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Found 99 results

  1. Ozzy

    From a jack to a King

    From W.S. Hillyer's letter of April 11th 1862 it is apparent U.S. Grant and his Staff officers believed they had the situation as they found it fully in hand within an hour or two of arriving at Pittsburg Landing on April 6th. Sherman was being pushed back, to be sure, but only gradually and grudgingly; Hurlbut, Prentiss and WHL Wallace were established in a naturally strong position; and orders had been sent for the 3rd Division to come up from Crump's, and the arrival of that strong, fresh force of reinforcements would be enough to tip the scales and assure Federal victory. Hillyer in his letter makes mention of Grant "sending staff officers flying across the battlefield, effecting orders" and Captain Hillyer, himself, was sent by General Grant on one occasion to direct a cavalry reconnaissance. At about 1pm Grant, Rowley (and possibly Hillyer) set out for another meeting with General Sherman; they were riding west along the Pittsburg-Purdy Road when they encountered the just-returned Cavalry officer, Frank Bennett, at the intersection with the Savannah-Hamburg Road (sometimes called the River Road.) And what Bennett reported -- Lew Wallace was not coming via the River Road -- must have hit General Grant like a hammer. Wallace's reinforcing division had been promised to Hurlbut/WHL Wallace; LtCol James McPherson had even identified the position where Lew Wallace would go... After sending Rowley and Bennett away back north (with orders to bring Lew Wallace via the River Road) General Grant aborted the intended meeting with Sherman: the priority now was to find out from Quartermaster Baxter what directions he'd delivered to Lew Wallace. Grant turned back east. And, as if the non-arrival of Lew Wallace wasn't enough bad news, when the General gained the bluff overlooking the Tennessee River, the steamers he'd sent hours earlier to ferry Nelson's men across from the east bank were still there, with no sign of activity in their vicinity. This had to be the low-water mark for Grant's fortunes (and outlook) on Day One: neither of his anticipated sources of reinforcements were coming. It is my belief that a readily-available staff officer (Captain Clark Lagow) was now pressed into service; given a hurriedly written order directed to "Commanding Officer, Advanced Forces" and verbal orders to "Hurry forward General Nelson." Lagow departed immediately on an available steamer (and at some stage during his transit down river put his verbal orders to General Nelson into written form, signed "C.B. Lagow ADC" [Papers of US Grant vol 5 pages 17-18]. General Grant entered the HQ building (where I believe John Rawlins acted as point-of-contact in Grant's absence) and probably confronted his Assistant Adjutant General in regard to what orders he'd authorized Baxter to deliver to Lew Wallace. While engaged in this conversation, word must have come that "the Tigress had just returned." Grant and Rawlins rode down to the Landing and boarded Tigress to confront Baxter. Present at this meeting in the Ladies' Cabin aboard the Headquarters boat were U.S. Grant, John Rawlins, W.S. Hillyer and A.S. Baxter. The time was just after 1:30 pm. Just an attempt to connect some dots... Ozzy References to be found in SDG posts "Buell meets Grant" ..."Letter of W.S. Hillyer" ... "Impression of Grant" ..."Where was Grant?" N.B. Apologies to Ned Miller for use of his 1957 song title, "From a Jack to a King."
  2. Ozzy

    Zollicoffer's Brigade

    As we all know, Felix Zollicoffer was killed (as result of an odd blunder) at Battle of Mill Springs in January 1862. However, his Brigade lived on to fight again... at the Battle of Shiloh. Who commanded Zollicoffer's Brigade at Shiloh? Ozzy
  3. Ozzy

    A Message sent by Steamer

    Sent from Pittsburg Landing on April 6th 1862 to: "Commanding Officer Advance Forces near Pittsburg, Ten -- General: The attack on my forces has been very spirited from early this morning. The appearance of fresh troops on the field now would have a powerful effect both by inspiring our men and disheartening the enemy. If you will get upon the field leaving all your baggage on the East bank of the river it will be a move to our advantage and possibly save the day to us. The rebel forces is estimated at over 100,000 men. My head quarters will be in the log building on top of the hill where you will be furnished a staff officer to guide you to your place on the field. Respectfully & etc. U.S. Grant, Major General" Our full understanding and appreciation of the above message suffers because it does not carry the clock time of its sending, leaving many to believe it was sent by General Grant within an hour or two of his arrival on the Battlefield. Some even believe Captain W.S. Hillyer was the courier who took the above message to Savannah. But the message is actually a politely-worded order which contains many interesting elements: sent from Pittsburg Landing sent by MGen Grant (not Rawlins, or another aide) sent to "the Commanding Officer" [because U.S. Grant did not yet know General Buell had already arrived in vicinity of Savannah] "fresh troops now would have an inspiring effect" "leave all your baggage behind" [This direction had unintended consequences.] "the rebel forces is estimated at over 100,000 men" [Did Grant believe this estimate; or merely sent for effect?] "My HQ are the log building on top of the hill" [Identifies General Grant's desired point-of-contact.] The above message was sent by courier, and intercepted by Don Carlos Buell before 2pm as he steamed up the Tennessee River (and is recorded in Buell's 1887 Century article, "Shiloh Reviewed.") Ozzy
  4. Ozzy

