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  1. The Battle of Shiloh, by Joseph W. Rich, Iowa City, Iowa, published by the State Historical Society in 1911. Less than 150 pages. Included on the 'Shiloh Top Seven' list by vtclark. Not a recent work; no longer in copyright. But due to the magic of the Internet, freely available to interested readers. The author, J. W. Rich, attended the University of Iowa and worked for a number of years as the university librarian. He was at Shiloh as a 24 year old member of the 12th Iowa Infantry Regiment, Co. E. His stated purpose in writing this book: 'to leave a clearer picture of the battle, in the mind of the reader.' Rich had time, and resources, on his side. Rich became aware of the 'politics' behind the scenes; the friction between Halleck and Grant, and the 'turf war' between Halleck and Buell. Much detail, with references, is presented. He was also acutely aware of the 'you were caught in your bed' belief of some writers, and appears to have been moved to write this book after the re-release (in 1895) of the 1867 work, Ohio in the War, by Whitelaw Reid. The restatement of Buell's status as 'Hero of Pittsburg Landing' may have sparked the desire to set the record straight. An acolyte of D. W. Reed, Rich walked the battlefield with him in 1908. This book functions to support and extend Reed's lifelong study of the battle, and his search for truth. The Battle of Shiloh also addresses 'The Lost Opportunity' (A. S. Johnston's death), and Lew Wallace's misadventure during Day 1. Worth a read by every serious student of the battle, it can be accessed <archive.org/details/battleofshiloh00rich>
  2. When Abraham Lincoln uttered the lines < 'I can't spare this man... He fights' > he may very well have been speaking of Jacob Lauman of Burlington, Iowa. In command of the 3rd Brigade of Hurlbut's 4th Division at the Battle of Shiloh, BGen Lauman demonstrated initiative, tenacity and profound devotion to duty, that caused Stephen Hurlbut to write: 'I saw Jacob Lauman hold the right of my line on Sunday with his small body of gallant men, for three hours. After delivering its fire with great steadiness, the 3rd Brigade charged and drove the enemy 3 or 400 yards...' [OR Serial 10 pp. 204-7] For Lauman, it was continuation of a trend that began at Belmont, Missouri on November 7, 1861, when the 7th Iowa [commanded by Colonel Lauman] found itself in the thick of the action, taking on the role of shock troops. Colonel Dougherty, in charge of the 2nd Brigade (to which the 7th Iowa and 22nd Illinois belonged), wrote, 'Regardless of obstacles, the 2nd Brigade advanced as rapidly as possible, and stayed in line. The enemy obstinately resisted, and a storm of musketry raged along our whole line... The 7th Iowa throughout the battle fought like veterans. Iowa may well feel proud of her sons who fought at Belmont.' [OR 3, pp 272-298] Jacob Lauman had his horse shot from under him; he advanced with his men on foot, and during a 'storm of musketry' took a shot to the leg [the minie ball passed through the thigh, and just missed the bone.] Colonel Lauman was carried from the field, and successfully evacuated aboard a steamboat. His wound was dressed, and he was sent home to Iowa to recuperate. His wound healed sufficiently after a few weeks, and Colonel Lauman rejoined his regiment. But, prior to the Siege of Fort Donelson, Lauman was elevated to command of the 4th Brigade of the 2nd Division (BGen C.F. Smith.) Colonel Lauman accompanied his brigade on the afternoon of February 15th, when under orders of U.S. Grant to 'Take that Fort,' Charles F. Smith advanced his division until Lauman's Brigade (spearheaded by the 2nd Iowa Infantry) broached the outer works... and was only brought to a halt by the setting of the sun (with the conclusion promised on the morrow.) But, there was no resumption of aggressive action: the Confederate commander surrendered before hostilities could resume. Deemed to be 