bowling Green soon…” 218 31 DEC Bates advises Lincoln to “take personal command of the Army.” 220 31 DEC “Nobody knows McClellan’s plans…” 223 10 JAN 1862 “The boats and bomb rafts at Cairo are not ready.” 226 13 JAN Cameron has resigned; Stanton to be the new SecWar. 226 13 JAN General frustration, due to lack of military action. 228 2 FEB Bates describes Edwin Stanton. 228 3 FEB “The President has ordered action everywhere to commence by 22 FEB.” 230 5-11 FEB [Bates makes no mention of Fort Henry.] 232 14 FEB “It is said Fort Donelson was attacked today.” 232 17 FEB “We have certified information of our success at Fort Donelson.” 232 20 FEB “Willie Lincoln has died; his brother, Tad, is gravely ill.” 235 21 FEB Bates evaluates meaning of success at Fort Donelson. 239 11 MAR Stanton Report; McClellan removed as General-in-Chief. 239 11 MAR The Experiment begins: Stanton/Lincoln co-commanders. 242 15 MAR Telegrams from Halleck, Foote, Pope (IRT their intentions.) 246 5 APR No news… 246 8 APR “While in Cabinet Council, news arrived from Island No.10” 247 8 APR “We expect news from General Grant…” 247-249 April The news from Pittsburg Landing. 249 April Bates believes: “Once New Orleans falls, it is over.” 253 28 APR “The news comes that we have taken New Orleans…” 260-261 4 JUN 1862 “Things have not gone well recently…” The Diary of Edward Bates, published 1933: https://archive.org/details/diaryofedwardbat00bate/page/n5
  13. Chicago Daily Tribune of Monday 31 MAR 1862 page one. Chigago Daily Tribune attempts to predict the future...
  14. Cleveland Morning Leader of 5 APR 1862 Page 2 Col.3 (from 41st OVI). [Just a reminder: the 41st Ohio Infantry was part of Hazen's Brigade, of Nelson's Fourth Division. Hazen's Brigade crossed the Tennessee River during the night of 6/7 April and took part in Day Two at Battle of Shiloh.] https://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=coo.31924077730160;view=1up;seq=365 OR 10 page 347 Report No. 111.
  15. As we know, Grant’s Army of West Tennessee consisted of six divisions at the commencement of Battle of Shiloh. Few consider how those six divisions developed: First Division. After experience with a variety of brigade-sized organizations, Brigadier General Grant reported to Cairo in September 1861, and almost immediately took a handful of infantry regiments and artillery to Paducah (which formed the nucleus of the Second Division.) What remained behind at Cairo, coupled with elements of John McClernand’s brigade, and other units that found themselves at Bird’s Point and Fort Holt, became the First Division. Initially taking command of this division, himself, Ulysses S. Grant, after Battle of Belmont provided all possible assistance to BGen McClernand, for that officer to act as commander of the First Division. And the turnover of command took place by 2 FEB 1862 (prior to that time, John McClernand was commander of Post of Cairo and commander of 1st Brigade.) And General Grant exercised overall command against Belmont as Commander, District of SE Missouri; and against Fort Henry as Commander, District of Cairo. Second Division. A loose collection of infantry, artillery and company-sized units of United States Cavalry gravitated towards Paducah; and under leadership of Charles Ferguson Smith, former Commandant at West Point and Mexican War veteran, acting as Commander, Post of Paducah, these units were moulded quickly into what became the Second Division (by the time of Belmont, at least two brigade-sized organizations had been organized, one of which conducted a demonstration to the east of Fort Columbus, commanded by Eleazer Paine.) Lew Wallace, who had arrived at Paducah mid-August, was promoted to Brigadier General and took command of the 2nd Brigade before the end of October 1861. And John McArthur replaced the out-of-favor Paine, in command of 1st Brigade. Third Division. Following success at Forts Henry and Heiman, Grant’s Army of Cairo marched east to envelope Fort Donelson; and General Lew Wallace’s brigade (and other spare troops) were left behind on the Tennessee River to garrison the captured prizes. After a few days, Lew Wallace and most of his force was called east to join the Campaign at Fort Donelson; and upon arrival BGen Wallace was given command of the new Third Division (losing his own brigade to Smith’s Second Division) but gaining Cruft’s Brigade (former 13th Brigade, Buell’s Army of the Ohio) and enough