    Buell meets Grant

    Depending on the reference, General Buell is reported to have arrived at Pittsburg Landing by steamer from Savannah early afternoon of April 6th and met General Grant: a) at the house near the river, or b] aboard Grant's dispatch boat (floating HQ) the Tigress. Upon review of primary sources, the only man who infers Buell met Grant at the house is John Rawlins, Grant's AAG [OR 10 page 185]. Every other primary source (including Grant, himself) indicates the initial meeting took place aboard the Tigress [Memoirs vol.1 page 283.] General Buell goes into more detail, and reports "that he arrived at Pittsburg Landing and enquired for General Grant, and was directed to the nearly adjacent dispatch boat. Buell went aboard and met General Grant at the door of the Ladies' Cabin. Several of Grant's Staff officers were also in that cabin [Century article of 1887, pages 492-493]. Also worth noting: General Buell was accompanied by at least one Staff officer, his Chief of Staff, James Barnet Fry. Why is this meeting and its location important? In the early afternoon, Grant's messengers returned from delivering their orders to MGen Lew Wallace. The first messenger encountered by Grant, Lieutenant Frank Bennett, was met by Grant and Captain Rowley (ADC) as the pair were riding west to meet with General Sherman. Cavalry Officer Bennett reported that he'd met Wallace and his 3rd Division while they were having dinner (between 1130 and noon) and that Wallace intended on taking the route that his written orders (delivered by Baxter) directed; Lew Wallace was not coming via the River Road. General Grant immediately sent Rowley and Bennett back north up the River Road with orders for Lew Wallace to "Bring your division to Pittsburg Landing via the River Road" and, in addition, gave Captain Rowley authority to put those orders in writing if Lew Wallace demanded. Grant watched the messengers depart; then aborted his meeting with Sherman, reversed course, and returned to Pittsburg Landing... to find the Tigress (carrying Captain A.S. Baxter, AQM) had returned from Crump's Landing. The "conversation" between John Rawlins, A.S. Baxter and U.S. Grant would have been most interesting... and may have been interrupted by the arrival of General Buell. Timing is everything... Ozzy N.B. The above meeting between Grant, Rawlins and Baxter is conjecture, based on timing of significant events -- Ozzy.
  5. On page 435 of MOLLUS (Ohio) volume 5 of 1903 is a detailed, informative letter written by Andrew Hickenlooper on April 11th 1862 to his family back in Ohio. In the letter, mention is made of the 5th Ohio Battery losing two guns and over fifty horses in the action on Sunday; and recall of 10,000 shirkers observed huddled along the left bank of the Tennessee River; and mention is made of being assigned early on Sunday morning to act as bodyguard to General Grant, and subsequently riding all along the Battlefield in company with the Federal commander... Wait a minute; what's going on here? As we know, Andrew Hickenlooper presents as one of the remarkable leaders at the Battle of Shiloh. In command of the 5th Independent Battery Ohio Volunteer Light Artillery (usually referred to as 5th Ohio Battery) Captain Hickenlooper began the morning of April 6th in defense of Prentiss' 6th Division, somewhat in advance of the camps; he fell back with Prentiss (leaving two of his 6-pounders behind) and redeployed in support of the area later known as the Hornet's Nest (the 5th Ohio Battery itself supported by Colonel Geddes 8th Iowa Infantry), and was there in action from just after 9am until about 4:30pm. Ordered to withdraw to the north, Hickenlooper successfully evacuated four artillery pieces north... and somehow became attached to Sherman's 5th Division (and in support of Sherman became involved in some of the final actions on Day 1 before night put an end to Sunday's fighting.) For such gallant actions, Hickenlooper and his 5th Ohio Battery were Mentioned in Despatches by two Division Commanders in their Shiloh After-action reports [OR 10 p.250 (Sherman) and page 280 (Prentiss)]. Andrew Hickenlooper. One of those iconic names (in company with Wallace, Prentiss, Peabody and Johnston), always to find association with the Battle of Shiloh. So imagine my surprise to discover there was another Andrew Hickenlooper at Shiloh. This other Andrew even came to the attention of Artillery Captain Andrew, just after 10am while the 5th Ohio Battery was readying itself for its next action in the Hornet's Nest. Captain Hickenlooper reports: "It was during one of these temporary lulls (after the first attack) that General Grant and staff, surrounded by a detachment of 5th Ohio Cavalry as his bodyguard, approached our position. His presence was interesting to me, but incomparably less so than the unexpected appearance in his escort of Andrew Hickenlooper, whom I supposed was back at home in Ohio. We had time for a moment's recognition before they rode away, and I turned again to join in the serious business of the day." [MOLLUS (Ohio) page 431.] This other Andrew Hickenlooper was 65 years old and joined the 5th Ohio Cavalry as a Saddler, merely for the opportunity to be close to his son, who commanded the 5th Ohio Battery. [To find out what happened to Andrew Hickenlooper, Sr., you can read the article for yourself, from Page 432.] Ozzy References: http://suvcw.org/mollus/war/OHv5.htm MOLLUS (Ohio) Volume 5, Sketches of War History guide http://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=mdp.39015042015092;view=2up;seq=500;size=300 Capt Hickenlooper (p.479) http://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=uiug.30112047586075;view=1up;seq=290 Saddler Hickenlooper, Co. G (p.277) [note age] http://archive.org/stream/sketcheswarhist01unkngoog#page/n4/mode/2up Sketches, MOLLUS (Ohio) vol.5 pages 402-483 (Battle of Shiloh parts 1 and 2 by Brevet BGen Andrew Hickenlooper published 1903) Sketches of War History. Letter of Andrew Hickenlooper (April 11th 1862) at above link: MOLLUS (Ohio) vol.5 page 435-6.
  6. Ozzy

