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Found 129 results

  1. Major General Grant had only just returned to Fort Donelson (from Nashville, late on February 28th), when he received: [from Sherman's Memoirs, page 224.] A bit tongue-in-cheek, because there were no orders to Shiloh; and the above directive to MGen U.S. Grant (a telegram sent from Halleck at St. Louis on March 1st 1862) does not contain an "Orders Number." Yet, this is the communication that started it all, and it reads more as "a collection of thoughts," than an actual set of orders (perhaps sent to alert General Grant to what General Halleck intended Grant to do next -- a sort of "pre-orders orders" -- which may be why the telegram does not contain an Orders Number.) The March 1st "directive" could not have come at a worse time: Sherman, in his Memoirs (page 224) indicates that, "the telegraph line was rickety" and may have resulted in a February 25th telegram from Halleck not being received. [The 25 FEB 1862 telegram directed General Grant to move across from Fort Donelson to Fort Henry and establish his HQ ...(notice where the March 1st telegram is sent to).] General Halleck was in process of the delicate negotiation to expand his Department (and absorb Don Carlos Buell into that new Department; while remaining on cordial terms with Buell.) [If Buell complained or raised a fuss (as he did about "Rebel wounded from Fort Donelson being dumped in his hospitals"), or suddenly decided to "take care of that pesky East Tennessee Problem that President Lincoln so urgently desired," it could have upset Halleck's Grand Plan.] Shortly after sending the telegram of March 1st, General Halleck discovered, "something unusual had taken place at Nashville." First came word that C.F. Smith had gone over there [and Halleck ordered him back.] Then, Halleck learned that U.S. Grant, himself, had gone over there -- to Nashville -- and General Halleck knew that he had sent a directive (via what Halleck considered to be a reliable telegraph line) on February 25th, ordering Grant to set up HQ at Fort Henry. Soon as Grant's unauthorized visit to Nashville became apparent, the ball was set in motion for Grant "to set up those HQ at Fort Henry, and stay there." And C.F. Smith (also mentioned in the March 1st telegram) was directed to take command of the Tennessee River Expedition. Provided for a bit of clarity... Ozzy References: http://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=yale.39002009162026;view=1up;seq=230 Sherman's Memoirs N.B. The 1 MAR 1862 telegram, Halleck to Grant, is also to be found OR 7 page 674 and Papers of US Grant, vol.4, page 310 (note at bottom of page.) "Danville" was the site of the MC & L Railroad Bridge, a few miles south of Fort Henry, destroyed by Curtis Horse Federal cavalry in February 1862.
  2. For those who have never read it (or have not read it in a while) here is the Shiloh Report submitted by General Prentiss. Cheers Ozzy Prentiss’s Official Shiloh Report of November 1862 COLONEL: Upon my return from captivity in the hands of the public enemy I have the honor to submit my report of the part taken in the battle of the 6th of April last, near Pittsburg Landing, by the Sixth Division, Army of West Tennessee, the command of which had been assigned to me. I have the honor to transmit field return of the force which was subjected to my control, as it appeared upon the morning of the engagement, the same being marked A.# [Sixth Division field returns and casualty record – Ozzy.] Saturday evening, pursuant to instructions received when I was assigned to duty with the Army of West Tennessee, the usual advance guard was posted, and in view of information received from the commandant thereof, I sent forward five companies of the Twenty-fifth Missouri and five companies of the Twenty-first Missouri Infantry,under command of Colonel David Moore, Twenty-first Missouri. I also,after consultation with Colonel David Stuart, commanding a brigade of General Sherman's division, sent to the left one company of the Eighteenth Wisconsin Infantry, under command of Captain Fisk. At about 7 o'clock the same evening Colonel Moore returned, reporting some activity in the front-an evident reconnaissance by cavalry. This information received, I proceeded to strengthen the guard stationed on the Corinth road, extending the picket lines to the front a distance of a mile and a half, at the same time extending and doubling the lines of the grand guard. At 3 o'clock on the morning of Sunday, April 6, Colonel David Moore, Twenty-first Missouri, with five companies of his infantry regiment, proceeded to the front, and at break of day the advance pickets were driven in, whereupon Colonel Moore pushed forward and engaged the enemy's advance, commanded by General Hardee. At this stage a messenger was sent to my headquarters, calling for the balance of the Twenty-first Missouri, which was promptly sent forward. This information received, I at once ordered the entire force into line,and the remaining regiments of the First Brigade, commanded by Colonel Everett Peabody, consisting of the Twenty-fifth Missouri, Sixteenth Wisconsin, and Twelfth Michigan Infantry were advanced well to the front. I forthwith at this juncture communicated the fact of the attack in force to Major-General Smith and Brigadier General S. A. Hurlbut. Shortly before 6 o'clock, Colonel David Moore having been severely wounded, his regiment commenced falling back, reaching our front line at about 6 o'clock, the enemy being close upon his rear. Hereupon the entire force, excepting only the Sixteenth Iowa, which had been sent to the field the day previous without ammunition,and the cavalry, which was held in readiness to the rear, was advanced to the extreme front, and thrown out alternately to the right and left. Shortly after 6 o'clock the entire line was under fire, receiving the assault made by the entire force of the enemy, advancing in three columns simultaneously upon our left, center, and right. This position was held until the enemy had passed our right flank, this movement being effected by reason of the falling back of some regiment to our right not belonging to the division. Perceiving the enemy was flanking me, I ordered the division to retire in line of battle to the color line of our encampment,at the same time communicating to Generals Smith and Hurlbut the fact of the falling back, and asking for re-enforcements. Being again assailed, in position described, by an overwhelming force, and not being able longer to hold the ground against the enemy, I ordered the divisions to fal back to the line occupied by General Hurlbut, and at 9.05. a.m. reformed to the right of General Hurlbut, and to the left of Brigadier General W. H. L. Wallace, who I found in command of the division assigned to Major-General Smith. At this point the Twenty-third Missouri Infantry, commanded by Colonel Tindall, which had just disembarked from a transport,and had been ordered to report to me as a part of the Sixth Division, joined. This regiment I immediately assigned to position on the left. My battery (Fifth Ohio) was posted to the right on the road. At about 10 o'clock my