new-arrived units to form a brigade under Colonel John Thayer of Nebraska. The Third Division provided valuable service, in time to stifle the breakout attempt, which helped result in the Confederate surrender on 16 FEB 1862. Fourth Division. Brigadier General Stephen Hurlbut completed “drying out” at Benton Barracks and was sent to join General Grant at Fort Donelson… but arrived a day or two after the Rebels surrendered. Initially given minor tasks to perform on Grant’s behalf, on 21 FEB 1862 IAW General Orders No.7 BGen Hurlbut was issued command of a complete, three-brigade Division (Fourth Division); possibly the quickest generation of a full division (under four days.) In addition, during Grant’s occasional absences from Fort Donelson (to visit Clarksville and Nashville) Stephen Hurlbut was given acting-Command of Fort Donelson. Next Division. When William Tecumseh Sherman arrived at Paducah from Benton Barracks in February 1862, he was tasked with forwarding on troops to Grant’s Fort Donelson operation and given authority (from Major General Halleck) to “siphon off” spare troops, in order to create his own division (which Brigadier General Sherman called “First” Division [OR 7 page 595]. By early March enough force had been withheld at Paducah to justify title of Sherman’s Division; and that division was ready to deploy south, up the Tennessee River, in support of BGen Smith’s campaign against Confederate railroads (after Grant’s suspension from field command.) The units assigned to what ultimately became recognized as the Fifth Division were adjusted continually through March and April, especially cavalry and artillery assignments. References: Sherman’s Memoirs page 249 (Orders of 13 FEB 1862) and page 253 (taking units for own division at Paducah). Papers of USG vol.4 page 236 (Hurlbut arrives Fort Donelson) page 241, 252, 254, 276 (note.) Lew Wallace Autobiography OR 3 and OR 7
  16. Ozzy

    Nixon at Shiloh

    From the Civil War Diaries Collection at Auburn University comes this Shiloh battle record, compiled by L. I. Nixon of Limestone County, Alabama. Incensed by hearing of the Confederate defeats at Fort Henry and Fort Donelson, 38-year old Liberty Independence Nixon left his wife and seven children and joined Malone's Company... and on February 24th 1862 was on his way to Corinth. After a brief stay, Malone's Company of the 1st Battalion of Alabama Volunteers returned south to vicinity of Mobile Bay to gather supplies; then a return to Corinth on the M & O R.R. took place on March 4th. Camping a few days about a mile north of Corinth, Private Nixon and his fellows rode the train north to Bethel Springs (and may have heard the exchange of gunfire between Confederate soldiers and Lew Wallace's party, tasked with tearing up the railroad -- page 18.) Returning to Corinth on March 20th, Nixon indicates "they resumed the exact same camp ground, as before." And then, Private Nixon relates the story of "Beauregard's bodyguard finding a barrel of whiskey..." which led to Malone's Company being briefly assigned as bodyguard to General Beauregard. While in close proximity to Tishomingo Hotel, Private Nixon confirms "a rush" made on the hotel (also mentioned in Braxton Bragg's Letter of 20 March 1862.) Pages 24 - 27 reflect on camp life in Corinth. Page 27 records the units making up Gladden's Brigade: 1st Louisiana Infantry, 21st Alabama Infantry, 22nd Alabama, 25th Alabama, "Robisson's" Regiment of Artillery, and Nixon's unit, the 1st Battalion Alabama Volunteers commanded by Major Chaddick. Next day (March 30th) four new companies are added to the 1st Alabama Battalion -- now known as 26th Alabama Infantry Regiment. On page 28, the orders to cook three days' rations (3 April). Same day: "We left early and took up the line of march." Pages 28 - 30 recount the march north, the rain, and wagons getting mired in the mud. Page 31 records knowledge of the Picket Skirmish of April 4th (Private Nixon observed Yankee prisoners being moved south.) Pages 32 - 34 record the final approach towards the Federal camp; and about dark on April 5th Private Nixon and his fellows are sent forward on picket duty... The entire diary is only 46 pages long (and the first four pages are water-damaged from attic storage, so almost unreadable.) Fortunately, every page is transcribed at bottom: http://content.lib.auburn.edu/cdm/compoundobject/collection/civil/id/23854/rec/20 Private Nixon's Shiloh Diary.
