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Found 136 results

  1. It appears baseball was played by General Grant's troops, during their abundant leisure time, after the victory at Fort Donelson. The game may have been introduced to regiments undergoing training at Benton Barracks. Alternatively, one or more of the regiments from Milwaukee, Chicago, or Ohio may have imported the game when they arrived at Pittsburg Landing in March 1862. It is confirmed that a baseball was discovered on Shiloh Battlefield, a few days after the carnage, by a civilian working for the Union army. G. F. Hellum was so impressed by his find, he etched details of the location of his discovery into the hide, turning the lemon-peel ball into a trophy. Now, consider the story of Sgt. Edward Spalding, Co. E, 52nd Illinois. In action on Sunday, the 6th of April, he was twice wounded, but refused to be removed from the field. He remained fighting, in open ground, until the close of the battle. Finally taken to Hospital at Pittsburg Landing in time to have wounds to his left arm dressed, he should have made a full recovery. But, days passed, and his condition worsened. Somehow, Ed Spalding's parents found out about their son's predicament; his father, Asa, journeyed to Pittsburg Landing and took him home, to Rockford, Illinois. The improvement in care, furnished in a loving home, probably saved his life. But, it still required time for his wounds to fully heal. While recuperating, he was visited by his 11-year-old cousin, Albert, to whom he introduced the rules of the game of Baseball. Edward returned to his regiment in November 1862, was promoted to second lieutenant, and continued to serve until mustered out in December 1864. Albert Spalding took to his cousin's game so well, that he went on to become a professional baseball player, playing as pitcher, centerfielder, and first baseman, for the Boston Red Stockings, and the Chicago White Stockings. In 1876, he co-founded A. G. Spalding Sporting Goods; he continued to promote 'the National Pastime' for the rest of his life.
  2. Besides staff officers, there was another man present who accompanied General A.S. Johnston from Corinth to the Battlefield of Shiloh. This man had also ridden across the desert with Johnston in June/ July 1861 from California to Texas (one of the thirty-five stalwarts, along with Ridley, Frazee, Wickliffe and Hardcastle) and General Johnston described this man in a letter to his wife as, “sans peur – without fear.” But, because this man's name is often abbreviated, or misspelled, he often gets missed in official records (and there is no record of him on this SDG site, until now.) What was this man's name? Bonus: What was his role? [Hint: not a slave.]
  3. One of the leaders in the Confederate Army of the Mississippi that we think we know enough about, but fail to fully appreciate (perhaps because he was a late entry, put in charge of the Reserve Corps after General Crittenden was removed): John C. Breckinridge. As everyone knows, Breckinridge was VP under Buchanan; but he was Senator from Kentucky when war broke out in April 1861... How did that come about? Born in Lexington Kentucky into a political family, Breckinridge studied law and graduated from Transylvania College in 1841, aged 20. Moving to Iowa Territory, John Breckinridge set up a Law Office at Burlington; but returned home to Kentucky to visit relatives Summer of 1843, and met and married a cousin of his law partner, Mary Cyrene Burch. The Burlington Law Office was closed, and the young couple settled in Georgetown Kentucky. The Mexican War erupted in 1846, and John Breckinridge attempted to join a Kentucky regiment, but was disallowed. So, instead of serving in Mexico, Breckenridge built up his law practice (now established in Lexington) until the decision preventing him from serving in the Army was reversed. In August 1847, the 3rd Kentucky Volunteers, along with Major Breckinridge, set off for the war; and arrived in time to help garrison newly captured Mexico City. [There is dispute whether John Breckinridge became a member of the prestigious Aztec Club, as his name is not listed among the Original Members. However, a grandson, James C. Breckinridge, became a Hereditary Member in 1887 and this was only possible if Major Breckinridge was eligible.] One fallout from duty in Mexico was the Gideon Pillow case, resulting in Court-Martial in 1848. Major Breckinridge acted as Defence for Brigadier General Pillow, with the result of No Verdict. A subsequent Court of Inquiry exonerated General Pillow (but he was never made a Member of the Aztec Club.) John Breckinridge entered politics and won election to the U.S. House of Representatives in 1850, was reelected in 1852 and served until 1855. He was subsequently installed on the ticket as James Buchanan's running mate during the 1856 election, and subsequently served as Vice President until March 4th 1861 (when Hannibal Hamlin was sworn in as VP under President Lincoln.) When Vice President Hamlin swore in newly elected Senators a few days later, John Breckinridge was sworn in as Senator from Kentucky (filling a vacancy.) [And while serving as VP John Breckinridge was on the ballot as Southern Democrat candidate for President in the 1860 election. As result of the NOV 1860 election, Breckinridge gained the second highest number of electoral votes in the 4-way race, and lost to Republican Abraham Lincoln.] Senator Breckinridge managed to hold onto his seat, and vote on crucial measures, until December 1861, when a vote of the Senate declared him a Traitor, and expelled him. (Breckinridge had joined the Confederate Army in November. His expulsion followed those of ten other Southern Senators expelled in July.) Commissioned Brigadier General with effect from 2 NOV 1861, two weeks later he was given command of the 1st Kentucky Brigade, under overall command of General Albert Sidney Johnston, and organized that collection of Kentucky units at Bowling Green. With the loss of Fort Donelson in FEB 1862 Breckinridge led his brigade south through Nashville and eventually took up the line of the Memphis & Charleston R.R. west to Corinth. With the removal of Brigadier General George Crittenden end of March 1862, John Breckinridge gained elevation to command of the Reserve Corps, just in time for Shiloh. Following the Battle of Shiloh, General Breckinridge was Mentioned in Despatches by General PGT Beauregard and is noted for his impressive rear-guard action during Confederate withdrawal to Corinth. During the Siege of Corinth Major General Breckinridge continued in command of the Reserve Corps; he continued to serve in the field (Stones River, Chickamauga, Missionary Ridge, and New Market most noteworthy) and in 1865 was called from active duty and installed as the last Confederate Secretary of War. With the pending loss of the Capital at Richmond in April 1865, John Breckinridge fled south with President Davis and the Cabinet; and Breckinridge was one of the few to evade capture, reaching safety in Canada. References: https://www.neh.gov/humanities/2011/novemberdecember/feature/the-man-who-came-in-second John C. Breckinridge https://chroniclingamerica.loc.gov/lccn/sn84024738/1862-05-10/ed-1/seq-2/#date1=1862&sort=relevance&rows=20&words=Peyton&searchType=basic&sequence=0&index=19&state=Virginia&date2=1862&proxtext=Peyton&y=0&x=0&dateFilterType=yearRange&page=6 The Daily Dispatch (Richmond Virginia) 10 MAY 1862 page 2 col. 5 "Shiloh Report of General Beauregard" https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7GGmFkl-bzw [Just an interesting John C. Breckinridge relic or two...]
  4. The website <docsouth.unc.edu> "Documenting the American South" presents a list of perhaps 200 diaries and journals compiled during the War Between the States. Most are not Shiloh related, but some make mention of Fort Donelson and Shiloh (Mary Chesnut, for example.) Just about every diary has a link allowing online viewing: https://docsouth.unc.edu/fpn/texts.html Documenting the American South.