line was again assailed, and finding my command greatly reduced by reason of casualties and because of the falling back of many of the men to the river, they being panic-stricken- a majority of them having now for the first time been exposed to fire-I communicated,with General W. H. L. Wallace, who sent to my assistance the Eighth Iowa Infantry, commanded by Colonel J. L. Geddes. After having once driven the enemy back form this position Major General U. S. Grant appeared upon the field. I exhibited to him the disposition of my entire force, which disposition received his commendation, and I received my final orders, which were to maintain that position at all hazards. This position I did maintain until 4 o'clock p.m. when General Hurlbut, being overpowered,was forced to retire. I was then compelled to change front with the Twenty-third Missouri, Twenty-first Missouri Eighteenth Wisconsin, Eighteenth Missouri, and part of the Twelfth Michigan, occupying a portion of the ground vacated by General Hurlbut. I was in constant communication with Generals Hurlbut and Wallace during the day, and both of them were aware of the importance of holding our position until night. When the gallant Hurlbut was forced to retire General Wallace and myself consulted, and agreed to hold our positions at all hazards, believing that we could thus save the army from destruction; we having been now informed for the first time that all others had fallen back to the vicinity of the river. A few minutes after General W. H. L. Wallace received the wound of which he shortly afterwards died. Upon the fall of General Wallace, his division,excepting the Eighth Iowa, Colonel Geddes, acting with me, and the Fourteenth Iowa, Colonel Shaw; Twelfth Iowa, Colonel Woods, and Fifty-eighth Illinois, Colonel Lynch, retired from the field. Perceiving that I was about to be surrounded, and having dispatched my aide, Lieutenant Edwin Moore, for re-enforcements, I determined to assail the enemy, which had passed between me and the river, charging upon him with my entire force. I found him advancing in mass, completely encircling my command, and nothing was left but to harass him and retard his progress so long as might be possible. This I did until 5.30 p.m., when finding that further resistance must result in the slaughter of every man in the command, I had to yield the fight. The enemy succeeded in capturing myself and 2,200 rank and file, many of them being wounded. Colonel Madison Miller, Eighteenth Missouri Infantry, was during the day in command of a brigade, and was among those taken prisoner. He acted during the day with distinguished courage, coolness, and ability. Upon Colonel J. L. Geddes, Eighth Iowa, the same praise can be partly bestowed. He and his regiment stood unflinchingly up to the work the entire portion of the day during which he acted under my orders. Colonel J. S. Alban and his lieutenant-colonel, Beall, of the Eighteenth Wisconsin, were,until they were wounded, ever to the front, encouraging their command. Colonel Jacob Fry, of the Sixty-first Illinois, with an undrilled regiment fresh in the service,kept his men well forward under every assault until the third line was formed, when he became detached, and fought under General Hurlbut. Colonel Shaw, of the Fourteenth Iowa, behaved with great coolness, disposed his men sharply at every command, and maintained his front unbroken through several fierce attacks. Colonel Tindall, Lieutenant-Colonel Morton, and Major McCullough, of the Twenty-third Missouri, are entitled to high meed of praise for gallant conduct. It is difficult to discriminate among so many gallant men as surrounded me when we were forced to yield to the overpowering strength of the enemy. Their bravery under the hottest fire is testified to by the devotion with which they stood forward against fearful odds to contend for the cause they were engaged in. To the officers and men who thus held to the last their undaunted front too much praise cannot be given. Captain McMichael, assistant adjutant-general,attached to the division commanded by General Wallace, joined me upon the field when his gallant leader fell. He is entitled to special mention for his conduct while so serving. Colonel David Moore is entitled to special mention. Captain A. Hickenlooper, of the Fifth Ohio Battery, by his gallant conduct, commended himself to general praise. My staff consisted of but three officers. Brigade Surg. S. W. Everett was killed early in the engagement, gallantly cheering the Eighteenth Missouri Regiment to the contest. Lieutenant Edwin Moore, aide-de-camp, during the entire battle, was by my side, unless when detached upon the dangerous service of his office. Captain Henry Binmore, assistant adjutant-general, was with me, performing his duty to my great satisfaction, until, being exhausted, I compelled him to leave the field. I have the honor to be, colonel, very respectfully, your obedient servant, B. M. PRENTISS, Brigadier-General, U. S. Volunteers, Colonel J. C. KELTON, Asst. Adjt. Gen., U. S. Army, Washington, D. C. [from The War of the Rebellion: Original Records of the Civil War, Serial 1, Volume 10 (Shiloh) – no longer in copyright.]
  3. Aaron Loder Mastin, nineteen years old from Mercer County enlisted in D.P. Brown's Company F of the 41st Illinois Infantry (Colonel Pugh) in August 1861... and immediately commenced this diary. Of interest, because it appears Private Mastin was well educated; and in February 1862, with his regiment based in Union-occupied Paducah Kentucky, Aaron Mastin was detailed as Nurse and sent to help establish/ contribute to the operation of the Female Seminary Hospital (renamed as St. John's Hospital, and officially " 7th Division Hospital" at intersection of Chestnut and Court Streets.) Prior to establishment of St. John's, the Paducah Marine Hospital near the waterfront on Hospital Street appears to have been taken over as Federal barracks (incorporated into Fort Anderson) and a variety of churches and the Court House were pressed into service as ad hoc hospitals. Army Nurse Mastin details the efforts of Dr. Kirch to initiate the Hospital; and the handover to Dr. S.A. Williams (and Surgeon T.N. Wilmans) of the 200-plus bed facility, while reporting "what was heard" from Fort Donelson, and the arrival of wounded from that conflict. In the April 5th entry, Nurse Mastin (now Ward Master at St. John's Hospital) records "the burial of deceased hospital patients in trenches." And on April 8th reports "hearing of the success at Island No.10 and the first news of General Grant's battle near Corinth." The Diary of Aaron Mastin is important for its record of hospital service in Paducah (where many of the sick and wounded from the Army of the Tennessee were taken by steamer in March and April 1862.) Ozzy References: http://www.jacksonpurchasehistory.org/wp-content/uploads/2011/04/Mastin-Diary.pdf http://www.pa-roots.com/pacw/hospitals/hospitallist.htm List of Civil War Hospitals (included to illustrate that many hospitals did not get recorded, such as Paducah's St. John's and Cairo's St. John's Hospital.) http://www.findagrave.com/memorial/26655293 Aaron L. Mastin record at find-a-grave.