  17. Ozzy

    Parker's Office

    The above image depicts a scene sketched at Pittsburg Landing in April 1862 that most have never seen before. What was "Parker's Office?"
  18. On the back page of the Daily Missouri Republican of 25 MAR 1862 is noted: "The Iatan arrived yesterday from the Tennessee River." Three days later, in the Friday edition, the paper reported: "Captain James Gormley has resigned command of the steamer Empress and taken charge of Iatan. He will depart with her on Saturday..." The voyage on Saturday from St. Louis was a short one: just a couple of miles south, where Iatan pulled up to Arsenal Dock. After spending much of the day loading stores, Captain Gormley was replaced by Captain Edds; and late on Saturday/ early on Sunday the steamer got underway "on a Government trip," down the Mississippi, up the Ohio, up the Tennessee... and briefly stopped at Fort Henry to report, and to pick up passengers (Lieutenant Derickson of the 16th Wisconsin, as well as several recovered patients from Illinois hospitals are known to have embarked.) Iatan continued up the Tennessee River and may have paused briefly at Savannah before reaching Pittsburg Landing, where she arrived on Tuesday, April 1st carrying enough munitions to start her own war: 200 pieces 24 # solid shot 4800 # 200 pieces 32 # solid shot 6400 # 100 8-inch shells(Columbiad) 5000 # 45 barrels explosive powder 4680 # 43 boxes of gunpowder 6361 # 2 boxes gunpowder 386 # Total weight of munitions 27,627 pounds References: L.B. Parsons Papers AQM Office (St. Louis Arsenal) Bill of Lading for 29 March 1862 Scapegoat of Shiloh by Kevin Getchell Daily Missouri Republican editions of March 25, 28 & 30 of 1862
  19. It's not often you find an eyewitness account of "that march" conducted by Lew Wallace on Sunday, April 6th... Johann Stuber migrated with his parents and siblings from Switzerland in 1854, and settled in Cincinnati. In October 1861, the 23 year old, trained as a typesetter, joined the 58th Ohio Volunteer Infantry, Company A, and was soon promoted to Corporal. First seeing action at Fort Donelson, the 58th Ohio remained with Lew Wallace's Third Division; and when that division was sent to Crump's Landing in March 1862, the 2nd Brigade (Colonel John Thayer) comprising the 58th OVI, 68th OVI, 23rd Indiana and 1st Nebraska, established its brigade camp in vicinity of Stony Lonesome, midway between Adamsville and Crump's Landing. Corporal Stuber's report for April 6th 1862: "In the morning we heard from the vicinity of Pittsburg Landing a heavy cannonade, which soon developed into an unbroken roar, which persisted as the morning wore on. From the Landing (where our provisions were kept), there came a "rabbit-footed messenger," who had arrived by boat. He loudly reported that he was a member of the 57th Ohio, and that upon being aroused from his sleep by the noise of battle, raced for the Landing and took a boat to Crump's, to deliver the news: but not for us to hurry to help, but to flee for our lives downriver. Knowing that our Army had 50,000 troops at Pittsburg, confirmed by Captain Markgraff during his recent visit, we refused to believe this refugee's report. "About midday, we received the orders preparatory to marching: ammunition was distributed, and we packed necessities and rations for ten days. After about an hour, we began to march south with our heavy knapsacks (instead of taking the boats, as we believed we would). It was dreadfully hot, and the soldiers of the regiments ahead of us threw away their blankets and excess clothing during the march, so that a carpet of clothing lined both sides of the road. We had hiked about seven miles, and were about one mile from our destination, when a report came that we were going the wrong way. We were turned around, and told to take another road -- which caused us to go double the distance in order to arrive where we were wanted. "It was during twilight that my regiment reached a dark woods, at the edge of a swamp, and were told to wait. And while we waited, we were not allowed to do anything -- no pipes or cigars -- because we were told the Rebels could be on the other side of the swamp, only 500 yards away. Finally, we passed through that swamp and reaching the other side, were told we had arrived. We continued marching, and the gunboats were firing, supposedly in the direction of the Rebels. We had gone about a mile when we entered a Union camp, totally abandoned by its owners, but with the tents filled with wounded, who all seemed to be moaning and crying from their wounds. We continued past this camp, and entered a dark woods, where we halted and attempted to rest beneath the boughs of the trees. But the gunboats continued firing; and it started to rain... a thunderstorm, no less. As bad as it was for us, we could not help feeling pity for the wounded, caught in the open with no shelter. We could hear them, away out there, somewhere, in the darkness, calling for help, and for water. And we could not help them. The pickets were not far from us; and the enemy's pickets were not far from our pickets. During the night, firing occurred between the lines of pickets, so heavy at times it seemed the Battle had resumed..." [Above record translated and edited; entry from "The Diary of Johann Stuber" for 6 April 1862.] Ozzy Reference: http://archive.org/stream/meintagebuchuber00stub#page/22/mode/2up