    38th Tennessee diary

    The 8th Tennessee (Looney's) had a convoluted beginning: initiated in September 1861, the infantry regiment was ineptly utilized by High Command (somehow failed to get significant assignments, i.e., "fell through the cracks.") Following loss of the substantial Confederate force at Fort Donelson, there arrived an urgency to "get men from any- and every-where" and the 38th Tennessee was organized from the core of the 8th Tennessee... and the unit's first significant action was Shiloh. This diary was written by John D. Thomas of Memphis, recruited to the 38th Tennessee on March 6th 1862. Written over the course of three days in July 1862, while he was camped near Tupelo, this work could better be described as a "thoughtful memory," or "a letter never sent." Detailed and descriptive, the diary is noteworthy for: description of Memphis & Charleston Railroad in March 1862 (required three days to travel by rail from Memphis to Jackson, Tennessee) impression of General PGT Beauregard by men-in-ranks; "We were transported to the most miserable town of Corinth" [page 6] "After helping build fortifications at Corinth, our orders arrived..." pages 10-12 describe Thomas' experience at Shiloh Day 1, including 38th Tennessee involvement in capture of General Prentiss; pages 12-13 discuss Day 2, and the two-day slog back to Corinth through knee-deep mud; page 14 mentions the evacuation of Corinth on May 28th, and Thomas' elevation to Brigade Ordnance Sergeant. Only 15 pages long, this diary contains detail not found anywhere else. (Another gem introduced by David "Ole Miss") Ozzy References: http://clio.lib.olemiss.edu/cdm/compoundobject/collection/civil_war/id/2803/rec/1 John D. Thomas' diary http://familysearch.org/wiki/en/38th_Regiment,_Tennessee_Infantry_(Looney's)_(8th_Infantry) History of 38th Tennessee http://tngenweb.org/civilwar/38th-tennessee-infantry-regiment/ 38th Tennessee (accurate except regiment organized March vice May 1862)
  7. Ozzy

    Ancestor Veterans (CSA)