  5. Following on the Confederate evacuation from Corinth end of May 1862, many in the Government at Richmond became quite unhappy with the performance of General PGT Beauregard. President Jefferson Davis, in particular, harbored a grudge that stemmed from Beauregard's publication of his Manassas report in newspapers (criticizing Davis' role in not promoting pursuit of the retreating Federals as they fled pell- mell towards Washington.) The grudge festered with the death of Davis' friend, Albert Sidney Johnston at Shiloh, and Beauregard's cavalier report of that man's death, tacked into a telegram claiming Complete Victory on April 6th. The final straw that broke the camel's back was Beauregard's "unauthorized" evacuation from Corinth, without first engaging Federal forces in battle. It appears President Davis merely bided his time... and when Braxton Bragg reported that Beauregard had departed on sick leave (for a health spa near Mobile) the opportunity presented, and Davis struck, replacing Beauregard on 17 June 1862 with Bragg as commander of what would now be called the Army of Tennessee. Stephen R. Mallory, Confederate Secretary of the Navy, was one of the few Cabinet officers to keep a diary. His entry for 21 June 1862: "Interesting Cabinet meeting yesterday. President had ordered Bragg, who was second in command at Corinth, to proceed to Mississippi and assume command. Beauregard would not permit Bragg to go, but left Bragg in command, and goes himself to Mobile for his health. Beauregard, with the finest army ever found upon this continent, about 100,000 strong, remained about six weeks after the battle of Shiloh inactive, with the enemy in his front, and then retreated without notice to the President or War Department. And up to this time no reason for his retreat is known, and now he abandons his army without leave or notice. My own idea is that his mind has given way under the weight of his command; and that finding Bragg about to leave him, he ran away from an army he could not manage. If a soldier were thus to go off without leave he would be tried for desertion and be probably shot, and an officer would be shot or cashiered. Beauregard has never voluntarily fought a battle... and never will. Bragg is left in command, and he may do better." https://finding-aids.lib.unc.edu/02229/#folder_4#1 Diary of S.R. Mallory, Secretary of Navy (CSA) at Uni North Carolina Library.
  6. As a rule, I am not a fan of audio presentations, without video to enhance it. But while doing some sorting and rearranging in the office, put this American Military History Podcast – Shiloh on… and was pleasantly surprised. The Story of Shiloh, as told by the narrator, is not far off from how I believe a fair telling of the Battle of Shiloh should run. The full presentation requires just over an hour, so in the interest of allowing “bits of most interest” to be accessed (begin at 4 minute mark): 4 minutes PGT Beauregard, upon receiving a report on 2 APR that, “Lew Wallace is moving his Division west, thus dividing Grant’s army,” initiates the Rebel move from Corinth; 23 mins General Sherman in the days prior to Battle of Shiloh: 26:30 Jesse Appler and the 53rd Ohio annoy Sherman; 29:30 U.S. Grant hears the guns of battle; 29:30 Beauregard believes surprise has been lost, and attempts to abort attack; 31:40 Peabody 39:00 Grant meets Sherman at 10 a.m. 45:30 Rebel attack plan of “driving the Union northwest, into the swamp” is inadvertently altered to “driving the Federals northeast, towards the Landing” 47:30 Prentiss frustrates the Rebels by holding on in the Thicket. 52:30 The death of Albert Sidney Johnston; 55:00 Prentiss surrenders. 57:30 The last assault, against Grant’s Last Line. 58:00 Beauregard ends Day One operations. 61:00 Lew Wallace… 64:00 Grant’s errors… 65:00 Nathan Bedford Forrest 66:30 Colonel Helm’s bad intelligence, advising, “Buell is moving south…” The podcast finishes with a brief description of Fallen Timbers, and summary of casualties. Overall, I found the presentation impressive, and mostly accurate. Most errors were due to editing (errors of omission) as opposed to Fact errors. But, have a listen, and tell me what you think. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NVVYl_dAB4c Shiloh podcast of 4 July 2018 by American Military History Podcast on YouTube. [Fourteen other Civil War battle narratives by the same organization available on YouTube, including Fort Sumter, Bull Run, Wilson's Creek and Second Manassas https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MI6-GfRVbPA&list=PLZ487KCnJN833w3UKDCSNZGYkkAC9_kF6 ]
  7. I've always been one who believed, "Don't throw out the baby with the bath water." So when this original NPS film of Shiloh was discovered on YouTube, it seemed appropriate to add it to the references section, for others to view. And having it available allows discussion of the good and bad aspects of this 60+ year old work: First, it is in color, and the views of the battlefield circa 1956 permit identification of changes over time; There is an attempt at balance: the efforts and sacrifice of both opponents are given fair treatment in respect to each other; The most obvious error: giving credit to General Prentiss for the action of Colonel Peabody in sending out Powell's patrol; The second most obvious error: NO mention of William Tecumseh Sherman and the actions of the Fifth Division; Third most obvious error: no mention of McClernand, Hurlbut or Stuart (or Webster or Powell) Although the models used were mediocre, the effort to recognize the Navy's contribution is commendable; The attempt is made to explain Bloody Pond, the Peach Orchard, the Sunken Road, and the Hornet's Nest (for the benefit of park visitors) The charts and drawings used are simple, but reasonably accurate (especially the depiction of Grant's Last Line). Although this film has obvious flaws, it is an easy matter for those of us who study the Battle of Shiloh to recognize those flaws... and enjoy the telling of the story. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LbjXqwAOhgw Posted on YouTube by LionHeart Film Works on 6 April 2019.