'courageous, aggressive, and bold,' Jacob Lauman was promoted to Brigadier General on March 21st, 1862. Jacob Gartner Lauman was born in Maryland in 1813, but grew up in Pennsylvania. As a young man, he engaged in commercial activities in the Keystone State, but was drawn by the promise of opportunity available in the Territory of Iowa (which had been opened to settlement following the removal-by-treaty of the Sac Fox Indians.) Lauman arrived in Burlington in 1844, and set himself up in business -- JG Lauman & Brother, wholesale and retail providers of groceries, clothing and hardware. And, Jacob became involved in the local militia organization -- the Burlington Grays -- as a Lieutenant. He continued involvement with the militia, and eventually was promoted to Major of the 1st Battalion of Iowa Volunteers... the post he occupied at the time of Fort Sumter. Put to work by Governor Samuel Kirkwood as a recruiter of soldiers, Lauman was commissioned as Colonel in July 1861 and given command of the 7th Iowa Infantry Regiment. After the Battle of Shiloh, Lauman remained with Hurlbut's Division and commanded a brigade during the Crawl to Corinth. He was still with Hurlbut, operating in vicinity of Memphis, when the Confederates attacked Corinth on October 3rd. Sent to reinforce Rosecrans at Corinth, the 4th Division was incorporated into a force under the command of General Edward Ord, and diverted towards Davis Bridge in an effort to block Van Dorn's retreating force. The action of October 5th became known as the Battle of Hatchie Bridge, and although recorded as a Union 'victory,' was not regarded by participants as having been 'correctly fought' (including Jacob Lauman, who may have been too vocal in expressing his interpretation of Ord's leadership.) [Sherman's Memoirs, Vol 1, pp 262-4] and [wikipedia 'Battle of Hatchie's Bridge'] and [The Civil War Siege of Jackson by Jim Woodrick, pages 64-66], Regardless, Lauman was elevated to Division Command by General W.T. Sherman in November 1862; and upon the promotion of Stephen Hurlbut to command of Memphis, BGen Lauman was put in charge of Hurlbut's old 4th Division (soon to become part of General Cadwallader Washburn's 16th Army Corps, at the Siege of Vicksburg. Lauman's Division contributed significantly to the Union success at Vicksburg, which officially ended with the surrender of General Pemberton on July 4th, 1863.) [Memoirs of US Grant, Vol 1, p 456] But, there was still work to be done: General Joseph Johnston's Army had been advancing to the relief of General Pemberton at Vicksburg... but was too late. Johnston was stalled at Jackson, Mississippi, and his force was seen as a threat that had to be neutralized: US Grant put WT Sherman in charge of an expedition to accomplish that mission. Sherman assembled the 15th Army Corps, the 9th A.C. and the 13th A.C. (MGen Ord took charge of the 13th Army Corps upon the removal of John McClernand in June.) Two brigades of Jacob Lauman's Division were assigned detached duty with the 13th A.C. -- and BGen Lauman took charge of that detachment. Sherman's Jackson Expedition commenced on July 9th. By July 11th, the encirclement of Jackson, Mississippi was nearly complete. On the 12th, Lauman's detachment advanced in line with Hovey's Division (on his left) across heavily wooded, undulating ground... until Colonel Pugh, in charge of the 1st Brigade, halted the advance: something about the ground in front did not look right. Lauman came to Pugh, had a discussion, and skirmishers were sent forward. But when the skirmishers drew no significant fire, Lauman ordered Pugh to advance [Crosley p. 375] There is debate whether Lauman was following orders, or acting recklessly. In any event, Pugh's Brigade advanced into a trap, and was cut down by a dozen Confederate guns firing canister, and by lines of Rebel infantry firing from behind protective earthworks. Four hundred men became casualties in a matter of minutes, with almost no loss to the Rebels. Eventually, MGen Ord