  4. After Fort Donelson fell, Lew Wallace's Third Division was marched west to Fort Henry and occupied that captured Rebel fort (and Fort Heiman) until March 1862. On March 6th, the Third Division became part of General C.F. Smith's expedition up the Tennessee River... and William Rockwell, member of the 11th Indiana with an interest in medicine, commenced his 41-day diary. Reading like a fifty-page letter, details of the departure from Fort Heiman are revealed (not found anywhere else); and significant aspects of the voyage up the Tennessee River, the homesteads, "plantations," apparent friendliness of the people, and life aboard the overcrowded steamer are all discussed. And, of course, the arrival at Savannah; relocation to Crump's Landing; the Battle (and the attempt to take part, Day One); and the aftermath. (The diary finishes second week of April 1862, although newly-promoted Assistant Surgeon Rockwell survived the war, and moved to Nebraska.) On the River with the Army of the Tennessee was edited by Dr. William Rockwell's G-g-grandson, Bob Rockwell, and was self-published utilizing Lulu.com in 2011 and significant portions are available at the below link (to allow potential readers to determine if the material is of significant interest.) http://books.google.com.au/books?id=zZQtAgAAQBAJ&pg=PA24&lpg=PA24&dq=river+miles+from++fort+henry+to+savannah+tennessee&source=bl&ots=2BKcKrgVXC&sig=5EsgBJ5qxBVqUY9IVloYKvaNm_g&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwjusev1vZDZAhWMi5QKHWqwDbAQ6AEILzAC#v=onepage&q=river miles from fort henry to savannah tennessee&f=false Cheers Ozzy
  5. Part of the reason it is difficult to know what role Federal cavalry played at Fort Donelson lies in the fact many cavalry companies operated as "independent units" during the Fort Henry and Fort Donelson campaigns... and then seem to disappear from history (which is unfortunate, because these independent cavalry companies persisted through the build-up at Savannah and Pittsburg Landing; and participated in the Battle of Shiloh.) Most of these units were affiliated with the State of Illinois, and were operated by Carmichael, Dollins, O'Hartnett and Stewart. It turns out, the Independent Illinois Cavalry Companies were amalgamated in December 1862 into the 15th Illinois Cavalry Regiment (see links below.) Ozzy References: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fort_Donelson_Union_order_of_battle (see Cavalry assigned to Colonel Oglesby's 1st Brigade) http://civilwar.illinoisgenweb.org/reg_html/cav_015.html 15th Illinois Cavalry (created from amalgamation in December 1862) http://civilwar.illinoisgenweb.org/history/c15cav.html brief History of companies attached to 15th Illinois Cavalry, beginning 1861 http://civilwar.illinoisgenweb.org/dyers/cav-stew1.html Dyer's History of Stewart's Independent Company of Illinois Cavalry
  6. In Chicago today, students attend the Frank W. Reilly Elementary School, named in honour of a gifted doctor; a talented writer; and a Shiloh veteran. Dr. Reilly's story intersects with the proud history of the 45th Illinois Infantry, also known as "the Galena Regiment," and the "Washburne Leadmine Regiment." When that unit finally mobilized sufficient numbers to muster into service in December 1861, the designated regimental surgeon, Francis Weaver, succumbed to illness: the 45th Illinois was left without a surgeon when it was sent to participate in the Operation against Fort Henry. And although heavily engaged as part of WHL Wallace's Brigade at Fort Donelson, the unit was fortunate to suffer only a handful of casualties (that were absorbed by existing medical staff.) Dr. Frank Reilly, twenty-five year old immigrant from Lancashire, England, volunteered for duty in his new home of Chicago in March 1862; was sent to Cairo before the end of the month; and reported for duty in Savannah Tennessee on April 1st, where he received assignment to the Leadmine Regiment (commanded by Colonel John Smith.) Ferried by steamer up the Tennessee River and put ashore at Pittsburg Landing, Surgeon Reilly rode out the final two miles and joined his unit April 2nd ...and immediately got to work treating the still-persisting cases acquired at Fort Donelson (mostly severe diarrhea and camp fever.) On the morning of Sunday, April 6th, there came the sound of gunfire from the direction of Sherman's Fifth Division; but because of not-infrequent eruptions of gunfire (including the discomforting sounds associated with the Picket Skirmish of April 4th) the crackling and popping was not deemed unusual: so breakfast was taken. At about 7:30 the first straggling, limping men appeared in the camp of the 45th Illinois: the sick, making their way best they could for the landing, having been turned out from Sherman's Division Hospital. Immediately after, the long roll trilled through the camps of C. Carroll Marsh's Brigade: the fighters moved forward; and support staff (including Surgeon Reilly) remained close, but in a gully to their rear (where surgical procedures commenced on the steady stream of arriving gunshot wounds.) Musicians-cum-stretcher bearers; ambulances; nurses and surgeons operated their gully-based hospital system as efficiently as possible... and relocated slightly north and east as that requirement arose. It was during one of the relocations of the surgical team, early in the afternoon, that Dr. Reilly was shot; the minie ball passed clear through the calf of his leg, grazing the bone. After stopping the bleeding, Surgeon Reilly joined the stream of men straggling towards Pittsburg Landing; after three hours of shuffling along on foot, he gained the waterfront and was taken aboard a paddle steamer; and that steamer evacuated its human cargo north. And Dr. Frank Reilly's experience with the 45th Illinois Infantry came to an end. Cheers Ozzy [References provided on request.]
  7. There have already been discussions IRT the curious HQ memorials at Shiloh NMP, particularly monuments of the First Division (MGen McClernand): http://www.shilohbattlefield.org/closeup.asp?ClosePhoto=TN003M003C.jpg First Brigade Headquarters Monument acknowledges that Colonel Hare was in command in Brigadier General Richard Oglesby's absence (which explains presence of both names at bottom of monument); http://www.shilohbattlefield.org/closeup.asp?ClosePhoto=TN003M004C.jpg Third Brigade Headquarters Monument only has Colonel L.F. Ross's name at the bottom of the monument (and does not accurately record that Command of the brigade, morning of April 6th 1862, proceeded from the absent Ross, to the sick Colonel Rearden... and finally settled on Colonel Julius Raith of the 43rd Illinois). [Image from www.tracesofwar.com] Given the above Headquarters Monument representing the Second Division at Shiloh (and the link to the associated plaque explaining the lead-up to April 6th): http://www.shilohbattlefield.org/closeup.asp?ClosePhoto=TN003T00EC.jpg Historic Plaque #E at Shiloh NMP What four names (last names of four different men) should be included at the base of this Headquarters Monument? Ozzy Hint: Do not include Colonel James Tuttle in your list.