    Let's start with Texas... There were three units from the Lone Star State, engaged at the Battle of Shiloh. The best sites I have uncovered, for beginning research on ancestors: http://www.nps.gov/civilwar/soldiers-and-sailors-database.htm (For all Texas soldiers, but especially those from the 2nd Texas Infantry Regiment: NPS Soldier and Sailor System. Input your ancestor's last name, along with his regiment number, and select <Show Results> ) http://gen.1starnet.com/civilwar/9thmain.htm (For 9th Texas Infantry, Scroll down to roster. Website provided by Ron Brothers and Tim Bell.) http://www.keathleywebs.com/terrysrangers/ (For 8th Texas Cavalry, aka 'Terry's Texas Rangers.' Website provided by keathleywebs.com) Ozzy
  8. Libby Prison, second only to Andersonville in the North for notoriety, was dismantled, brick by brick; and in a program emulated eighty years later at Lake Havasu, Arizona (involving London Bridge), the pieces were hauled halfway across the country by rail, and re-assembled in Chicago, in time for the Columbian Exposition of 1893, where it may have drawn more visitors than the Ferris Wheel. Maybe you already knew that... Unknown to most, is the connection to the Battle of Shiloh. Very few, if any, Federal prisoners taken during April 1862 at Shiloh were interred at Libby. However, in October 1862, the remaining Shiloh prisoners, two hundred officers and eight hundred enlisted men, on their way north 'on parole,' were halted at Libby for a day or two, to compare and confirm their 'descriptions' in the Prisoner Roll against their physical presence. Libby seems to have functioned as a 'clearing house,' the final check before Union men were permitted to complete the final hike: thirteen miles to the 'flag-of-truce' boat, John A. Warner, waiting for its precious cargo at Aiken's Landing. (It is believed tens of thousands of Federal prisoners passed through Libby during its years of operation.) For an informative, engaging four-minute video about Libby in Chicago, see <interactive.wttw.com/timemachine/libby-prison-and-coliseum> (found on the internet at 'Chicago Time Machine Libby') Other information from Wikipedia and A Perfect Picture of Hell (Genoways) 2001. Ozzy
  9. There are some exceptional "tall tales" to be found in the Official Records of the Civil War, and we all have our favourites... But I would be hard-pressed to find a more bare-faced contrived furphy than the one expressed by General William Tecumseh Sherman on April 10th 1862 in his after-action report IRT the Battle of Shiloh. Included at the bottom of page 253 of OR 10, Sherman asserts: "The enemy captured seven of our guns on Sunday, but on Monday we recovered seven guns -- not the identical guns we had lost, but enough in numbers to balance the account." Confirmed by examination of the record, Sherman's Fifth Division had been assigned the following artillery (lost guns in parenthesis): Waterhouse (3) Taylor (0) Behr (5) On its face, this is a minor mistake: total of 8 artillery pieces actually lost, as against seven reported by Sherman as lost. However, it must be remembered that Waterhouse was forced to abandon a gun during one of his northerly movements. So the total becomes... 9. And allowance must be given for the combined operations that commenced with MGen McClernand's offer of assistance before 8am. Initially, BGen Sherman requested only a squadron of cavalry with which to conduct surveillance; but that quickly expanded into a request for support from the First Division. And McClernand provided that support, initially via separately directed troop movements and actions; but following on the assembly (and collapse) of the 2nd Line along the Hamburg-Purdy Road at about 10:30am the operations of the 5th Division and 1st Division become practically indistinguishable. And this "incorporation" of two distinct Army divisions into the "Sherman & McClernand Joint operation" is cemented further through the employment of Major Ezra Taylor, who began the day as Sherman's Chief of Artillery; but who assumed control of the employment of artillery of the 1st Division after 10:30am. That said, Taylor cannot be given blame for the disaster that befell Jerome Burrows and his 14th Ohio Battery (all six guns lost about 10:30 due to concerted effort of SAM Woods' Brigade.) But Major Taylor admits (OR 10 page 274) "taking responsibility for ordering two guns of Schwartz into position" (one gun lost.) And on page 275: "Dresser's Battery (Captain Timony) was put in battery under my direction on Sunday... in front of General McClernand's HQ" (four guns lost.) [General McClernand admits to maintaining control of McAllister's Battery; so its loss of one gun, captured by the 4th Tennessee, is attributable to him.] Therefore, the total number of guns lost by Sherman (or agents of Sherman) on April 6th stands at 14. Ozzy References: OR pages as sited DW Reed's Battle of Shiloh and the Organizations Engaged (1903) pages 91-101.
  10. The full quote: "A kind of wild excitement seized me and my comrades, and we would rush forward, thinking of ourselves as Invincible." This is how Private Thomas Keen described being in battle, in company with his fellows and with bullets flying all around. Found in I thought it my Duty to Go: the Civil War Letters of Thomas Keen (1838-1908) of the 1st Nebraska Infantry, edited by James E. Potter, and made available by the Nebraska Historical Society. Twenty-three letters from August 1861 (one month after the 1st Nebraska was mustered into service at Omaha) until 1864 (when Keen was mustered out at Hickory Street Hospital in St Louis), covering duty in Missouri, Tennessee, Mississippi, Arkansas, and back to Missouri. Of interest, because Keen vividly describes the action of Colonel Thayer's Nebraska Regiment at Fort Donelson; and the role of the 1st Nebraska in overcoming the Confederate break-out attempt (pages 138-141, in a letter to his parents; and another letter to his sister.) There is also a Letter of 25 March 1862 from Crump's Landing (of interest because Keen indicates the Army is under command of General C.F. Smith: shows how the word failed to trickle down to the troops.) Two letters from May 1862 reporting the action of the 1st Nebraska during Day 2 at Shiloh. And a surprising series of letters sent from Paducah and Corinth (late May to early June 1862), wherein Keen describes his 'detached duty at Paducah for Signals training.' (However, after he and his fellows were trained for duty with the Signal Corps, and reported for duty at Corinth, General Halleck ordered the Corps disbanded; and the men were returned to their former units...) Available here: http://www.nebraskahistory.org/publish/publicat/history/full-text/NH2000MyDuty.pdf (Letters of Private Thomas Keen, 1st Nebraska Infantry) Ozzy
  11. Ozzy

    Tardy Earl?