  20. Ozzy

    Failure to Report

    Sometimes, facts hide in plain sight... While re-reading the history of events that took place from just after midnight (in the wee hours of April 6th 1862) it occurred to me: General Prentiss in his Shiloh report records sending notice of the attack in progress to Commanders of the 2nd Division and 4th Division, and to Colonel Stuart; and requests for assistance from the 2nd and 4th Divisions. But, Prentiss does not indicate that he informed the Acting Campground Commander (W. T. Sherman) of the Confederate attack. Why not? In General Sherman's Shiloh report, he admits to requesting reinforcement from McClernand (1st Division) and to "alerting Hurlbut to the need to reinforce Prentiss" ...and to General Prentiss, "alerting him that the enemy was in our front, in force." As Prentiss's Sixth Division was obviously under attack for some time before Sherman's own 5th Division felt the sting, this "sending of alert to Prentiss" smacks of mild rebuke, "for not informing the Campground Commander -- acting, of what was taking place." The question: "Why did not Prentiss notify Sherman?"
  21. Ran across the following Shiloh report in the New Orleans Daily Crescent of 30 APR 1862:
  22. It appears another Flag of Truce was sent by the Confederates to Union commanders at Pittsburg Landing, a week after Battle of Shiloh: [from Chronicling America The Semi-Weekly Shreveport News of 22 APR 1862 page 1.]
  23. I begin this post with a fact unknown to most Shiloh aficianados: Charles Ferguson Smith, although referred to as "General" Smith, was technically still Colonel Smith through the Fort Henry Campaign. When General Grant learned shortly afterwards that Smith's appointment had been held up in the U.S. Senate, Grant complained to Elihu Washburne (on about 10 FEB 1862) that "Smith must be confirmed, immediately." During the investment of Fort Donelson, C.F. Smith was informed by Major General Halleck (on 14 FEB) that the Senate had finally confirmed him as Brigadier General, with effective date of rank 31 AUG 1861. Why this matters? The frequent, and difficult to predict, promotion of Colonels to BGen, and BGen to Major General during the Civil War -- on both sides -- had potential to upset military planning and execution of those plans in the field (as evidenced during March and April 1862 during the lead-up to events that took place at Pittsburg Landing.) Seniors refused to be commanded by juniors (upheld by Laws of USA and CSA.) And, because Seniority between and among general officers was of some importance, listed below are Union general officers -- with association with Pittsburg Landing -- relative seniority effective on particular dates: April/ May March on Corinth: MGen Halleck -- Grant -- Buell -- Pope -- McClernand -- CF Smith (died 25 APR) -- Lew Wallace -- Ormsby Mitchel -- George Thomas -- WT Sherman -- EOC Ord -- Brigadier General T. W. Sherman (not WT Sherman) -- Hurlbut -- Sturgis -- Wm."Bull" Nelson -- Garfield -- Thos. Davies -- Isaac Quinby -- Oglesby -- John P. Cook -- WHL Wallace (died of wounds 10 APR) -- McArthur -- McCook -- Lauman -- John Logan -- Speed Fry -- Dodge -- Buford -- Ross -- Crittenden -- Hovey -- Veatch Pittsburg Landing on 18 MAR 1862: MGen Grant -- BGen Sherman -- Hurlbut -- Prentiss -- McClernand -- CF Smith -- Lew Wallace (Seniority among selected Colonels on 18 MAR: WHL Wallace -- McArthur -- Lauman) Pittsburg Landing after 21 MAR 1862: MGen Grant -- MGen Buell -- McClernand -- CF Smith -- Lew Wallace -- Brigadier General WT Sherman -- Hurlbut -- Prentiss -- Bull Nelson -- Oglesby -- John P. Cook -- WHL Wallace -- McArthur -- Lauman -- John Logan -- Ross Reference: https://archive.org/details/generalorderswa00deptgoog/page/n8 General Orders of the War Department [Charles F. Smiths late confirmation by the Senate was likely due to unfounded rumours, spread by his personal enemy, Eleazer Paine, detailing "improprieties in Paducah" which Henry Halleck had to personally investigate -- OR 7 page 929 and Teacher of Civil War Generals by Allen H. Mesch, pages 208 - 9. General Grant response to learning that Senate had not yet confirmed Smith as General on 10 FEB 1862 found in General E. A. Paine in Western Kentucky by Dieter Ullrich, et al... page 162, and Papers of US Grant, vol.4, page 188 (and 189).]