  8. Pittsburg Landing, April 1862. Ran across the above image while searching for something else. It was filed under "Steamers at Chickasaw Bluff" on a Civil War website (but it is obviously not Chickasaw Bluff, Mississippi.) Cheers Ozzy
  9. Ned Spencer, reporter for the Cincinnati Times, published his Battle of Pittsburg Landing on April 10th -- a day or two after the earliest reports filed by William Carroll (New York Times) and Whitelaw Reid (Cincinnati Gazette). And because this report was not "first," like Carroll's; or possessing 22000 words (like Reid's), it did not really add anything noteworthy to make it stand out. Ned also included his share of mistakes: gave praise to the 57th Ohio and 77th Ohio (when he really meant the 55th Illinois and 71st Ohio); awarded brickbats to Hickenlooper's 5th Ohio Battery (when he probably meant to criticize the 13th Ohio Battery, belonging to Myer.) And, he addd his weight to those claiming, "Prentiss was captured early in the day." Still, after overlooking the obvious mistakes, there are some gems to be uncovered: Ned Spencer made his readers aware of "the complacent Union generals" There were no proper pickets set out, at correct distance; The Navy gunboats did their bit; General Lew Wallace took a circuitous route to get to the battlefield; Records accurate time of Nelson's Division's arrival on east bank of Tennessee River; Reports Colonel Peabody's role in sending out "the 400-man patrol" (and notes that Peabody and Powell failed to survive Day One) Provides more coverage of Day Two than most news reports; And includes his summary of Shiloh: "This is THE Battle of the Great Rebellion." [Bold CAPS added, but intent apparent.] Ned Spencer: worth a read, if only to gain a slightly different perspective on a familiar story. http://chroniclingamerica.loc.gov/lccn/sn84031490/1862-04-14/ed-1/seq-2/ Chicago Tribune of April 14th 1862, page 2, column 3. Ozzy
  10. Because of the persistent flooding of the Tennessee River, and the expanse of water-logged terrain in vicinity of Union-controlled Fort Henry, that position was deemed unsuitable for loading significant numbers of troops. So, when the time arrived for the thousands of Federal troops camped in vicinity of Union-held Fort Donelson to "march to the Tennessee River and board steamers for the Expedition" (ultimately destined for Pittsburg Landing), those troops were not marched to Fort Henry; instead, they took the Ridge Road until three miles west of the Furnace, turned left, and continued southwest to Metal Landing (a point on the Tennessee River about three miles south of Fort Henry.) The first Federal troops to reach Metal Landing belonged to Brigadier General McClernand, arrived about March 4th. As steamers arrived, they were loaded, then joined the convoy led by Brigadier General Sherman's new division (dispatched from Paducah, and protected by a timberclad gunboat.) To expedite loading of soldiers at Metal Landing, Colonel Jacob Lauman was sent on detached duty from the Second Division, to act as Transport Organizer (Lauman was in place by March 10th.) And on March 13th, with the Federal troops mostly departed, Metal Landing was deemed suitable for holding Army livestock: pens were ordered constructed that could hold 1000 head of cattle. Metal Landing remained in use through the build-up of forces at Pittsburg Landing. Ozzy References: Papers of US Grant volume 4, pages 312, 322, 323, 342, 351 and 356. [Map showing Metal Landing south of Fort Henry, from Papers of US Grant, volume 4.]
  11. Was conducting research into the monuments and memorials at Shiloh National Military Park (in particular, the Headquarters Monuments) and ran into an unexpected brick wall: although individual States paid for the creation of stone regimental markers and State participation markers at Shiloh, the States were not involved in creation and erection of the many Headquarters Monuments (memorializing brigade and division HQ locations at the commencement of the battle.) http://archive.org/details/illinoisatshiloh00illi Illinois at Shiloh was one of the resources consulted. After a bit of searching, tracked down this reference, published in 2012: A History and Guide to the Monuments of Shiloh National Park, by Stacy W. Reaves. Only about forty pages long, this resource records the drive behind the establishment of the national military parks, and responsibility for all the memorials and monuments (especially those at Shiloh NMP.) Some excellent circa-1900 photographs are included. http://issuu.com/historypressusa/docs/4124-shiloh Turns out, on pages 35 - 36 are to be found the answers to my questions IRT the Headquarters Monument. And it also turns out, Perry Cuskey introduced this book a few years ago (and it comes back as a "hit" when "monuments" is inserted in the Search Box.) Ozzy
  12. In the brief period leading up to the Battle of Shiloh, General Grant found himself in a difficult situation: due to recent promotions, men he wanted to be in charge were now junior to pretenders Grant did not want filling important positions of responsibility. So, Ulysses Grant resorted to a ruse, which may have proceeded as follows: the General who should be in command was acknowledged as still being in command (but just away briefly, recuperating); and the organization he commanded persisted in being referred to as "his." And another officer was simply designated as, "in command, temporarily, in this General's absence." The mild attempt at deception seemed to work... until the recently-promoted officer who should have been in charge -- in the sick General's absence -- cottoned on that he was senior to the designated replacement; at which point, the uppity officer was threatened with arrest. And the delicate situation was seemingly resolved by Grant placing another recently-promoted Brigadier General in temporary command of the organization. And, so the situation remained, even up to the morning of April 6th 1862. Sound familiar? You may be surprised to learn that this scenario, as described, did not involve William Tecumseh Sherman or John McClernand. Which organization could it have been? Who were the key players? And why have we not heard anything about this other incident, of seniority among Federal officers leading to a "command dilemma," until now? Yours to ponder... Ozzy
  13. Ozzy

    Why not just go?

    It was commonly understood during the 19th Century, that in the absence of orders, "a commander was expected to rush to the sound of the guns of battle." In Lew Wallace's Autobiography, page 459, he indicates his strong belief, early on Sunday, April 6th that he was hearing a roar and rumble that was unmistakeable. "My Staff officers joined me, and there was no disagreement: it was a battle." Major General Lew Wallace sent the appropriate orders; staged and prepared his Third Division to march... and then waited aboard his commissary boat (Jesse K. Bell) for General Grant "to drop by and give him orders." Yet, in Wallace's mind, he knew there was only one route open: the Shunpike. And he had communicated a recommendation to Brigadier General WHL Wallace, just the previous day, "that in the event of attack, at either Landing, one Wallace would come to the aid of the other, via the Shunpike." So, the question: "Why did Lew Wallace not simply march his Third Division away down the Shunpike -- in accordance with accepted practice -- and let the chips fall where they might, once the dust had settled?" Yours to ponder... Ozzy Reference No.1: http://ehistory.osu.edu/books/official-records/010/0189 OR 10 pages 189 - 191. Reference No.2: http://digital.library.msstate.edu/cdm/compoundobject/collection/USG_volume/id/17403/rec/7 Papers of US Grant vol 4 pages 402 - 3. Reference No.3: http://archive.org/stream/lewwallaceanaut02wallgoog#page/n479/mode/2up Autobiography of Lew Wallace, pages 459 - 461. Reference No.4 http://archive.org/stream/artwar00mendgoog#page/n76/mode/2up/search/tactics The Art of War by Jomini (pages 70, 72-3 (taking the initiative), 132-3 (use of reserves), 144 (re-taking the initiative from an enemy), 176, 184-5 (operation of reserve force of Army-on-Defense in wresting initiative from the Attacker.) Reference No.5 "In the absence of any other orders, always march to the sound of the guns" -- Napoleon.