    In The Life of Albert Sidney Johnston, page 525, it is recorded: 'After the Battle of Pea Ridge, General Van Dorn was ordered to Corinth.' Bentonville, Arkansas is about 300 miles from Helena (on the Mississippi River), and the battle concluded on March 8, 1862. Calculating an easy pace of fifteen miles per day, Van Dorn's force could have reached Helena by March 28... taken steamers to Memphis, arriving by March 31st... then train ride on the Memphis & Charleston, arriving at Corinth April 2-4. So, why didn't they? Apparently, much of the 'Van Dorn was ordered to Corinth' (the claim appears in Beauregard's Military Biography, page 346, too)... is a sham. But, let's start at the beginning: the first letter sent to General Earl Van Dorn, requesting he 'join his force with General Beauregard's on the Mississippi River, if possible,' was sent via Governor Isham Harris on March 7, 1862 (while the Battle of Pea Ridge was underway.) [OR Serial 8, page 771] Van Dorn replied on March 16: 'Your letter did not reach me until just a few days ago, on my return from the battlefield. I will start in a day or two for Pocahontas, Arkansas.' (OR Serial 8, page 784) [No obvious sense of urgency, because no haste was requested -- Ozzy.] On March 25, Albert Sidney Johnston reported to President Davis: 'Van Dorn has offered to send his force north to assist in the defense of Island No. 10, but I ordered him to Memphis.' [OR Serial 11, page 361] Meanwhile, Van Dorn directed his Army of the West to assemble at Pocahontas... then Jacksonport... then Des Arc, Arkansas (a port on the White River.) By early April, the gathering of Van Dorn's force was underway; Earl Van Dorn issued 'Special Orders No. 41' on April 7, directing that Sterling Price's Division commence the steamboat ride to Memphis on the morning of April 8 (and Van Dorn made the trip to Memphis, himself, and arrived about April 8... in time to receive the first message that expressed any urgency: 'General Beauregard requests that you hurry forward your command.' [OR Serial 11, page 398: message from Captain John Adams, post of Memphis, dated April 8, 1862.] On April 9, General Beauregard telegraphed to General Cooper at Richmond: 'Van Dorn may join us in Corinth in a few days with 15.000 more troops.' [OR Serial 11, page 403] On April 12, Sterling Price told Van Dorn: 'I have sent Colonel Little's Brigade to Corinth, and General Rust's command to Fort Pillow, by order of General Beauregard.' [OR Serial 11, page 414] [What this indicates to me, is the effort to defend the Mississippi River was as important to General Beauregard as the assembly of Rebels at Corinth. And the 'slow movement' of Van Dorn east allowed an opportunity to re-direct Van Dorn north... but the opportunity for Van Dorn to join the build-up at Corinth in a timely manner (before the Battle of Shiloh) was lost -- Ozzy.] In effect, Van Dorn had no opportunity to join the Army of the Mississippi, prior to the Battle of Shiloh: he was not tardy; he was never told to hurry, until it was too late. Ozzy References: Life of Albert Sidney Johnston, by Preston Johnston The Military Operations of General Beauregard, by Alfred Roman OR Serials 8 and 11
  12. Ozzy

    The Hero of Shiloh

    Let's start with a question, IRT... tornadoes. Is the apparent increase in the number of tornadoes photographed, from one year to the next, mostly the result of an increase in the number of tornadoes; or are there more cameras in the hands of everyday citizens, which are then more readily available to be used to capture images, that would have been missed years ago? I begin this post with a weather question, because I believe a similar query can be posed IRT 'the heroes' of Shiloh. Does the difficulty in determining a 'Hero of Shiloh' lie in the fact that 1) all of the potential selectees possess un-hero-like qualities (flaws) that detract from/negate their positive achievements, or 2) we have over-examined potential heroes, and dug up flaws that would have been ignored/remained hidden in years past? Two examples: one of my Civil War heroes is Joshua Chamberlain. Another is Adam Slemmer. I am comfortable with their hero-status, and am hesitant to dig deeper into their stories, because I do not want to find out their hidden flaws. So... what about the Hero of Shiloh? Ozzy
  13. Ozzy

    A Tale of Two Maps

    Just for the sake of comparison, here is the Map used by Confederate Generals at the Battle of Shiloh (found in The Life of Albert Sidney Johnston, by William Preston Johnston (1878) page 558: And here is the map constructed for Henry Halleck, during the April/May 1862 advance on Corinth (found at the Library of Congress, and attributed to Colonel George Thom, Topographical Engineer): Obviously, someone had a lot more time on his hands... Regards Ozzy
  14. Ozzy

    Still to ponder...

    Greetings from Down Under I'll start by wishing everyone a memorable visit to Shiloh NMP this 150th Anniversary of the 'Turnover at Liverpool' ...the completion of the Voyage of CSS Shenandoah, in November 1865. I was thinking of starting a discussion on a topic of interest, perhaps in a week or two, once the dust settles on the debrief of events from this latest Park Visit. Some of my ideas: US Grant and migraines: did he get them? If so, is it possible that he was suffering from a 'sick headache' at Shiloh?The movements of the 58th Illinois Infantry, April 6th 1862: just where were they, really?'Parole Camps: necessary, or evil?Oh, and a new historical novel will be out this month: Book Cover.pdf All the best Ozzy
  15. While helping a friend on another website search for information about their ancestor (and Shiloh veteran), I ran across the following online site, run by the State of Illinois. It lists 'descriptive features' (age, height, hair color, eye color, occupation, etc) of all the Civil War soldiers enlisted in Illinois. Start by pressing [search]. In new window, in the 'Search Box,' place the soldier's name as such [Gregg, Patrick] or [Grant, U ] with 'comma' and 'space' separating last name from first name... and ignore boxes for 'Company' and 'Unit' as the search works fine without those entries. For those with ancestors from Illinois regiments... Cheers Ozzy http://www.cyberdriveillinois.com/departments/archives/databases/datcivil.html (Illinois Civil War soldiers)
  16. Ozzy