arrived on the scene, found a distraught Lauman still attempting to retrieve the situation... and ordered Lauman to conduct a muster of his troops. BGen Lauman had no idea how to conduct the numerical assessment while under fire; Ord relieved him of command, and assigned his division to Hovey. And Jacob Lauman was sent away in disgrace to report to MGen U.S. Grant at Vicksburg [OR Serial 38 page 506.] It is evident from their writings that both US Grant and WT Sherman were sympathetic to the plight of Jacob Lauman. But, as Sherman admitted, 'I deem it most important to support Army Corps commanders, so must sustain Ord [over Lauman] for the time being.' [Papers of US Grant vol 9, page 45] Jacob Lauman was sent back to Iowa 'to await orders' that never came. He was given a brevet promotion to Major General at the end of the war. And he continued to suffer from lingering effects of the wound from Belmont... which may have contributed to his death on February 9, 1867. He died in Burlington, and is buried in Aspen Grove Cemetery there. Ozzy References: Papers of US Grant, volume 9, pages 37-45. Annals of Iowa, vol 11, no. 6 (1914) pages 461-5 'General J.G. Lauman Collection.' Annals of Iowa, vol 1, no. 5 (1894) pages 371-381 'Lauman's Charge at Jackson' by Geo. W. Crosley. OR Serials 3, 7, 10 and 38 The Civil War Siege of Jackson, Mississippi by Jim Woodrick (2016) History Press of Charleston, SC wikipedia Memoirs of US Grant Memoirs of William T. Sherman
  3. It is not very often that a first-hand account of the actions of the 6th Division during the first hours of Day One, and during the stand at the Hornet's Nest comes to light. The following link takes you to the Little Falls Transcript of Little Falls, Minnesota (edition of September 14th 1883.) Beginning page 6, column 6 is the article, "In the Hornet's Nest" by Sergeant Gibhart Kurts (sometimes identified as Gilbert Kurtz) of the 18th Missouri Infantry, Co.K. Of interest: although listing all the regiments belonging to the 6th Division at Shiloh, Sergeant Kurts appears to be unaware that the 1st Minnesota Light Artillery (Munch's Battery) belonged to the 6th Division. Sergeant Kurts is aware of the strengthening of pickets and outposts; and recalls seeing General Prentiss attempting to rally the troops before everyone "fell back to the hill in the rear." http://chroniclingamerica.loc.gov/lccn/sn89064525/1883-09-14/ed-1/seq-6/#date1=1878&index=0&rows=20&words=Prentiss&searchType=basic&sequence=0&state=Minnesota&date2=1884&proxtext=Prentiss&y=17&x=13&dateFilterType=yearRange&page=1 Little Falls Transcript of September 14th 1883, courtesy of Library of Congress and Chronicling America. Ozzy
  4. On page 435 of MOLLUS (Ohio) volume 5 of 1903 is a detailed, informative letter written by Andrew Hickenlooper on April 11th 1862 to his family back in Ohio. In the letter, mention is made of the 5th Ohio Battery losing two guns and over fifty horses in the action on Sunday; and recall of 10,000 shirkers observed huddled along the left bank of the Tennessee River; and mention is made of being assigned early on Sunday morning to act as bodyguard to General Grant, and subsequently riding all along the Battlefield in company with the Federal commander... Wait a minute; what's going on here? As we know, Andrew Hickenlooper presents as one of the remarkable leaders at the Battle of Shiloh. In command of the 5th Independent Battery Ohio Volunteer Light Artillery (usually referred to as 5th Ohio Battery) Captain Hickenlooper began the morning of April 6th in defense of Prentiss' 6th Division, somewhat in advance of the camps; he fell back with Prentiss (leaving two of his 6-pounders behind) and redeployed in support of the area later known as the Hornet's Nest (the 5th Ohio Battery itself supported by Colonel Geddes 8th Iowa Infantry), and was there in action from just after 9am until about 4:30pm. Ordered to withdraw to the north, Hickenlooper successfully evacuated four artillery pieces north... and