  14. In , Grant's Memoirs (page 330) he records: "When I reassumed command on the 17th of March I found the Army divided, with about half at Savannah; while one division was at Crump's Landing on the west bank of the Tennessee River, about four miles above Savannah; and the remainder at Pittsburg Landing, five miles above Crump's... I at once put all the troops at Savannah in motion for Pittsburg Landing [where General Sherman stated, 'there was ample space and drinking water for 100,000 men.']" In Papers of US Grant volume 4 (pages 379-380), in a letter from Sherman to Captain John Rawlins dated March 17th, General Sherman wrote: " I am strongly impressed with the importance [of Pittsburg Landing], both for its land advantages and for its strategic position. The ground itself admits of easy defense by a small command, yet affords admirable camping ground for a hundred thousand men..." Neither Grant nor Sherman offered similar "justification" for maintaining Federal troops at Crump's Landing. And with Lew Wallace having completed his assignment to cut the Mobile & Ohio Railroad [and the primary Confederate stronghold at the northern end of that line -- Fort Columbus -- already evacuated], here is the question: What was the one reason Major General Lew Wallace was maintained in vicinity of Crump's Landing? (Provide justification for your answer.) Ozzy
  15. Here is a test of your knowledge of West Point alumni present at Battle of Shiloh: Who were the three highest-ranked graduates in their USMA Class, present at Shiloh? (Hint: it wasn't U.S. Grant, ranked 21st in USMA Class of 1843; and it wasn't William Tecumseh Sherman, ranked 6th in his USMA Class of 1840... but these three graduates were ranked one, two and three in their respective USMA classes.) Which two U. S. Military Academy graduates, present at Shiloh, wrote books prior to Battle of Shiloh on military tactics, or military procedures? Name five of the six Military Academy graduates, present at Shiloh, who served as instructors, Superintendent, or Commandant of Cadets at West Point. (Hint: although George H. Thomas served as Instructor of Cavalry Tactics at West Point, he arrived too late to take part in Battle of Shiloh.) Which Federal officer at Shiloh graduated from the same USMA Class as Leonidas Polk? Who was the youngest West Point alumnus at Shiloh (Class of 1861, but resigned before graduation to join the Confederacy)? Which institution of higher learning had more alumni present at Pittsburg Landing/Crump's/Savannah on 6-7 April 1862: West Point ? or Upper Iowa University ? All the best Ozzy Another hint: all answers can be found through reference http://penelope.uchicago.edu/Thayer/E/Gazetteer/Places/America/United_States/Army/USMA/Cullums_Register/ and following the cues.
  16. The United States Military Academy, since its founding in 1802, was an institution, sited at the isolated West Point on the Hudson River, with the acknowledged goal of molding ambitious, confident, clear-thinking young men of promise into Leaders of Men in exercise of the Military Arts. Typically, in the 19th Century, the intake of each year's Plebe Class involved young men between 16 and 21, possessing limited military knowledge, and unimpressive life experiences; these neophytes were instructed by worldly, knowledgeable, experienced military teachers, skilled at imparting their knowledge, and who could impress their charges merely by "exercise of authority" that seemed to be innate, somehow absorbed into the fabric of their being, and emitted at will. That routine process of super-skilled masters molding formless clay came undone in 1865; for in that year's intake -- Class of 1869 -- were three men of experience: Charles Morton. Private in the 25th Missouri Infantry. Veteran of Shiloh (at age 15). Finished 25th in his class of 39 and was commissioned as a Cavalry officer. Retired as Brigadier General in 1910. Eric Bergland. 17-year-old Second Lieutenant of the 57th Illinois Infantry. Veteran of Shiloh. Finished 1st in his class of 39 and was commissioned Artillery officer (but soon was transferred to Army Corps of Engineers.) Retired as Major, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers in 1896. John G. Bourke. Joined the 15th Pennsylvania Cavalry at age 16. Not a Veteran of Shiloh (but won the Congressional Medal of Honor at Stone's River in 1862.) Finished 11th in his class of 39 and was commissioned as a Cavalry officer. Was serving as Captain in the 3rd U.S. Cavalry at the time of his death Provided to illustrate another of the unexpected, but far-reaching outcomes of the Battle of Shiloh. Ozzy References: http://penelope.uchicago.edu/Thayer/E/Gazetteer/Places/America/United_States/Army/USMA/Cullums_Register/Classes/1869.html http://www.arlingtoncemetery.net/jgbourke.htm John Gregory Bourke http://penelope.uchicago.edu/Thayer/E/Gazetteer/Places/America/United_States/Army/USMA/Cullums_Register/2273*.html Eric Bergland http://penelope.uchicago.edu/Thayer/E/Gazetteer/Places/America/United_States/Army/USMA/Cullums_Register/2297*.html Charles Morton
  17. On the morning of the 6th of April, Sergeant Seymour Thompson was a twenty-year old member of 3rd Iowa, Company F, eating breakfast with his messmates, when the growing sound and increasing frequency of musket fire to the south and southwest became concerning. But with the booming of not-so-distant artillery, there was no mistake: the Federal camp at Pittsburg Landing was under attack. The long roll trilled and SGT Thompson joined his fellows in ranks for the march south to aid General Prentiss' 6th Division... but General Stephen Hurlbut halted his men well short of Prentiss' camps -- made aware of that Division's disintegration by the swelling stream of wide-eyed skeddadlers racing north -- and Sergeant Thompson and the rest of the 3rd Iowa found themselves arranged in a line of blue, stretching roughly east-west across a cotton field. And not long after the stragglers thinned out a bit, Thompson caught his first sight of the enemy: "The Rebel regiments with their red banners flashing in the morning sun marched proudly and all undisturbed through the abandoned camps of Prentiss. To the enemy's surprise, suddenly appeared our line of blue, widely deployed upon the open field, the ground sloping towards him, and not a brush to conceal us from his view: a single blue line, compact and firm, crowned with a hedge of sparkling bayonets, our flags and banners flapping in the breeze. And in our center a battery of six guns, whose dark mouths scowled defiance at him. "The enemy's infantry fronted towards us and stood. Ours kneeled and brought their pieces to the ready... Thus for some moments, the antagonists surveyed each other... until a regiment on our left opened fire, and the other regiments got caught up, and the fire was carried along the entire line..." Thus relates Seymour Thompson his initiation into the Battle of Shiloh in his 1864 book, Recollections with the 3rd Iowa Regiment. Nearly forty pages of this 400-page history are devoted to arrival at Pittsburg Landing and subsequent battle. The first hundred pages relate the forming of the regiment (and trouble arising from the political "selection" of Colonel from outside the regiment, in opposition to the usual practice of vote of members); and everything one could ever want to know about guarding railroads in northern Missouri. The book concludes with Thompson's discussion of 3rd Iowa's disastrous participation in the Battle of Jackson, Mississippi in July 1863. Because only two years passed between Battle of Shiloh and publication of the book, many unexpected insights and revelations are included IRT how that battle was fought; what chance the Confederates had of winning; and observations of early-career U.S. Grant, W.T. Sherman and John Pope. And Stephen Hurlbut comes in for criticism early on (during operations in Missouri); but over the course of Days 1 and 2 at Shiloh, Hurlbut experiences a transcendence in the view of the author, and most of the men of the 4th Division. Available at archive.org (free site for out-of-copyright books). Ozzy http://archive.org/stream/recollectionswit00thomp#page/n3/mode/2up N.B. SDG member, Hank, first made mention of this work by Lieutenant Thompson several months ago... but I only just got around to it.