    The Smoke of Battle

    One of the aspects of Civil War conflict, that must be seen to be believed: all those black powder weapons, letting loose... with their lingering effects, shrouding real-time developments on the battlefield. [Thanks to the 5th Ohio Lt Artillery re-enactors.] http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9bciquvOROU (Created by Robert Clements; posted on YouTube April 2nd, 2012) Ozzy
  17. For many men, the Battle of Shiloh did not end when the shooting stopped, and General Beauregard returned his forces to Corinth. Many thousands of soldiers on both sides were wounded; they required care and convalescence that took months and years for recovery. Some never recovered completely, making Shiloh their last direct involvement with the war. Others were taken as prisoners. For the 2200 Federals captured at the Hornet's Nest and Hell's Hollow, (and hundreds more taken across the battlefield), their incarceration began with a march to Corinth. At Corinth, they were packed onto trains and carried to locations throughout the South, including Memphis; Columbus, MS; Mobile; Cahaba; Tuscaloosa (several sites); Montgomery (several sites); Talladega; Madison; Atlanta; and Macon's Camp Oglethorpe. For hundreds of Confederates taken prisoner by the Union, the majority appear to have been shipped north on steamboats, transferred to the railroad at Cairo, and hauled to confinement at Camp Douglas, Chicago. Located just south of the city on land rumored to have been owned by Stephen Douglas (of the Lincoln-Douglas Debates), Camp Douglas began as a mustering-in center in 1861: at least eleven Illinois regiments began their existence at the site. After the massive number of POWs taken as a result of Fort Donelson, 'suitable' locations were required, and quickly, to house over 12000 men: primarily, these sites were Camp Morton; Camp Chase; and Camp Douglas (which took the majority.) Before the end of February 1862, the first prisoners arrived at Camp Douglas; before the end of the year, it had reached full capacity of nearly 9000 men. By the time it closed in mid-1865, Camp Douglas recorded 26000 prisoners as having 'passed through.' Available for viewing, via <familysearch.org> is the complete list of Confederate prisoners held at Camp Douglas after the Battle of Shiloh. The Mormon Church offers this family history information for free; in order to gain access, follow the following steps: on your favorite search engine, type 'Confederate Prisoner of War Records' [enter] [select] 'Confederate Prisoner of War Records - Family Search' [enter] in the light-blue box, labelled as 'Contents' select '2.1 Confederate Prisoners of War, 1861-1865' [enter] under 'Records of the National Archives - Confederate Prisoners' select the first dot-point 'United States, Records of Confederate Prisoners of War, 1861-1865 (familysearch)' [enter] under 'United States -- Records of Confederate Prisoners of War, 1861-1865' sub heading 'View images in this collection,' select 'Browse through 51,108 images' [enter] under 'Prisoner or Prison/Station Records' select from the second column 'IL, Camp Douglas, Military Prison' [enter] under 'Document type,' in the second column, the fourth item: 'Prisoner Registers, 1862, v. 192-194' [enter] Finally having opened the document, you will discover over 248 pages, 8800 names, listed alphabetically, and recording rank, regiment and company, where captured, when captured, and 'notes.' There appear to be several hundred prisoners from Shiloh; the others are from Fort Donelson and Island No. 10. Also on this site are records from other northern prisons. Familysearch.org also allows free searching of your family history, so it's a site worth spending time investigating. Cheers Ozzy Update: See Post No. 3, below, for easier access to prisoner records.
  18. In case you have not seen it before, the following link registers the belief of the Confederate Secretary of State that the Battle of Shiloh was a Confederate victory. Contained in diplomatic message sent to London (from the book The Messages and Papers of Jefferson Davis and the Confederacy, published by James D. Richardson (in two volumes), by U. S. Publishing Co., Nashville, 1904, pages 233- 235.) Cheers Ozzy http://archive.org/stream/messagespapersof02conf#page/232/mode/2up
  19. Anyone attempting to research events on the far left of the Union line during April 6th, knows it is relatively easy to find references IRT the 55th Illinois. But, the activities of the other major player, the 54th Ohio (2nd Ohio Zouaves) are less abundantly documented. The Life and Letters of Thomas Kilby Smith, by his son, Walter George Smith, published by G. P. Putnam of New York, (1898), goes some way to addressing that deficiency. The book consists of two parts: a 'Memoir' (more of a biography) that discusses T. Kilby Smith's career during the Civil War, pages 10- 167; and 'Letters' that Smith wrote to his wife, mother and sister, usually within days of the event described (pages 167- 463). Because Smith was Colonel of the 54th Ohio, his experience is theirs, until they part company in July 1863, due to his promotion to Brigadier General. The following pages are of most interest: pp. 12- 22 arrival at Pittsburg Landing, thru to the Battle of Shiloh; p. 186 discussion of Zouave ideals; pp. 191- 2 'We are as safe here, as if we were in New York City' -- March 31st, 1862; pp. 193- 9 April 11th letters to wife, sister and mother, describing aspects of 54th OVI involvement; pp. 228- 9 July 1862 letter to mother with more details of Battle of Shiloh/ Flag of 54th OVI.After Shiloh, the Siege of Corinth, Occupation of Memphis, Arkansas Post, and Vicksburg Campaign are discussed. After parting company with the 54th OVI, the Red River Campaign, and Brigadier General Smith's assignment to Fort Gaines, near Mobile Alabama, are described. (In this latter segment of the book, the most interesting aspect, for me, was the description of 'land mines' encountered by Union forces under General Canby during the Assault on Spanish Fort, page 383- 4; I'd heard of the use of this weapon during the Civil War, but did not know at what battle it was employed.) The major strength of the book: the above indicated pages can be accessed online (free) at the below website, and read in about fifteen minutes. The major weakness: in a book of 460 pages, that is all there is IRT Battle of Shiloh. http://archive.org/stream/kilbysmiththomas00smitrich#page/n9/mode/2up Ozzy
  20. Ozzy