  8. The following two letters were written by 17 year old Private M. E. Wescott to his mother in Farmington, Wisconsin. Ebenezer and his school friend, Samuel McClements, decided one day to wag school, run away and join a Wisconsin regiment (and must have lied about their ages to enlist without parental permission.) Briefly at Camp Randall, the two lads were soon underway with their regiment, bound for St. Louis. But, while the rest of the regiment went into camp at Benton Barracks, Company E boarded the steamer Imperial, departed St. Louis end of March, and arrived at Pittsburg Landing about four days later. References: https://archive.org/details/civilwarletters100wesc/page/n2 Civil War Letters by M. Ebenezer Wescott https://archive.org/details/rosterofwisconsi02wisco/page/64 Roster of Wisconsin Regiments https://digital.shsmo.org/digital/collection/dmr/id/15002/rec/3165 Daily Missouri Republican of 29 MAR 1862 reporting departure of steamer Imperial
  9. It took a couple of days for word to reach the villages and farms in the North that a massive contest had taken place along the bank of the Tennessee River. And the initial reports seemed to indicate “another Union victory, with moderate casualties,” such as resulted for the Union at Fort Henry and Fort Donelson and Island No.10 …but after those initial reports, other stories began to appear, not just from embedded reporters, but letters and other eyewitness accounts from soldiers themselves, and these presented sensational details at odds with the initial rosy narrative. And these details grew progressively horrific: not hundreds of casualties, but thousands… maybe tens of thousands… Suddenly, Casualty Lists were in demand; but the Northern newspapers could not provide them. As occurred after Forts Henry and Donelson, the regional papers contacted Chicago for details… and were given only Chicago-specific lists of casualties. And the Horror of Shiloh continued, with full Casualty Lists never appearing in most Northern newspapers: the affected families were slowly and sporadically informed of the fate of their loved ones by mail: comrades of their sons and fathers who knew what happened (or thought they did); and official letters of condolence when facts could be positively determined. Meanwhile, the waiting, and not knowing, became almost intolerable… Unknown to the people in the North, one newspaper had taken extraordinary steps to compile a Master Casualty List of Wounded Men, and that paper was not in Chicago or Cincinnati, but St. Louis. Beginning with the April 15th edition, the Daily Missouri Republican published names of wounded men who arrived at St. Louis aboard the Hospital boat, D.A. January (two full columns on Page One.) And although Hospital boats Crescent City and City of Louisiana soon arrived at St. Louis, other boats pressed into service as floating Hospitals offloaded their human cargo at New Albany, Evansville, Cincinnati, Louisville, Paducah and Cairo; the Daily Missouri Republican “borrowed” reports from local papers of those river ports and repeated them on the pages of the St. Louis paper: • 17 APR page 3 Minnehaha wounded offloaded at Louisville (CSA and USA) • 18 APR page 1 John J. Roe casualties offloaded at Evansville • 19 APR page 1 War Eagle casualties arrived St. Louis • 19 APR page 2 Empress casualties arrived at St. Louis • 19 APR page 3 Magnolia casualties arrived Cincinnati • 20 APR page 1 Imperial casualties arrived St. Louis • 20 APR page 1 Black Hawk casualties arrived Cairo • 20 APR page 2 Tycoon casualties arrived 17 APR at Cincinnati • 20 APR page 2 Lancaster casualties arrived at Cincinnati • 20 APR page 2 B. J. Adams casualties arrived New Albany In addition, edition for 22 APR page 3 lists all of the Hospitals in St. Louis where the wounded men from Pittsburg Landing were housed. Shortly after his arrival at Pittsburg Landing, Henry Halleck sent a telegram to Brigadier General Strong at Cairo (15 APR 1862): “All the wounded have been sent to Hospital. Stop all sanitary commissions, nurses and citizens. We don’t want any more.” References: Daily Missouri Republican, issues 9 APR through 23 APR 1862 and available: https://digital.shsmo.org/digital/collection/dmr/id/15091/rec/3182 Missouri Daily Republican for 15 APR 1862 https://digital.shsmo.org/digital/collection/dmr/search/page/318 Access to all editions of Missouri Daily Republican at State Historical Society of Missouri Note: The first known reference published in the North referred to “an attack against our forces at Pittsburg Landing by Beauregard” went to print on 8 APR 1862 and was discredited as “a rumor from Paducah.” The second reference to the Battle of Pittsburg Landing was published 9 APR 1862 and was a telegram sent from Henry Halleck to SecWar Stanton on April 8, full contents of which: “The enemy attacked our forces at Pittsburg Tennessee yesterday (April 7) but was repulsed with heavy loss. No details given.” Further note: Beginning 15 APR 1862 the same editions of this newspaper contained names and details of Confederate prisoners captured at Battle of Pittsburg Landing and transported to St. Louis and elsewhere (initially aboard steamer, Woodfolk -- see page one, column 6.)
  10. Ozzy

    14th Iowa "diary"

    [from Clark County H.S.] Lewis Wells Sutton was born in Ohio in November 1839 and in about 1855 migrated with his Father Philip, Mother Elizabeth, and five brothers and sisters to Henry County, Iowa. The railroads at that time were advertising “cheap land,” the first bridge over the Mississippi River had been completed (with likelihood of a ribbon of steel soon reaching California), and the Sutton Family was certainly drawn to some of the richest farmland in America by the promise of a Golden Future. The eruption of War in 1861 put on hold the Dreams of the Future: Lewis (20) and his brother Jacob (18) enlisted in the 14th Iowa Volunteer Infantry, Company I, in October. Mustered in at Davenport, the 14th Iowa saw service at Fort Donelson with Lauman’s Brigade of C.F. Smith’s Second Division. And then moved on to Pittsburg Landing. And along the way, Lewis Sutton was promoted to Corporal. And the 14th Iowa (Colonel Shaw) was attached to Tuttle’s Brigade of C.F. Smith’s Second Division (but with General Smith away sick, the Division was under acting command of Brigadier General WHL Wallace, effective 2 April 1862.) And the under-strength 14th Iowa (Companies A and B were detached months earlier to fight Indians in Minnesota) recruited new members from the Union-supporting residents of Savannah. On Sunday morning, April 6th the 14th Iowa was marched south “toward the sound of the guns” and upon witnessing a distant hoard wearing butternut emerging from the trees below them, Colonel Tuttle directed the 14th Iowa to line along a trail to the ESE along the top of the slope. When fully deployed, the regiment almost connected with the 500 remaining men of General Prentiss’s Sixth Division (Prentiss soon to be reinforced by the 23rd Missouri in a position to become known as The Thicket.) And the 8th Iowa was detached from Sweeny’s Brigade to fill the gap between Prentiss and the 14th Iowa. After holding the position nearly eight hours, the 14th Iowa Infantry was surrendered by Colonel Shaw (with Corporal Sutton one of those captured.) In October 1862 Lewis Sutton (along with all the surviving Shiloh Prisoners) was released from confinement at Camp Oglethorpe (Macon, Georgia) and returned to Union lines; and in early 1863 the reformed 14th Iowa returned to duty. The loss of men due to battle and disease resulted in promotion of veteran soldiers: Lewis Sutton gained advancement to Sergeant Major. And for the remainder of his enlistment, Sergeant Major Sutton assisted the Regimental Adjutant with keeping the Ledger of the 14th Iowa: Muster rolls, casualty lists, record of significant occurrences… it reads like a diary. Lewis Sutton’s enlistment expired end of 1864 and he returned to Iowa, and eventually went into business at Mount Pleasant, and then at Ottumwa. In 1893 Mr. Sutton relocated his family to Vancouver Washington, established a business, and lived out the rest of his life (Lewis Sutton died July 1914 at the age of 75.) Fifty years later, Lewis Sutton’s granddaughter donated his Civil War materials to the local historical society (Clark County Washington Historical Society.) The brown leather satchel containing Sergeant Major Sutton’s materials was stored in the basement… and it appears no one bothered to investigate the contents until 2011. And even in 2011, they did not realize what they had in their possession (calling it “Lewis Sutton’s Diary.”) It is actually the Regimental Ledger for the 14th Iowa Infantry, and should have gone into the Official Records storage of the War Department after the Civil War ended. But, somehow, Sergeant Major Sutton ended up with it. And it is now in the possession of the Clark County Historical Society. Why is this important? Most researchers never see a Regimental Ledger, or what it contains (these Ledgers are now kept by NARA and are difficult for interested parties to access.) This particular 14th Iowa Ledger should contain the names of all the Savannah Tennessee men recruited into service before the Battle of Shiloh. And the Ledger provides an excellent example of how the Casualty List was maintained. References: https://www.columbian.com/news/2011/jul/19/donated-satchel-yields-writings-of-a-civil-war-sol/ Lewis Sutton's diary https://www.columbian.com/news/2014/apr/02/clark-county-historical-museum-civil-war-exhibit/ 2014 exhibition at Clark County H.S. of Vancouver Washington https://www.findagrave.com/memorial/139406853 Lewis Wells Sutton 14th Iowa Infantry Co.I
  11. Fifty years after the end of the Civil War, an astute author realized that the men who had made History, and their stories were in imminent danger of being lost forever. So, Mamie Yeary set out across Texas (and had manuscripts sent her) to record as many “average Johnnies” as possible. Their stories, brief and poignant, leave the reader “wishing for more” …which may be possible, because many kept diaries; and almost all wrote letters during the war. And, with a name (and combat unit designation) we now have a starting point… especially for the scores of Confederate Shiloh veterans who made these pages: https://archive.org/details/reminiscencesofbv1year/page/1 Reminiscences of the Boys in Gray (1912) by Mamie Yeary. https://archive.org/details/reminiscencesofb00year/page/n5 Reminiscences (Vol.2) [See pages 428 - 9 William Lee 6th Arkansas; pp.515 - 7 John Middleton 23rd Tennessee, for examples of what is available by searching for "Shiloh." Also, pp. 884 - 890 lists almost every skirmish and battle in Tennessee (and surrounding pages list almost every skirmish, action and battle in every State during the 1861 - 1865 War.)]