  18. Actually, a diary and extracts from letters, presented in chronological order from 15 September 1861, when Thaddeus H. Capron, 22 years old from Durand Village, Winnebago County enlisted in the 55th Illinois Infantry with many others from his community in Company C. Early entries describe training in Northern Illinois before moving on to Benton Barracks, near St. Louis. Private Capron presents as "a bit of a card" and has similar friends -- Arden Bowen, "Snooks," Billy, and Charlie -- who amuse themselves while waiting to get "into the Show." A letter written from Paducah on February 9th 1862 expresses disappointment on missing the Fort Henry operation. Another letter, written February 20th, expresses more disappointment from Paducah; but this is followed by news of Thaddeus Capron's promotion to Assistant QM and rumors IRT where they will be sent (either Fort Columbus, or Alabama). On March 10th, Capron reports the 55th Illinois is aboard the Hannibal, heading for Florence, Alabama; part of an Army of 100,000. In addition to describing the camp near Lick Creek of Stuart's Brigade (of Sherman's 5th Division) on March 23rd, Asst. QM Capron reports that "Buell is only thirty miles away with over 100,000 more men, to combine with Grant's Army," and states his belief that, "the Rebellion will soon be put down." Excerpts of April 10 Letter from Thaddeus Capron to friends in Durand, Illinois: "We were up with reveille Sunday morning, and began preparing for inspection... away to the west we heard gunfire, which we believed was only the pickets, again. We waited over two hours before the Long Roll was beat, and then formed our line and marched forward about 80 rods. Told to lie down, the 55th Illinois waited several hours before the enemy appeared (estimated as 5000 men supported by two batteries.) The fight for the 55th Illinois and 54th Ohio Zouaves became one of fire, fall back; fire, fall back for about three hours. Afterwards, Capron expresses his awareness that "the delaying action accomplished by Stuart's Brigade was significant in preventing the destruction of Grant's Army." April 18 details friends wounded and killed at Battle of Shiloh. And April 26 describes the preparations to march on Corinth. Probably one of the most comprehensive collections of first-person reports to be found on the internet, this Diary and Excerpts from Letters written by Thaddeus Capron is made available by Northern Illinois University: http://civilwar.lib.niu.edu/islandora/object/niu-civil%3A14911 Cheers Ozzy
  19. It was one of the most secret and daring preliminary acts performed by the Federal Government prior to commencement of the Civil War: and only President Lincoln, Secretary of State Seward, Army Captain Montgomery Meigs, and Navy Lieutenant David D. Porter knew its full dimensions... the mission to resupply Fort Pickens at Pensacola, Florida. Needing to stop the "stripping down for extensive maintenance" being conducted on a warship at New York Navy Yard, the above four conspirators brought in a fifth member; but revealed only that information acting-Commandant of the Navy Yard, Commander Andrew Hull Foote, was required to know: "That USS Powhatan was urgently required. She needed to be returned to a seaworthy condition, and her steam propulsion plant reassembled, as expeditiously as possible. And contact "with agencies outside New York Navy Yard" was strictly controlled, especially in regard to the true, intended use of the powerful steam frigate; Commander Foote was directed to communicate only with other members of the conspiracy IRT progress of readying Powhatan for sea: even the Secretary of the Navy (Gideon Welles) was to be kept in the dark" [Porter's Naval History of the Civil War, pages 99-103.] On April 6th 1861 USS Powhatan entered the Atlantic Ocean, under command of Lieutenant David D. Porter, in loose company with the chartered Collins Company steamer, Atlantic, carrying stores, equipment and 450 troops commanded by Colonel Harvey Brown. Due to a storm, the vessels became separated; but by April 17th the Atlantic and USS Powhatan arrived off Fort Pickens. The troops and supplies were landed. And Fort Pickens would remain in Federal control during the entirety of the Civil War. The newspapers of the day said, "it was all due to Lieutenant Adam Slemmer," the young Army officer who had the courage and the foresight to put his ad hoc team of eighty soldiers and sailors to use, in expeditiously relocating from Barrancas Barracks to Fort Pickens on that fateful day in January 1861, depriving Florida State authorities the opportunity to simply seize control of the mostly unoccupied ring of fortifications. But, Adam Slemmer saw it differently: "I have only to say that Lieutenant Gilman and I stood side by side during the whole affair; and if any credit is due for the course pursued he is entitled equally with myself" [OR 1 Report No.3, pages 333-342.] Lieutenant Gilman? Who was he? Jeremiah H. Gilman was born in Knox County, Maine in 1831 and received an appointment to West Point in 1852. Graduated in the middle of his Class of 1856, he was assigned to the Artillery; and after initial service in Texas and Rhode Island, was posted to Barrancas Barracks, Pensacola in 1858... where he was by-default second-in-command (due absence on leave of the senior two Army officers at the Barrancas -- Fort Pickens -- Fort McRae complex.) On January 10th 1861, under pressure from Florida State authorities, the acting-Commander, Lieutenant Slemmer, determined not to surrender Federal control of Pensacola Harbor; and with Lieutenant Gilman's assistance, an Army - Navy force of about 80 men moved guns, ammunition, supplies and food from Fort Barrancas (on the mainland) to the much more strategically valuable Fort Pickens, securely tucked away on the western tip of the Santa Rosa Barrier Island. From early January, Slemmer and Gilman supervised and participated in mounting artillery pieces, sealing off embrasures, standing picket duty, and otherwise preparing for an attack that might come from a numerically superior Rebel force at any moment. The Pickens Truce of January 28th offered some respite (a Rebel guarantee to not attack Fort Pickens, provided the U.S. Navy ships hovering nearby in the Gulf of Mexico did not land and resupply that fortification.) In meantime, Braxton Bragg arrived at Pensacola and began strengthening the Rebel-occupied forts; and mounting the heaviest guns available all along the shore of Pensacola Bay, from the Navy Yard