somehow became attached to Sherman's 5th Division (and in support of Sherman became involved in some of the final actions on Day 1 before night put an end to Sunday's fighting.) For such gallant actions, Hickenlooper and his 5th Ohio Battery were Mentioned in Despatches by two Division Commanders in their Shiloh After-action reports [OR 10 p.250 (Sherman) and page 280 (Prentiss)]. Andrew Hickenlooper. One of those iconic names (in company with Wallace, Prentiss, Peabody and Johnston), always to find association with the Battle of Shiloh. So imagine my surprise to discover there was another Andrew Hickenlooper at Shiloh. This other Andrew even came to the attention of Artillery Captain Andrew, just after 10am while the 5th Ohio Battery was readying itself for its next action in the Hornet's Nest. Captain Hickenlooper reports: "It was during one of these temporary lulls (after the first attack) that General Grant and staff, surrounded by a detachment of 5th Ohio Cavalry as his bodyguard, approached our position. His presence was interesting to me, but incomparably less so than the unexpected appearance in his escort of Andrew Hickenlooper, whom I supposed was back at home in Ohio. We had time for a moment's recognition before they rode away, and I turned again to join in the serious business of the day." [MOLLUS (Ohio) page 431.] This other Andrew Hickenlooper was 65 years old and joined the 5th Ohio Cavalry as a Saddler, merely for the opportunity to be close to his son, who commanded the 5th Ohio Battery. [To find out what happened to Andrew Hickenlooper, Sr., you can read the article for yourself, from Page 432.] Ozzy References: http://suvcw.org/mollus/war/OHv5.htm MOLLUS (Ohio) Volume 5, Sketches of War History guide http://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=mdp.39015042015092;view=2up;seq=500;size=300 Capt Hickenlooper (p.479) http://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=uiug.30112047586075;view=1up;seq=290 Saddler Hickenlooper, Co. G (p.277) [note age] http://archive.org/stream/sketcheswarhist01unkngoog#page/n4/mode/2up Sketches, MOLLUS (Ohio) vol.5 pages 402-483 (Battle of Shiloh parts 1 and 2 by Brevet BGen Andrew Hickenlooper published 1903) Sketches of War History. Letter of Andrew Hickenlooper (April 11th 1862) at above link: MOLLUS (Ohio) vol.5 page 435-6.
  5. Ozzy

    The Loss of Ross

    The fact that there were over 45 Federal artillery pieces acting in direct support of the Sunken Road/Hornet's Nest is not really surprising (because that abundance of artillery is one of the factors that made the WHL Wallace-Prentiss-Hurlbut Line strong.) But the fact that only eleven of those guns were lost is truly amazing. Everyone is aware of the story of Myer's 13th Ohio battery: stampeded following a direct hit on their ammunition store, just as they were taking their position; and their two 6-pounder smoothbores and four James Rifles were eventually counted as lost. [Ohio Adj Gen Book 10, page 549]. The other artillery regiment to suffer significant loss belonged to Captain William Ross. The story of Ross's Battery is difficult to track, due in part to the different names the unit is known by: officially Battery B of the 1st Michigan Regiment of Light Artillery, the organization was also called "the 2nd Battery" and the "2nd Michigan Battery." Organized at Detroit in November 1861 with Captain Ross in command, the artillery-unit-without-guns departed Grand Rapids on December 17th and arrived soon after in St. Louis (where it was equipped with six 10-pounder Parrott Rifles.) Called to Cairo in early March 1862, the battery was onward-forwarded to Pittsburg Landing, arriving about March 25th; assigned to Hurlbut's 4th Division, Battery B was given a campsite at the west of Hurlbut's camps, almost a mile from Pittsburg Landing. On the morning of April 6th Ross' Battery rushed forward with the rest of Hurlbut (minus Veatch, who was sent west) to support the in-distress Benjamin Prentiss. But on