  12. Ozzy

    Mankato's Shiloh

    Spot the obvious errors in the following April 2018 report: http://mankatotimes.com/2018/04/03/a-moment-in-time-saving-the-day-at-shiloh/
  13. [Sketch of Corinth Mississippi by Adolph Metzner, on file with Library of Congress.] The following Letter of 20 March 1862 from Braxton Bragg to wife Eliza is of interest due the following: Bragg reveals the lack of discipline discovered upon his arrival in Corinth; "draconian measures" put in place by Major General Bragg to instill discipline at Corinth; discusses feeble health of General Beauregard (who is still at Jackson Tennessee, attempting recuperation) reveals pre-planning stage, before General Johnston arrives (and before decision taken on "what is to come in April.") Corinth, Miss. 20th March My dear Wife, By a hasty note from Bethel Station I announced my sudden departure for this place. Since that time I have had no time to write. Everything was in disorder and confusion here, troops arriving in large numbers without supplies, and greatly disorganized by hasty and badly conducted arrangements. Weather bad, and no accommodation, even for the sick. The [Tishomingo] Hotel a perfect pandemonium, thousands of hungry men standing against the barred door, ready to rush in and sweep the tables, regardless of sentinels or officers. Even the kitchen was not safe, meals were seized from off the fires, and the life of the hotel keeper threatened for expostulating. Poor Mr. Lea -- you remember him as the Steward at the Sweet Springs -- said he was over-matched for once. No promise of a fashionable (3 o'clock) dinner would appease the hungry multitude -- but all is now changed. With Gladden in command, and the La. regiments to charge bayonets, the swine are driven back, and the town is quiet and peaceable. It is most difficult to see what is to be our future. The enemy is threatening both flanks. At Island No.10, which is now our highest point up the river, we hold with heavy guns. But the pressure is very great against it, and the evacuation of New Madrid exposes us to be cut off from below. We have another strong position still lower, near Randolph Tenn, but not yet in good condition. My heavy guns from Pensacola are going there, and some of my old troops are there, but they need good commanders. The name of the place is unfortunate -- Fort Pillow. If we can keep them back on the Mississippi, I shall not despair at all of our losses elsewhere. We are to a great extent, however, reduced to the Fabian Policy. Our troops and our supplies are so limited and so disorganized that effective operations are out of the question unless we can have a little time to restore tone and confidence. My forces united to Genl Ruggles are here, about 22.000. Polk's and Johnston's are coming in hourly and taking position on my right and left. Your advice in your letter of the 12th is fully adopted in my own of today, organizing my command. All Tennesseans are scattered among better men in small squads, so that we can hold them in observation. I never realized the full correctness of your appreciation of them, until now. A general order, of which I enclose a copy, was predicated on their infamous proceedings, and I am glad to say had its effect. No plundering has taken place since. It is my fixed purpose to execute the first one caught in such acts. But the order, itself, and the arrest of a Colonel, have produced a very wholesome reform. Genl Beauregard has re-published the order to the whole Army, and ordered its observance. Towson was several days with the fair ladies at Jackson, and had every opportunity of seeing their merits and deficiencies, though ladies ought not to have the latter. Suffice it to say neither will please him. He has not said a word, but I will answer for him -- it is unnecessary to set forth objections. Robert and Mr. [Fader] are still with me. Bob will never do much with the Army, as he cannot stand the hardships -- exposure of any kind, or the inequality of camp life soon disables him. And we are far from being comfortable here. But still, for several days it was very hard to live at all. Genl Beauregard is still in Jackson, but proposes coming here in a few days. His health is still very feeble, and as long as he is distressed and worried, as he has been, he cannot improve. Every interview with Genl Polk [shunts] him back a week. But for my arrival here to aid him, I do not believe he would soon be living. His appeal for plantation bells was somewhat on the order of the "Under the enemy's guns at Castroville [Texas]" -- sensational. We have more guns now than instructed men to serve them. And metal in New Orleans for many more. May God protect and preserve you, Your Husband Braxton Bragg [Handwritten original http://repository.duke.edu/dc/braggbraxtonpapers-000846347/secst0300 at Duke University Library, Braxton Bragg Papers, items 52 - 55.] Thanks to Duke University for making this letter available online. Ozzy References: http://www.loc.gov/item/2017646911/ Tishomingo Hotel sketch by Adolph Metzner (1862) at Library of Congress. http://archive.org/stream/earlysettlersind00sowe#page/n593/mode/2up/search/Castroville resource provided for explanation of Castorville Texas. http://www.thefreedictionary.com/Fabian+policy definition of Fabian Policy.