northeast of Fort Pickens, along to the west, just across the inlet to Pensacola Bay, where Fort McRae laid claim to the closest Rebel guns, about 2000 yards away. War started on April 12th at Fort Sumter. The stalemate at Pensacola ended with the landing of Colonel Harvey Brown's force (along with the forces that had been barracked aboard the many warships, just south of Fort Pickens, since the Buchanan Administration.) With the replacement force numbering in excess of one thousand men, the exhausted "first responders," defenders of Fort Pickens since January 10th (and many suffering scurvy) were permitted to steam away... aboard the steamer Philadelphia. Slemmer's party arrived at New York May 26th; and the rag-tag force that saved Fort Pickens was broken up: the sailors returned to the Navy; the soldiers mostly joined the garrison at Fort Hamilton (guarding the Port of New York). Adam Slemmer was promoted to Captain ( 19th U.S. Infantry Regiment) and sent to Chicago on recruiting duty. Jeremiah Gilman was initially assigned to recruiting duty, and then sent to Kentucky for a series of different duties, mostly involving organization and inspection of artillery assigned to the Army of the Ohio. Ultimately, he was appointed to the Staff of General Buell, and served as Inspector, and Acting Chief of Artillery. It was in this capacity that he served during Day Two at Shiloh, rushing from one Army of the Ohio battery to another, to ensure the most advantageous employment of Terrill, Goodspeed, Mendenhall and Bartlett. For "gallant and meritorious service at Shiloh," then-Captain Gilman was awarded brevet promotion to Major; and participated in Halleck's Crawl to Corinth; the Battle of Perryville; Stone's River. And in January 1863, Major Gilman was assigned to the Subsistence Department (primarily working out of Baltimore) until war's end. Gilman remained in the Army, remained attached to the Commissary Department, and served in Missouri, the Dakotas, and Washington, D.C. until he retired, aged 64, in 1895. Colonel Jeremiah H. Gilman (Ret.) died August 1909 at Manhattan Beach, New York. As far as can be determined, he is the only Federal officer to have a direct connection to "the Fort Pickens Situation" and the Battle of Shiloh. Ozzy References: OR 1 pages 333-342 and 365, 366. New York Tribune, 1861 editions for April 6, 8, 9; May 2; and June 1 (page 8: Slemmer article). New York Herald, 27 May 1861 (page 8: reports arrival of Slemmer's party from Fort Pickens). http://archive.org/details/cu31924032779385 D. D. Porter's Naval History of the Civil War (1886) pages 99-103.
  20. Oliver Boardman was a 21 year old from Albia, Iowa who enlisted as a Private in the 6th Iowa Volunteer Infantry, Co. E at Burlington in July 1861; and spent the next several months guarding trains in northern Missouri. On 14 March 1862, the Crescent City touched at Savannah Tennessee, and two days later the 6th Iowa disembarked at Pittsburg Landing. On April 24th, Private Boardman wrote a letter to his brother and sister back in Albia, and in eight pages describes his activity "on the far right of the Army, under General Sherman." Boardman recalls "just getting out of a trap" and hurrying with his regiment to the north; being engaged, while continually falling back; and "being supported" by one regiment after another, "which would fire two or three shots, then disappear." Eventually reaching "the tight pocket of our Army, on the bluff," Private Boardman identifies the arrival of Buell; the Siege guns; and the gunboats as crucial in warding off Rebel success {"They finally gave up on taking the Landing, and left us alone til morning.") Day Two, Private Boardman went with a company of the 6th Iowa, attached to "another regiment," and joined Sherman in fighting "in a westerly direction" during which Boardman's company was assigned as support to a battery. During the course of an artillery duel, Boardman describes, "there being so much smoke, it was hard to see anything. But eventually we took that Rebel battery." In the aftermath, Private Boardman contemplated "what went wrong" at Shiloh, and put it down to "believing too much in our own strength," and "the scattered nature of the camps." [In a later letter, written May 11th, Oliver Boardman also remarked that, "He believes the generals will do right, this time. Grant is not with us; Halleck has our confidence."] The 24 April 1862 Letter from Oliver Boardman is one of more than a dozen letters, covering July 1861 through the Vicksburg Campaign of 1863. Each letter is written in a legible cursive handwriting (with typed transcript at bottom of each page.) The collection is on file with Iowa Heritage Digital Collection (associated with Universities of Iowa): http://128.255.22.135/cdm/ref/collection/cwd/id/21464 Private Oliver Boardman Letter from Shiloh, 24 April 1862 Cheers Ozzy
  21. Available online from the University of Iowa Library are these three diaries (for years 1861, 1862 and 1863) written by 20-year-old schoolteacher, Turner S. Bailey. Working in Epworth, Iowa (about three miles west of Dubuque) at the start of 1861, his diary for that year focuses on teaching classes, the weather, and local issues... until April 15th. "Considerable excitement about war. Fort Sumter taken by the South." Beginning with that entry, Turner indicates growing preoccupation with "war fever" until enlisting in the 3rd Iowa Co. A at Dubuque on May 22nd; travelling with the regiment to Keokuk in June; and duty in Missouri (guarding railroads) beginning in July. In March 1862, it was decided to add the 3rd Iowa to the growing Federal force on the Tennessee River; Private Bailey arrived opposite Pittsburg Landing on the 15th. On the 17th the 3rd Iowa went ashore at Pittsburg Landing and went into camp near "their friends in the 12th Iowa." Each subsequent day is faithfully recorded -- the weather, the skirmish on April 4th -- and of course, the Battle of April 6/7. On the attached link, click on the desired diary... a new page will open... click on the diary again for access to every page. [University of Iowa adds another diary, or collection of Civil War letters, about every 3-6 months, so worthwhile to check back every once in a while to see what's been made available.] http://www.iowaheritage.org/items/browse?advanced[0][element_id]=49&advanced[0][type]=is+exactly&advanced[0][terms]=Infantry Cheers Ozzy