  24. Ozzy

    Naval Achievements

    Achievements of the Navy (on the Tennessee River, from the fall of Fort Henry) It is a struggle to come to grips with this topic, because “The Navy” was not technically part of the war effort on the inland waters until October 1862. So, up until that time (including the contribution made in support of Grant’s Army at Pittsburg Landing) the Timberclads and Ironclads (and from late April 1862, the Tinclads) were part of the Union Army, operated by competent officers and enlisted men of the U.S. Navy… except in the case of Ellet’s Rams, but that’s another story. Beginning with the initial raid up the Tennessee River, commenced immediately upon the fall of Fort Henry, the accomplishments of patrols and multi-vessel raids are many and varied: · Denied Rebel use of MC & L R.R. bridge at Danville · Capture of nearly complete ironclad, Eastport · Shock & awe of Confederate citizens along the Tennessee, as far as Florence, AL · Destroyed (or encouraged self-destruction) of almost every Rebel steamer on the Lower Tennessee River… except two, hidden until mid-April 1862 · Found important pockets of Union support (most notably at Savannah, Tennessee) · Intelligence collection · Second raid found M & C R.R. near Iuka too strongly defended · Strong Union support at Savannah confirmed · Confiscated massive amount of Rebel flour at Clifton, Tennessee · Moved controversial figure, Fielding Hurst, to safety at Cairo · Intelligence collection · Third raid recruited crew members at Savannah for Timberclad service · “Recruitment Picnic” broken up at Savannah (and leaders of that picnic – J.B. Kendrick of Captain Fitzgerald’s Company of Tennessee Volunteers and Clay Kendrick of Colonel Crew’s Regiment – taken into custody and removed to Cairo · Engagement at Pittsburg Landing on March 1st drives Rebels away from the bluff. Members of Company C and Company K of 32nd Illinois Infantry – acting in capacity of “sharp shooters” – participate as landing party. (The 32nd Illinois later takes part at Shiloh, attached to Hurlbut’s Fourth Division.) · As component of General C.F. Smith’s Expedition, the Lexington and Tyler provided support and protection to the transport fleet · Whenever discovered, ferry vessels were destroyed · Support to Sherman’s raids (attempted cut of M & C R.R.) · Reconnaissance and intelligence collection · In company with USS Cairo on April 1st, the gunboats conducted a reconnaissance of creeks as far upstream as Chickasaw Bluff (likely an attempt to uncover the hiding place of two Rebel steamers) · During the Battle of Shiloh, gunfire support (directed by General Hurlbut) commences just before 3 p.m. and intensifies until night halts the action of April 6th · Overnight, the Timberclads lob explosive shells into Rebel-held portions of Shiloh battlefield, every 15 minutes, until 5 a.m. Can you think of any other Naval contributions to add to the list? [Most information found in OR (Navy) vol.22 and Chicago Daily Tribune.]
  25. On April 9th 1862, a much-anticipated report detailing events at the recent Battle of Shiloh began making its way to the newspapers of the North. Written by Major General Grant, the concise description of that bloody engagement is below presented, as it appeared in the Coudersport, Pennsylvania weekly, The Potter Journal of Wednesday 23 APR 1862. Filling most of two printed columns (on page 2, beginning column 4) and titled, "Battle at Pittsburg: Official Report of Gen'l Grant," this published account is as close as Ulysses S. Grant ever got to an Official Report. Click on the below image, and zoom in... [provided by Chronicling America, a project of the Library of Congress.] If the expanded image is unclear, try this direct link: https://chroniclingamerica.loc.gov/lccn/sn86081096/1862-04-23/ed-1/ (and select Page 2).
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