  14. As we know, U.S. Grant was involved in a number of shadowy operations during the early months of the War of the Rebellion: a supposed pursuit of Missouri Rebels in order to relieve an endangered 16th Illinois Infantry Regiment; the occupation of Paducah Kentucky (asserted by General Grant to have occurred without authorization from Major General Fremont); and the unauthorized visit to Nashville following General Grant’s success at Fort Donelson. Seldom considered is U.S. Grant’s role in facilitating the death of General Charles Ferguson Smith. Don’t think so? Consider this: Until mid-March 1862, Smith was Expedition Leader tasked with breaking Confederate railroads within reach of Savannah Tennessee. But Brigadier General Smith was superseded on 17 March 1862 when Major General Grant arrived at Savannah and took charge of the five divisions then present in the immediate vicinity. And U.S. Grant came face to face with an ailing, bed-ridden Charles Smith, whose leg had suffered serious injury through misadventure in boarding a small boat. It is accepted that General Grant was not a trained physician, and likely had no appreciation for the dire nature of Smith’s condition, for the first day or two after he arrived. However, trained medical officers were on the Staff of both Grant and Smith. And with all reports indicating that “General Smith remained upstairs in his bedroom at the Cherry Mansion” during the entire time General Grant operated from Savannah and Pittsburg Landing, it would be impossible NOT to notice that Charles Smith was failing to improve. General Grant's own Headquarters were at the Cherry Mansion, permitting daily interaction with C.F. Smith. One month after Grant arrived at Savannah, Major General Henry Halleck completed his own journey from St. Louis; and he immediately took notice of Smith’s shocking condition. So obvious was the poor state of General Smith’s health, that Halleck arranged for transport north on a steamer, soon as General Smith was well enough to travel. And health professionals were placed on standby to accompany Smith to Philadelphia, soon as possible. But this arrangement for medical evacuation occurred four weeks too late: C.F. Smith never made the trip. [By reason of comparison: On 22 March 1862 Colonel Michael K. Lawler of 18th Illinois Infantry was granted leave by Major General Grant to return home and recuperate from wounds incurred at Fort Donelson. It could be argued that a similar leave could have –SHOULD have -- been arranged by Grant for General Charles F. Smith.] References: Papers of US Grant vol.4 pages 381, 491 IRT Colonel Michael Lawler. Autobiography of Lew Wallace vol.1 page 445 describes the manner in which Brigadier General C.F. Smith injured his leg one March evening in 1862 (believed to be 12 March 1862.) See Emerging Civil War “General Grant loses a Resourceful Subordinate” of 19 FEB 2018. Personal Memoirs of Surgeon John H. Brinton (1914) page 152, 159, 160 in which Surgeon Brinton admits to being called to Savannah Tennessee by General Grant in late April “to see to General Smith, who had been very sick.” Brinton reached the Cherry Mansion early on 25 April, “found General Smith sinking, moribund, unconscious. That afternoon of 25 April 1862, at 4 p.m. he died.” Medical Histories of Union Generals by Dr. Jack Welsh (1996) page 308, indicates C.F. Smith’s injured leg became infected. General Smith “was a cripple, upstairs in the Cherry Mansion” when the Battle of Shiloh took place. He continued to sink, and died 25 April 1862. His body was removed to Philadelphia for burial at Laurel Hill Cemetery.
  15. It has been a while since our last quiz, so what follows are thirteen questions related to Benjamin Prentiss, Brigadier General in command of Sixth Division of U.S. Grant's Army of West Tennessee at the eruption of the Battle of Shiloh: 1. On 17 AUG 1861 B.M. Prentiss and U.S. Grant had their first dispute in regard to seniority. Which man of the two was the senior union officer on that date? 2. On 2 SEP 1861 B.M. Prentiss and U.S. Grant had their second seniority dispute. After learning details of BGen Grant’s claim, BGen Prentiss: · Offered to put the matter of seniority before an unbiased panel of officers; · Offered to resign; · Was placed under arrest by BGen Grant; · Reported to MGen Fremont at St. Louis; · All of the above. 3. BGen Prentiss likely reported to Savannah Tennessee at the end of March 1862. Who is most likely to have made Prentiss aware that, “Nothing is to be done to bring on a General Engagement.” 4. Prior to reporting to Major General Grant, Colonel David Moore had operated in the District of Northern Missouri, commanded by BGen Prentiss (True or False.) 5. On the afternoon of Saturday 5 April 1862 Major James Powell of the 25th Missouri Infantry became aware of “unknown horsemen just south of the ground being used by BGen Prentiss to conduct an inspection of the Sixth Division.” In response to concerns about the identity of these horsemen, Prentiss ONLY sent a force under command of Colonel David Moore to investigate (True or False.) 6. After midnight, as April 5th gave way to Sunday, April 6th, Major Powell operated under orders to, “Advance south with a force and capture a Rebel cavalryman; bring that captured man back to camp for interrogation.” The officer who approved Major Powell’s operation was: · Colonel Peabody, commanding 1st Brigade; · LtCol Van Horn, commanding 25th Missouri Infantry; · Colonel Moore, acting Division Duty Officer; · BGen Prentiss, commanding Sixth Division. 7. Upon Major Powell making contact with the enemy, half of Colonel Moore’s 21st Missouri Infantry Regiment was ordered forward to support Major Powell. The officer who ordered Colonel Moore forward was: · Colonel Peabody, commanding 1st Brigade; · Colonel Moore, exercising his own initiative; · Colonel Madison Miller, commanding 2nd Brigade; · BGen Prentiss, commanding Sixth Division. 8. Upon Colonel Moore making contact with an overwhelming enemy force, Moore sent back a request for “the rest of the 21st Missouri be sent forward to his support.” The messenger sent by Colonel Moore reported to: · Colonel Peabody, commanding 1st Brigade; · Colonel Madison Miller, commanding 2nd Brigade; · Major General Grant, commanding Army of West Tennessee; · BGen Prentiss, commanding Sixth Division. 9. Not long after the remainder of the 21st Missouri was sent forward, the artillery belonging to Munch and Hickenlooper were ordered forward. The officer who ordered Munch and Hickenlooper forward was: · Captain Andrew Hickenlooper, acting on his own initiative; · Captain Emil Munch, acting on his own initiative; · Colonel Peabody, commanding 1st Brigade; · BGen Prentiss, commanding Sixth Division. 10. Shortly before 9 a.m. on Sunday 6 April 1862 the Sixth Division fell back until meeting BGen Stephen Hurlbut’s Fourth Division. BGen Prentiss rallied perhaps 500 men and placed them (along with guns belonging to the 1st Minnesota Light Artillery and 5th Independent Ohio Battery) to the right (west) of Hurlbut’s Division. Soon, the Second Division appeared and placed its infantry on Prentiss’s right (with all of the Second Division artillery sited behind the line of infantry.) It was this situation that MGen Grant encountered when he visited Prentiss for the first time on Sunday morning (True or False.) 11. At this first (and possibly ONLY) face-to-face meeting between Grant and Prentiss on Sunday 6 April 1862 MGen Grant ordered BGen Prentiss to “Hold your position at all hazards” (True or False.) 12. In BGen Prentiss’s Shiloh Report, submitted November 1862, he makes no mention of either Brigadier General WHL Wallace or BGen Stephen Hurlbut (True or False.) 13. Of the following Brigadier Generals present at Battle of Shiloh, indicate their relative seniority to each other: · BGen W. T. Sherman · BGen Stephen A. Hurlbut · BGen B. M. Prentiss · BGen WHL Wallace.