    Shiloh on YouTube

    Over on YouTube, the 'Shelby Foote Fan Club' has finally gotten around to adding eight segments on the Battle of Shiloh, beginning with a discussion of the 'personality clash' between Halleck and Grant, Chapter 4, Part 12. Worth a look... created from the works of Shelby Foote. Ozzy
  21. As described in the 'Record of CSA Prisoners,' identities of the Confederate prisoners taken at Shiloh, and held at Camp Douglas, Chicago can be viewed, following the instructions provided on that post. For Union prisoner information, the best site I have encountered on the Internet is <www.civilwarprisoners.com> In your favorite search engine, type 'Civil War Prisoners' [enter] Select the option 'Civil War Prisons <www.civilwarprisoners.com> [enter] On the new webpage, titled 'Civil War Prisons,' from the column on the left, select Cahaba Prison [enter] New page is titled 'Search for records from Cahaba Prison,' and has three empty boxes, allowing you to conduct your search. For example, I type: G McKinnis 12th Iowa [search], and the result comes back on a new page. If you are interested in all the men taken from one regiment, complete only the third box, for example: 12th Iowa [search] and the result returns over 350 men recorded as captured. There are two failings to this site: not every prisoner is recorded (officers seem to be missing); and the last name must be spelled 'correctly,' as recorded on their data base. '0 results found' is returned until the 'correct' spelling is used. (This can be overcome by searching only for the regiment, and scanning through the results.) Although Cahaba Prison is the access point, the results return information for prisoners held at any site, except Andersonville. For Andersonville, a separate access point is provided. Also, all of the 2200 men involved in the Sultana disaster are listed. Cheers Ozzy http://www.civilwarprisoners.com/
  22. Ozzy

    Mary writes about Shiloh

    'All we read is not half as bad as it really is...' So wrote Mary Crowell on 28/29 April 1862, to family back east in Vermont. Her brother, Henry Tucker, had been on the sick list during the Battle of Shiloh, so came through the two days unscathed. Henry was a private in the 15th Illinois, Co. E. But, her other brother, Corporal Rufus Tucker, of the 15th Illinois, Co. E, had just been returned home to Nara Township, in Jo Daviess County, in order to heal and fully recover from wounds he'd received in the battle. His experience, as part of Veatch's Brigade, had left him bitter; he told everyone who would listen that 'Whitelaw Reid was right,' and that 'General Grant should be hung.' Returning to Mary's letter, she wrote that 'Henry says he is not coming home until the war is over.' Also, she mentions the news that New Orleans is now back in Federal hands, and predicts that 'all the Federal prisoners captured at Shiloh and sent to New Orleans can look forward to being released soon.' Aside from war news, the letter is also of interest for the other events of the day that are deemed important, such as the 'backward Spring,' and its effect on the planting of wheat. And her need to have teeth extracted in the nearby town of Galena: U.S. Grant's most recent abode, prior to the breakout of war. The Mary Crowell letter: important for reflecting the contemporary thoughts and attitudes of ordinary folks, affected by the Battle of Shiloh. This letter can be accessed on the Internet, as both a photocopy of the 4-page original, and as a transcript, via University of Notre Dame, Hesburgh Libraries. <<rarebooks.nd.edu/digital/civil_war/letters/crowell> In addition to Mary Crowell's letter, there are dozens more letters and diaries, Union and Confederate, most of which are available in their entirety on the Internet. (Some have catalog details provided, and brief descriptions of content, but may require your physical presence in South Bend, Indiana to gain access.) Examples of both... John A. Albright (4 Letters) Feb 1864- 1865; a private in the 16th Wisconsin, Co. K (new company K, under Captain Morris.) Entered service from Eagle Township, Waukesha County, Wisconsin. Catalog no. MSN/CW 5016-1 - MSN/CW 5016-4 Meek Family correspondence (27 letters) 1861- 1869. The struggles of the Meek Family of East Tennessee, after Judge James Meek was taken into custody and classed as a 'political prisoner.' Some letters sent from Camp Oglethorpe, (Macon, Georgia) in June 1862. Taylor Family correspondence (5 letters) 1864. The Taylor brothers, Robert and Gibson, were Confederate cavalrymen, who served in Kentucky units attached to General John Hunt Morgan. Gibson was captured, and sent to the Union prison at Rock Island: at least one of his letters was sent from there. To gain access to this extensive collection, go into your favorite search engine via 'University of Notre Dame, Hesburgh Libraries' In 'Hesburgh Libraries catalog search, type 'rare books and special collections' [enter] In 'Collections,' select 'US history & culture [enter] 'Manuscripts,' select 'Civil War era' Available for view: Topical Collection (Wirz/Andersonville); personal papers; military records; diaries and journals; letters (where you find 'Mary Crowell's letter') Cheers Ozzy
  23. Ozzy