  22. While investigating the actions of Ulysses S. Grant during the early hours of Sunday 6 April 1862 at Savannah, ran across this interesting letter, written by Annie Cherry [in March 1862 the 30-year-old wife of William Harrell Cherry (39) and residing with two children at "the brick house" in Savannah.] Written 6 December 1892 to amateur historian Thomas M. Hurst (formerly of Hardin County, but living in Nashville), the letter recalls General Grant's actions upon hearing the sound of distant artillery fire that morning; and details Grant's personal conduct during the weeks the General was a guest of the Cherry Family: December 6th, 1892 Mr. T. M. Hurst Dear Sir: Your letter of inquiry concerning "General Grant's physical condition the morning the battle of Shiloh began," was received several days ago. You will please pardon my seeming negligence, and accept my assurance, gladly given, that on the date mentioned, I believe General Grant was thoroughly sober. He was at my breakfast table when he heard the report from a cannon. Holding untasted a cup of coffee he paused in conversation to listen a moment at the report of another cannon. He hastily arose, saying to his staff officers: "Gentlemen, the ball is in motion, let's be off." His flag ship (as he called his special steamboat) was lying at the wharf, and in fifteen minutes he, staff officers, orderlies, clerks and horses had embarked. During the weeks of his occupancy of my house he always demeaned himself as a gentleman; was kind, courteous, genial and considerate, and never appeared in my presence in a state of intoxication. He was uniformly kind to citizens, irrespective of politics, and whenever the brutality to citizens, so frequently indulged by the soldier, was made known to him he at once sent orders for the release of the captives or restoration of the property appropriated. As a proof of his thoughtful kindness I mention that during the battle on Sunday he wrote and sent to my mother a safeguard to prevent her home being used for a hospital. Yielding to the appeals of humanity she did, however, open her home to the wounded and sick for three months in succession, often administering to their wants and necessities in person. In such high esteem did General Grant hold such magnanimity, under the most aggravating circumstances, that he thanked her most heartily, assuring her that considering the great losses and gross indignities she had received from the soldiers, her nobility of soul was more to be admired than the fame of a general leading an army of victorious soldiers. On one occasion he asked to be introduced to my mother and family, saying: "If you have no objections to introducing me, I will be much pleased." I replied: "Not because you are a great general, but because I believe you to be a gentleman I will introduce you to them unhesitatingly." In deference to the fact that I was a Southern lady with Southern proclivities, he attired himself in a full suit of citizen's clothes, and touching himself on the shoulder said: "I thought you would like this best," evincing delicate courtesy and gentlemanly instincts of which the honors of war, nor merited promotion had not deprived him. I feel that it is due the surviving members of General Grant's family to mention some evidences of his greatheartedness as shown in kindness to Southern people. "Military necessity" was not to him a term synonymous with unlicensed vandalism or approval of terrorism. He was too great and too true to his manhood to be fettered by prejudice. I am pleased that I can give these reminiscences of a man who as a soldier and statesman received and merited the homage of a nation -- for they are testimonies to his inner life and innate characteristics, worthy to be recorded with the magnanimity of "kingship over self" as manifested on the day of General Lee's surrender. Respectfully, (signed) Mrs. W. H. Cherry
  23. Ozzy

    Shiloh Sources

    Frequently, people wanting to read more about Shiloh, the people involved, and the military units engaged, request "lists of references" that may be studied at leisure, to find out specific information. What follows is a significant list of references, provided courtesy of the Tennessee Secretary of State (scroll about halfway down): http://sos.tn.gov/products/tsla/bibliography-tennessee-local-history-sources-hardin-county Shiloh Bibliography. And although already posted someplace else on SDG site, below is the Tennessee Interactive Map: http://sos.tn.gov/products/tsla/tennessee-civil-war-gis-interactive-map Skirmish and Battle locations in Tennessee. Regards Ozzy
  24. Ozzy

    Larger than Life

    There are a number of figures, both North and South, that are iconic: they seem to encapsulate the essence of the American Civil War. For me, these include Grant and Sherman; Beauregard and Bragg; Robert E. Lee; Andrew Foote; George H. Thomas; N.B. Forrest and J.H. Morgan; and, of course, Jefferson Davis and Abraham Lincoln. Perhaps you look at my list of eleven names, and feel "someone important is missing" ...maybe David Farragut, or Raphael Semmes, or Stonewall Jackson. Regardless, if you accept that six-and-a-half of the "iconic figures" (Thomas arrived late), were present at Shiloh; can you think of another battle that featured as many icons, or more? Just another reason why the Battle of Shiloh is so remarkable... Ozzy
  25. It is not very often that a first-hand account of the actions of the 6th Division during the first hours of Day One, and during the stand at the Hornet's Nest comes to light. The following link takes you to the Little Falls Transcript of Little Falls, Minnesota (edition of September 14th 1883.) Beginning page 6, column 6 is the article, "In the Hornet's Nest" by Sergeant Gibhart Kurts (sometimes identified as Gilbert Kurtz) of the 18th Missouri Infantry, Co.K. Of interest: although listing all the regiments belonging to the 6th Division at Shiloh, Sergeant Kurts appears to be unaware that the 1st Minnesota Light Artillery (Munch's Battery) belonged to the 6th Division. Sergeant Kurts is aware of the strengthening of pickets and outposts; and recalls seeing General Prentiss attempting to rally the troops before everyone "fell back to the hill in the rear." http://chroniclingamerica.loc.gov/lccn/sn89064525/1883-09-14/ed-1/seq-6/#date1=1878&index=0&rows=20&words=Prentiss&searchType=basic&sequence=0&state=Minnesota&date2=1884&proxtext=Prentiss&y=17&x=13&dateFilterType=yearRange&page=1 Little Falls Transcript of September 14th 1883, courtesy of Library of Congress and Chronicling America. Ozzy
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