  16. Ozzy

    Bohemian Brigade

    We've all heard of the Union Brigade, the Iowa Brigade, the "High Pressure" Brigade, and the "Brigade of Discipline." What was the Bohemian Brigade? Ozzy
  17. In The Life of Albert Sidney Johnston, page 525, it is recorded: 'After the Battle of Pea Ridge, General Van Dorn was ordered to Corinth.' Bentonville, Arkansas is about 300 miles from Helena (on the Mississippi River), and the battle concluded on March 8, 1862. Calculating an easy pace of fifteen miles per day, Van Dorn's force could have reached Helena by March 28... taken steamers to Memphis, arriving by March 31st... then train ride on the Memphis & Charleston, arriving at Corinth April 2-4. So, why didn't they? Apparently, much of the 'Van Dorn was ordered to Corinth' (the claim appears in Beauregard's Military Biography, page 346, too)... is a sham. But, let's start at the beginning: the first letter sent to General Earl Van Dorn, requesting he 'join his force with General Beauregard's on the Mississippi River, if possible,' was sent via Governor Isham Harris on March 7, 1862 (while the Battle of Pea Ridge was underway.) [OR Serial 8, page 771] Van Dorn replied on March 16: 'Your letter did not reach me until just a few days ago, on my return from the battlefield. I will start in a day or two for Pocahontas, Arkansas.' (OR Serial 8, page 784) [No obvious sense of urgency, because no haste was requested -- Ozzy.] On March 25, Albert Sidney Johnston reported to President Davis: 'Van Dorn has offered to send his force north to assist in the defense of Island No. 10, but I ordered him to Memphis.' [OR Serial 11, page 361] Meanwhile, Van Dorn directed his Army of the West to assemble at Pocahontas... then Jacksonport... then Des Arc, Arkansas (a port on the White River.) By early April, the gathering of Van Dorn's force was underway; Earl Van Dorn issued 'Special Orders No. 41' on April 7, directing that Sterling Price's Division commence the steamboat ride to Memphis on the morning of April 8 (and Van Dorn made the trip to Memphis, himself, and arrived about April 8... in time to receive the first message that expressed any urgency: 'General Beauregard requests that you hurry forward your command.' [OR Serial 11, page 398: message from Captain John Adams, post of Memphis, dated April 8, 1862.] On April 9, General Beauregard telegraphed to General Cooper at Richmond: 'Van Dorn may join us in Corinth in a few days with 15.000 more troops.' [OR Serial 11, page 403] On April 12, Sterling Price told Van Dorn: 'I have sent Colonel Little's Brigade to Corinth, and General Rust's command to Fort Pillow, by order of General Beauregard.' [OR Serial 11, page 414] [What this indicates to me, is the effort to defend the Mississippi River was as important to General Beauregard as the assembly of Rebels at Corinth. And the 'slow movement' of Van Dorn east allowed an opportunity to re-direct Van Dorn north... but the opportunity for Van Dorn to join the build-up at Corinth in a timely manner (before the Battle of Shiloh) was lost -- Ozzy.] In effect, Van Dorn had no opportunity to join the Army of the Mississippi, prior to the Battle of Shiloh: he was not tardy; he was never told to hurry, until it was too late. Ozzy References: Life of Albert Sidney Johnston, by Preston Johnston The Military Operations of General Beauregard, by Alfred Roman OR Serials 8 and 11
  18. Lieutenant Israel Parsons Rumsey Chicago Light Artillery Battery B Born in 1836 in Genesee County, New York and product of a comfortable, loving home and efficient school system, Israel P. Rumsey heeded the call to “Go West,” and in early 1857 made his way to Iowa, where he intended to set himself up in the new State Capital, then building at Fort Des Moines. Unfortunately, young Rumsey crossed the Mississippi River as farm produce prices hit the skids (precursor to Panic of 1857, which gripped the Northern States a few months later) and hearing sad tales of other hopefuls returning east from Des Moines – “No work” – I.P. Rumsey altered course; he decided to try his luck in Keokuk, instead. Having experience as a clerk in wholesale and retail back East, the young man soon found employment in a local store (on a wage of $20 per month.) After a few months, he used that experience to acquire a newspaper route; and when his original Keokuk employer pleaded that he return (at nearly double his original wage) Rumsey sold the newspaper route to another man for $50 and a compass, and spent his remaining time in Keokuk working for Hitchcock’s… until learning that “Chicago was the place to be.” In 1858 I.P. Rumsey left Iowa, never to return. Following on two years of relative success in the commission business in Chicago, Rumsey got caught up in War Fever following the attack on Fort Sumter, left his business, and helped raise a company of men for the Chicago Light Artillery. Mustered into service on May 2nd 1861, the new unit was designated Battery B (and for his assistance in recruiting, Rumsey was appointed Second Lieutenant.) The new unit, under Captain Ezra Taylor, was soon sent south and helped defend Cairo and Bird’s Point, Missouri. In January 1862 Battery B became part of the buildup for an operation on the Tennessee River, assigned to McClernand’s Division. Following success at Fort Henry, the Battery followed McClernand’s Division east, and got caught up fighting against the Rebel breakout on February 15th. In the after-action report, McClernand gives Taylor’s Battery a glowing review; and in Colonel WHL Wallace’s Fort Donelson report, Lieutenant Rumsey, on Wallace’s staff, serving as AAG and ADC, receives favourable mention. In the buildup of Federal forces at Pittsburg Landing, Taylor’s Battery remained with McClernand’s First Division until the first week of April (when Battery B was transferred to the 5th Division; Ezra Taylor was promoted to Major and assigned as Sherman’s Chief of Artillery; and Samuel Barrett was promoted Captain and took command of Battery B.) And I.P. Rumsey remained with WHL Wallace when he was promoted to Brigadier General; and transferred with him to Smith’s Second Division (where Captain William McMichael was found established as Assistant Adjutant General). During the Battle of Shiloh, Lieutenant Rumsey acted as courier and ADC for General Wallace. (It was Rumsey who went in search of the fugitive Colonel Thomas Sweeny; requested, unsuccessfully, for General McClernand to “close the gap” and reconnect to WHL Wallace’s right; and found “McArthur’s force had been moved by someone, from where it was supposed to act in support of Colonel Stuart.”) After the war, back home in Chicago, Israel Rumsey revealed in his writings that, “the compass he acquired in Keokuk served him faithfully on the many battlefields where he found himself.” References: OR 7 pages 170 and 197 – 8. Life and Letters of General WHL Wallace by Isabel Wallace, pages 152, 160 – 3, 190 – 3. “Young Man on his Way Up” by Lida L. Greene, Annals of Iowa, vol.39 pp.546 – 550 (1969) Israel Parsons Rumsey Papers SDG "Epic Day of Hiking" post by Hank of 28 NOV 2012. SDG "Barrett's Battery B" created 6 DEC 2018. https://www.lflbhistory.org/media-gallery/detail/55/60 Lake Forest History Center bio of Israel P. Rumsey (with photo) http://taylors-battery.com/2nd Lt. Israel Rumsey.htm https://civilwar.illinoisgenweb.org/acm/art-1b.html Roster of 1st Illinois Light Artillery Battery B https://www.findagrave.com/memorial/133931276/israel-parsons-rumsey https://www.chipublib.org/fa-american-civil-war-photographs-and-images-and-grand-army-of-the-republic-photographs-and-images/
  19. Ozzy

    Jane got a Gun

    While trying to decide whether to watch a movie or go to bed the other night, I switched on the TV and scanned what was on offer: Jane got a Gun was advertised as "a Western, set after the Civil War" and it starred Natalie Portman, Joel Edgerton and Ewan McGregor. Since I'd never seen it (never heard of it) I figured I would give it a go... After ten or fifteen minutes, I decided this story (about a bounty hunter in New Mexico who is hired by his former fiance (before he enlisted in the Union Army)... Now, she is married to someone else; and she wants her former fiance to avenge the shooting of the man she married... This movie was not for me. As I took control of the remote, the two characters played by McGregor and Edgerton (John Bishop and Dan Frost) commenced a conversation: John: "You see this revolver? It's one of my prized possessions... got it from General Beauregard for helping him at Shiloh." Dan just glances at the displayed weapon without making remark. John: "You know, it's funny," continues John. "They told us later that Shiloh meant, "Place of Peace.'" Dan, shaking his head: "Warn't nothin' peaceful about Shiloh..." I put down the remote; decided to give this movie another few minutes... But although there were more Civil War references, there was nothing more about Shiloh. Still... although I rate this as "half-a-star" (out of five -- one of the worst films ever made) it stands as "The most recent feature film to contain some reference to Shiloh." https://www.imdb.com/title/tt2140037/?ref_=tt_ch "Jane got a Gun" (2015) entry at imdb. Ozzy