    A Yankee loose in Dixie

    On April 5th, 1862 Colonel R. P. Buckland, commander of the 4th Brigade, sent a daily report concerning the activity of his pickets, to his boss, General W. T. Sherman. In it, he confirmed that, 'Lieutenant Geer, my acting aide, is missing...' Beyond the Lines, or a Yankee prisoner loose in Dixie, by Captain J. J. Geer, published by J. W. Daughaday of Philadelphia, 1863. The true story of what happened to the 'acting aide,' after he was captured while investigating an attack on Union pickets, on April 4th, 1862. Taken straight away to Confederate Headquarters, Geer recounts meeting, in succession, General Bragg, General Hardee, and General Beauregard, all of whom are intent on getting him to reveal all he knows concerning Grant's strength and unit locations. After battle commenced, and no longer of potential use for intelligence, the prisoner was sent to the rear, to Corinth; where he remained until just before the arrival of General Prentiss and his 2200 fellow captives. Lieutenant Geer was sent south on the Mobile and Ohio to a brief incarceration at Columbus, Mississippi. From there, he was sent even further south, to Mobile. Eventually, six hundred captives taken at Hell's Hollow were incarcerated in a disused cotton shed in Montgomery, Alabama. J. J. Geer joined them there in late April, in time to witness 'the first reported war crime' of the Rebellion: the shooting of Lieutenant William S. Bliss, 1st Michigan Light Artillery, Company B (sometimes indicated as 'Battery B' and Ross' Battery.) Sent next to Camp Oglethorpe, 28-year-old Geer stayed only briefly, before he made his escape; he remained in hiding in Georgia swamps for three weeks, until recaptured, and sent to join General Prentiss and the other 200 Federal officers, held as prisoners at Madison, Georgia. Here he remained, along with hundreds of political prisoners from East Tennessee; and witnessed the return of Captain Patrick Gregg from his errand as commissioner to Washington, D.C. Finally, in October 1862, the general exchange was approved; and the prisons at Madison and Macon were emptied, Lieutenant Geer was sent north with the other prisoners, and continued to record his experiences: the stop at Libby Prison in Richmond; the first view in six months of 'that Glorious Flag' as they boarded the flag-of-truce boat at Aiken's Landing; the eventual arrival (of the officers) in Washington, D.C. (The enlisted men were incarcerated at Annapolis, Maryland.) John J. Geer's experience, (recorded as this book, and published June 1863), was deemed to have been of such value, that he was promoted to Captain, and sent on a 'lecture and recruiting tour' of the United States, in company with William Pittenger, one of the Medal of Honor winners from Andrew's Raid into Georgia, Beyond the Lines: a Yankee prisoner loose in Dixie is available on the internet. The Library of Congress website offers free access <archive.org/details/beyondlinesory00geer> (Sometimes, this man's name is misspelled 'Greer') Alternatively, all 300 pages of the book are again available in print, since 2010, from Kessinger Legacy Reprints, Whitefish, Montana. Ozzy http://archive.org/details/beyondlinesory00geer
  24. Ozzy

    William Horsfall was there.

    It is said that William Horsfall stowed away on a steamboat on the Ohio River, in order to join a Union regiment 'out west.' In December 1861, he was mustered into the 1st Kentucky Volunteer Infantry, Co G, as a musician. But, he soon traded his drum for a rifle; he became known as an outstanding marksman. As part of Buell's Army of the Ohio, he marched with Bull Nelson's Division towards Savannah, Tennessee, and crossed the river to Pittsburg Landing at 5:30 on the afternoon of April 6th. Sleeping on the line overnight, at 4am his 22nd Brigade (Colonel Bruce) was ordered into line, near the extreme left end (only Ammen's Brigade was closer to the Tennessee River.) They moved forward about 6am, and despite fierce opposition, drove the Confederates from the field by late afternoon. Following the victory at Shiloh, Drummer Horsfall participated in Halleck's agonizingly slow crawl towards Corinth, sometimes advancing only a few hundred yards before constructing new entrenchments. On May 21st, 1862, the 1st Kentucky attempted to advance across a ravine, but the Rebels waited in ambush at the top of the opposite side, and shot them down. Including the officer commanding Co. H, Captain James Williamson. As the Federals retreated to safety, it was realized that Captain Williamson had been left behind, in the ravine. When the situation was brought to the attention of Drummer Horsfall, he 'leaned his rifle against a tree, and rushed forward 'in a stooping run' to the wounded officer's side. He succeeded in dragging him to safety.' For his heroism and bravery, he was awarded the Medal of Honor. On May 21st, 1862, William Horsfall was 15 years old. <militarytimes.com/citations-medals-awards> <civilwarbummer.com/kentucky-drummer-boy> Union Regiments of Kentucky, published under the auspices of the 'Union Soldiers and Sailors Monument Assn.' and including The Regimental Histories and Sketch of Military Campaigns, by Captain Thos. Speed; [etal]; Louisville, KY: Couker-Journal Job Printing Co., 1897. Volumes 1 and 2 available online <archive.org/stream/unionregimentso00unio>
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