the way south, it was realized that Prentiss and his 6th Division were withdrawing north; Hurlbut arrayed his force in an L-shape along the south and west edges of a cotton field (as the 6th Division's commander rallied about 500 of his troops, along with two mostly-intact batteries belonging to Munch and Hickenlooper. Prentiss extended roughly northwest from Hurlbut's 4th Division, and adjoined Lauman's Brigade.) Meanwhile, Mann's Battery C, 1st Missouri Light Artillery [two 6-pounder smoothbores and two 12-pounder Howitzers] was placed at the bend of Hurlbut's " L " and Ross' Battery took station to Mann's left, and (ever so briefly) Myer went to Mann's right. Not long after 9am -- and continuing for almost six hours -- Ross provided excellent service to the 4th Division [mentioned in despatches OR 10 page 204]; until Hurlbut determined the 1st Michigan Battery B had suffered enough losses, in men and horses... and withdrew Ross and sent his battery to the rear. But at 3pm (about the time Battery B left the line) General Hurlbut had made up his mind to withdraw his entire force and reposition to the north, along the line of his camps (which may explain why the 1st Michigan Light Artillery had stopped at its campsite, six hundred yards north of the Sunken Road.) Whatever the cause, Hurlbut changed his mind IRT fighting at the line of his camps; and the location of Ross' Battery came to the attention of Colonel Andrew Lindsay's 1st Mississippi Cavalry, and was soon under attack by a detachment of that cavalry, under LtCol Miller [OR 10 page 459]. And except for one section of guns [under Lieutenant Laing] the entire battery -- four guns and 56 men -- were captured by the 1st Mississippi Cavalry (sometimes called Lindsay's Improvised Mississippi Cavalry.) [OR 10 pages 245-6]. As far as is known, Ross' 1st Michigan Battery B and Myer's 13th Ohio bore the brunt of eleven lost artillery pieces, in action near the Sunken Road - Hornet's Nest. The other thirty-five or more artillery pieces escaped the collapse of the Hornet's Nest and were mostly redeployed in Grant's Last Line (including Welker (4 guns), Richardson (4 guns), Mann (3 guns), Stone (4 guns), Powell (5 guns), Hickenlooper (who joined Sherman/McClernand -- 4 guns), and last to arrive: Munch (5 guns). Ozzy References: http://archive.org/stream/battleofshilohor00unit#page/n133/mode/2up DW Reed's Shiloh map (Atwell Thompson 1900) OR 10 pages 204 (Hurlbut), 459 (Colonel Lindsay), 245 (Lt Laing Battery http://www.researchonline.net/micw/unit2b.htm#.V-zgO_B97IU History of 1st Mich Lt Art Battery B http://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=mdp.39015008550108;view=1up;seq=17 Mich Adj Gen vol 42, pages 27-55 1st Michigan Lt Artillery Batt B http://usacac.army.mil/cac2/cgsc/carl/download/csipubs/gudmens.pdf Gudmen's Staff Ride Handbook for Shiloh N.B. As far as I can tell, Mann's Battery (under Brotzmann) was the only other Federal artillery unit to lose a gun after operating in vicinity of the WHL Wallace-Prentiss-Hurlbut Line. Hurlbut has nothing but praise for Mann's Battery [OR 10 page 207].
  6. Ozzy

    Still to ponder...

    Greetings from Down Under I'll start by wishing everyone a memorable visit to Shiloh NMP this 150th Anniversary of the 'Turnover at Liverpool' ...the completion of the Voyage of CSS Shenandoah, in November 1865. I was thinking of starting a discussion on a topic of interest, perhaps in a week or two, once the dust settles on the debrief of events from this latest Park Visit. Some of my ideas: US Grant and migraines: did he get them? If so, is it possible that he was suffering from a 'sick headache' at Shiloh?The movements of the 58th Illinois Infantry, April 6th 1862: just where were they, really?'Parole Camps: necessary, or evil?Oh, and a new historical novel will be out this month: Book Cover.pdf All the best Ozzy
  7. This anniversary hike was led by Chris Mekow. 20120406 151134.mp3
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