  20. Annie Wittenmyer, nurse and agent for the Iowa State Sanitary Commission, arrived at Savannah Tennessee aboard a Hospital steamer at 4 a.m. on 7 April 1862. There, the medical staff and passengers aboard the steamboat were informed, "Grant has been driven to the river; he and his Army are likely to be captured today." Hearing that news, "our Hospital boat raced for Pittsburg Landing..." They arrived before sunrise, and while the overnight Navy bombardment (one shell every 15 minutes) continued, and immediately set to work: feeding wounded men, dressing their wounds, providing them with water... The entire story runs pages 28 - 35 and is one of many Shiloh memories to be found in Under the Guns: A Woman's Reminiscences of the Civil War (1895) by Annie Wittenmyer. Other interesting stories to be discovered: pages 43 - 47 "U.S. Grant and the Issue of Passes" page 128 "A Painful Accident" [Governor Harvey of Wisconsin] page 164 "Searching for the Dead" [a Mother from Pennsylvania comes to Pittsburg Landing, looking for the grave of her son...] Also included are memories of the Siege of Vicksburg (and other campaigns). And there are tales of corruption and malpractice (involving Army surgeons and Sanitary Commission stores, and how they got away with their criminal behavior); and details of Generals (such as Grant and McPherson and Logan) not to be found anywhere else. https://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=osu.32435008944803;view=1up;seq=1 Annie Wittenmyer's Under the Guns.
  21. Beginning almost immediately after the Battle of Shiloh, and for all the years since, people have attempted to make sense of the late arrival of Major General Grant at Pittsburg Landing, his flagship, Tigress, nosing into the bank as much as four hours after first contact with the enemy. What follows is a proposed progression of General Grant's efforts to "get into the fight" that Sunday morning, 6 April 1862: 7:11 a.m. While having breakfast at the Cherry Mansion in Savannah, Grant heard booming cannon. 8:30 (approx.) Grant and members of his Staff, aboard Tigress, stop at Crump's Landing and direct Lew Wallace to "Wait in readiness..." 9 - 9:30 After meeting with one (and possibly two) steamers enroute, sent to alert him, Grant arrives at Pittsburg Landing. Grant and members of his Staff ride up the bluff, and meet with BGen WHL Wallace. Convinced of a major engagement, Grant sends away Rawlins with orders to "release the officers in arrest," and "bring up Lew Wallace." AAG Rawlins relays the orders for Lew Wallace to AQM Baxter, who rides Tigress to Crump's Landing. 10 a.m. Grant meets with Sherman. Either just before, or just after meeting Sherman, General Grant encountered the 2nd Illinois Cavalry, lined up, awaiting orders. Grant places Captain Hotaling on his Staff, for the day, and directs him to "place and fight Birge's Western Sharpshooters." Grant sends away Cavalry officer Frank Bennett (north along the River Road) with orders to "escort Lew Wallace back to here." 10:30 (approx.) Riding south down the road to Hamburg, General Grant meets with BGen Hurlbut. Leaving Hurlbut, Grant rides west and meets BGen Prentiss... and tells him, "Hold this position at all hazards." Do you agree with the above timeline? Is there a time or location that seems improbable? Is there another significant action/ decision that should be added? Please feel free to offer suggestions... Ozzy
  22. Another day, another master’s thesis… and this one, submitted by William J. McCaffrey in 1970 is revealing, compelling, shocking. Although 140 pages long, this work grips the student of Battle of Shiloh by the throat, and does not let go. It examines “whether or not there was surprise at Pittsburg Landing on April 6th 1862”…and just who was surprised. On page three, a list of six items is posted: flawed conditions of readiness, at least one of which must be present to allow a Defender to get surprised by an Attacker. William McCaffrey devotes the remainder of his thesis to providing evidence of the presence of many of those six conditions of “un-readiness” at Pittsburg Landing in the days, hours and minutes leading up to General Albert Sidney Johnston’s attack. This report contains maps, an excellent list of references, and is constructed by a man concerned about “the lessons of History, and how to avoid the mistakes of History.” Have a read, and decide for yourself how close William McCaffrey, West Point Class of 1958, comes to the mark. Masters Thesis by William J. McCaffrey (1970) “Shiloh: a case study in Surprise” submitted to U.S. Army Command and General Staff College at Fort Leavenworth, KS and on file with National Technical Information Service: https://apps.dtic.mil/dtic/tr/fulltext/u2/733391.pdf
  23. From the Union standpoint, the Battle of Shiloh was not supposed to happen. Federal troops were sent south, under command of Brigadier General C.F. Smith, with intention of cutting rail lines and disrupting Rebel communications (between Fort Columbus and Corinth; and between Florence and Corinth.) Abundant Spring rain and effective Rebel defences (and M & O R.R. repair crews) curtailed railroad track disruption. Although an initial base of operations was sited at Union-friendly Savannah, Tennessee, the intention was to establish the Federal base much further south (between Hamburg and Florence) but the grossly swollen Tennessee River turned those prospective campgrounds into sodden, mosquito-infested marshes; and Pittsburg Landing was selected, by default (selected by Brigadier General William T. Sherman, and approved by General Smith.) The high plateau stretching west of the towering bluff overlooking – and out of reach of – the Tennessee River being the primary feature favouring selection of the site. It is said, “There is nothing more permanent than a temporary solution.” Major General U.S. Grant arrived at Savannah on March 17th 1862 and inspected the de facto campgrounds at Crump’s and Pittsburg established by his predecessor, and pronounced them sound. [Part two] With so many operations on his plate, Major General Henry Halleck did not have manpower or war materials in sufficient quantity to permit combat operations to take place concurrently. Priorities had to be determined from among operations taking place in Northern Missouri (Prentiss), SW Missouri (Curtis), SE Missouri (Pope), Island No.10 (Foote) and Savannah/ Pittsburg (Smith, replaced by Grant.) With North Missouri deemed “under control,” followed by Battle of Pea Ridge securing southern Missouri, manpower and ammunition was freed to be sent elsewhere. (Additional manpower was of no use at Island No.10 so those extra regiments went to General Grant, instead.) And with Henry Halleck’s elevation to Commander, Department of the Mississippi, another source of manpower eventuated: Buell’s Army of the Ohio, based in vicinity of Nashville. But, before U.S. Grant’s operation (with passage of time, confirmed to focus on Corinth) would be permitted to commence, the joint operation (Pope, at New Madrid and Foote, approaching Island No.10 from the north) would be given every opportunity to reach a successful conclusion. And General Grant was ordered, “Do nothing to bring on a general engagement.” References: SDG “Do you know Bragg?” post of 18 May 2018: Confederate Daniel Ruggles assigned to Post of Corinth on 9 March 1862 and begins construction of defences soon after. SDG “Jackson HQ” post of 5 May 2017: General Albert Sidney Johnston arrived at Corinth on March 24th, with concentration of Confederate troops (to this time strewn along the M & C R.R. and the M & O R.R.) gaining pace, and most everyone moves to Corinth. OR 10 (part 2) pages 11 – 12: Henry Halleck has information on March 6th that, “Beauregard has 20,000 men at Corinth.” Sherman reports similar concentration at “Eastport and Corinth” that same day. SDG “Not just pictures…” post of 5 July 2017: Report of Agate (Whitelaw Reid) dateline Savannah Tennessee on 1 April 1862, “There are rumors that General Halleck will take the field here, in person, soon as the Island No.10 agony is over. And there will be four or five corps [marching to Corinth] commanded by Major Generals Grant, Smith, Wallace, Buell and McClernand.”
  24. Stumbled upon this site on YouTube by accident, and believe it to contain informative, well-researched general knowledge facts suitable for starting a discussion, or generating interest in a research project: http://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLZrhqv_T1O1vGjphtbnTVXpNpiFKUpVy8 Civil War in4 from Civil War Trust ( website civilwar.org). For our purposes here at SDG, the most interesting videos: Civil War Photography http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kDzYkygdJO8 Civil War Flags https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gnYRJ4SleEM Zouaves https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_Zx5hqIdb-o Civil War Logistics https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ISDQGsdtvX4 General U.S. Grant https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=73WC1LHUGqQ Railroads https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Ko3wexxTxjY The War in the West https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=40DZh5NXjC4 The Civil War Generation https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HRUFNBNYoPg In addition, Civil War Trust has expanded into videos of the American Revolution https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bmkK9Gx7fqw We're less than ten years from the 250th Anniversary of that momentous event, so a great opportunity presents to become re-familiar with aspects of that earlier conflict... four minutes at a time. Ozzy
  25. There was a moment when this author entertained the thought that, “Perhaps General Grant intended for Rebels to attack his forces at Pittsburg Landing” [which would explain “no trenches or abatis” – used as bait; seemingly haphazard arrangement of camps at Pittsburg – bait, to lure the Rebels north; lack of extensive cavalry patrols (to avoid bringing on engagement, too far south, which would allow Rebels to fall back to formidable defences at Corinth); and cavalry patrols that were conducted, seemingly without any coordination with infantry pickets…] But, the more research is conducted, the more apparent becomes the fact: Ulysses S. Grant was caught by surprise. There was no intention; no “offering Federal troops as bait” to lure the Rebels north. The April 6 attack by Rebels upon Grant’s forces at Pittsburg Landing was unanticipated… at least, on April 6. Prior to that bloody Sunday [but, we get ahead of the story...] When Major General Grant arrived at Savannah Tennessee on 17 March 1862 (released from limbo, and returned to command in the field) he had every expectation of “conducting an operation against the Rebels, further south.” Pittsburg Landing and Crump’s Landing and Savannah were merely temporary sites, staging grounds for assembling and preparing the Federal force that would drive south (at the time and place of General Grant’s choosing.) But, initiation of that operation was anticipated to take place soon. (Sherman’s frequent raids and probes offered potential to initiate more robust offensive action, “requiring” substantial forces from Pittsburg Landing be rushed forward to assist Sherman. But no solid opportunity for increased engagement presented.) Therefore, Grant’s operation at Savannah, Crump’s, Pittsburg evolved over time into, “Wait for Buell.” But, as time dragged on, General Grant must have realized that, “He had been caught in a trap of his own making.” The situation on April 1st (as Sherman launched yet another raid) revealed Federal troops camped at uncoordinated sites (close proximity to fresh water deemed more important than mutual defense); no trenches or abatis; contrary to Jomini, his force was “on the wrong side of the river” (although use of Lew Wallace’s division as “grand reserve” offset this danger); and Grant’s own HQ was maintained at Savannah (for reasons not adequately explained.) With Rebel moves against Lew Wallace (about April 2nd) and the Picket Skirmish (April 4th) there would have been cause for concern. And Grant would have had time for reflection that, “he had occupied his time – an unexpectedly long time, as it turned out – focused on minutia.” And, there may have been “rising cause for concern” end of March/ early April, as Rebel probes became increasingly aggressive, and Buell remained remarkable for his lack of presence. The cloud would have lifted on April 3rd with the report by telegraph of Bull Nelson’s arrival at Waynesborough (allowing Grant to view the Picket Skirmish of April 4th through a rosy lens.) And, when Jacob Ammen and Bull Nelson appeared at Savannah on April 5th (with promise of the remainder of Army of the Ohio arriving in short order) any concerns held by General Grant would have evaporated. So confident became General Grant of his invincibility, that he joked with Jacob Ammen about “steamers taking him across the Tennessee River in a few days,” and directed Major General Buell not to hurry, but to report on April 6th. So confident became Major General Grant (in his apparent safety, and the impending operation against Corinth moving ahead) that he organized an “engagement” that took place Saturday afternoon (mentioned by Grant to Ammen, to which Brigadier General Ammen was not invited.) References: OR 10 pages 330 – 331 [Jacob Ammen’s diary.] SDG topic “Why Stay at Crumps?” 14 NOV 2017. Papers of US Grant vol.5 page 7 “Letter to Julia of 3 April 1862.” Papers of US Grant vol.5 page 6 “Telegraphic reply to BGen Nelson at Waynesborough.” Papers of US Grant vol.5 page 9 “4 APR 1862 instruction to BGen Sherman to be prepared to provide support to MGen Lew Wallace, if necessary.” Papers of US Grant vol.5 page12 “4 APR 1862 instruction to BGen WHL Wallace to be prepared to reinforce MGen Wallace, if necessary.” Papers of US Grant vol.5 page 13 “5 APR 1862 communication sent from Savannah to MGen Henry Halleck at St. Louis, advising arrival of advance of Buell’s Army, with reported strength of enemy at Corinth.” Papers of US Grant vol.5 page 16 “5 APR communication from Grant to Buell, advising ‘[Grant] will be hear April 6th to meet you.” [Sent in reply to Buell’s communication, found in Notes, top of page 17.]
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