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Found 152 results

  1. The Stand of Stuart's Brigade, revisited On Sunday morning 6 April 1862 David Stuart's 2nd Brigade, separated from the remainder of Sherman's Fifth Division by the breadth of the Pittsburg Campground, found itself without organic artillery, and with only three assigned regiments of infantry. Called into line upon hearing the roar of battle away to the southwest, the 2nd Brigade stood and waited... while artillery support provided by Wallace's Second Division arrived, then disappeared; and reinforcements provided by McArthur's Brigade of Wallace's Division came in close proximity, only to be shifted well away from view of Stuart's Brigade. When Stuart's Brigade came under fire at approximately 11am most of the 71st Ohio disappeared; and the 55th Illinois and 54th Ohio were forced to abandon control of the ford over Lick Creek they were tasked with defending; and instead move progressively east and north, firing at the advancing Rebels from behind trees and beneath the brow of ravines. Occasionally, the Swedish-military trained Oscar Malmborg ordered his 55th Illinois into Hollow Square formations, in the midst of clearings while removing north to the next ravine; the formation designed for defense against cavalry so befuddled the Rebel attackers, convinced the technique was precursor to a trap of some sort, that Malmborg's men were mostly left alone each time the Hollow Square was actuated. Meanwhile the 54th Ohio was divided into two components, which independently harassed the steady advance of Chalmers and Jackson from different directions. Along the way, Colonel Stuart was wounded and removed to the rear; T. Kilby Smith of the 54th Ohio took nominal command; but LtCol Malmborg continued to exert authority over the 55th Illinois. After a particularly disastrous crossing of a deep ravine, during which Stuart's 2nd Brigade was badly shot up, the fighting withdrawal came to an end; and at about 2pm the survivors of the 2nd Brigade made for the Bluff overlooking Pittsburg Landing. Oscar Malmborg appears to have arrived with his 55th Illinois ahead of Kilby Smith's 54th Ohio: LtCol Malmborg was immediately tasked with organizing the returning infantrymen into a defensive line. And he continued in that role until replaced by the retiring General Stephen Hurlbut and his Fourth Division about 90 minutes later. But the big job had been accomplished: Rebel access to the Bluff above Pittsburg Landing had been denied until Grant's Last Line was sufficiently in place. The delay provided by Stuart's fighting withdrawal had contributed in large measure to that defensive line's creation. References: Reed, David W. Battle of Shiloh and the Organizations Engaged (1909) pp.14-15, 17, 27 (Order of Battle), 50, 53, 56-57, 73, 74, 130 map, 134 map. https://archive.org/details/battleofshilohor00unit/page/n133/mode/2up/search/Stuart OR 10 page 257 Report of Colonel Stuart. The Life and Letters of Thomas Kilby Smith, by his son, Walter G. Smith (1898) especially letters pp.191-200. https://archive.org/details/lifelettersoftho00smit/page/190/mode/2up Eisenschiml, Otto, The Story of Shiloh (1946) has one chapter specifically dedicated to 55th Illinois http://onlinebooks.library.upenn.edu/webbin/book/lookupname?key=Eisenschiml%2C Otto%2C 1880-1963 [As a member of the Chicago Civil War Round Table, Eisenschiml published many articles through that organization.] [Video] “Alone on the Left: the Desperate Stand of Stuart's Brigade” (2015) produced by Tony Willoughby: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WyPbKJJ9F5A Part one. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qAjgGCHw5zA Part two.
  2. The Picket Skirmish of Friday, April 4th 1862 has been discussed “in passing” on the way to the more interesting and important Battle of Shiloh (which erupted Sunday morning, April 6th.) In many ways, this Picket Skirmish was a “dry run” for the Big Show on Sunday. We at SDG believe we are familiar with this skirmish, but are we? Here are a series of questions: What was the weather on 4 April 1862? What Federal forces were involved that Friday (actually engaged?) What Confederate forces were involved (actually engaged or fired rounds?) At what time on Friday did the first exchange of gunfire occur (to nearest half hour)? Who was the most senior Federal leader involved? Who was the most senior Federal leader to survey the ground on Friday? Who was the most senior Confederate leader involved (either at scene of action, or directing that action from the rear)? At what time did the “engagement” end (to nearest half hour)? At what time did Major General Grant meet with BGen W.T. Sherman on Friday? What action did Major General Grant order as result of the Picket Skirmish? How many total casualties resulted (USA and CSA)? Which of the Confederate prisoners taken on April 4th were interviewed by Grant? What happened to these “ten” Confederate prisoners? [Grant records 8 prisoners.] How many Federal prisoners were taken on April 4th? What happened to them? Can you answer them all?
  3. About April 10th the steamer Woodford departed Savannah Tennessee; her passengers were Rebel soldiers (and 35 local civilians, deemed to have been disloyal to the Union) and were under charge of Captain T.J. Newham (staff officer ADC of General C. F. Smith) and his detachment of Union soldiers acting as guards. See https://digital.shsmo.org/digital/collection/dmr/id/15088/rec/3182 and https://digital.shsmo.org/digital/collection/dmr/id/15087/rec/3182 . In all, about 400 passengers, who arrived at St. Louis morning of 14 April 1862. The prisoners were removed to the grounds of McDowell College (temporary Military Prison at St. Louis.) [Details of this transport of prisoners found in The Missouri Republican of Tuesday 15 APR 1862, pages 1 (passenger list) and 2 col.1 (details of voyage) and 3 col.3 (wounded Confederate prisoners carried aboard steamer City of Louisiana: wounded USA and CSA intermixed on manifest) and 4 col.1 “Arrivals at Port of St. Louis (within past 24 hours”).] https://digital.shsmo.org/digital/collection/dmr/id/15106/rec/3185 Missouri Republican of 18 APR 1862 pg.1 cols.9 and 10 (more lists of wounded Rebels, removed north to sites other than St. Louis.) https://digital.shsmo.org/digital/collection/dmr/id/15108/rec/3186 19 APR 1862 edition pg.2 cols. 3 & 4 lists more wounded Confederates, their names interspersed with wounded Federal soldiers on manifest.
  4. General John H. Meeks Said to have been “twelve miles east of Falcon, Tennessee” ...what significance was “General Meek's Place” to the Picket Skirmish of April 4th 1862? Bonus: Where was General Meek's Place in rough cardinal direction and distance from Shiloh Church? Added Bonus: Why was John Henderson Meeks called "General" Meeks? Note: Above likeness found on Google Images.
  5. "Colonel Peabody and our 25th Missouri" As we know, the Engineer Everett Peabody was based at St. Joseph Missouri while building the Hannibal & St. Joseph Railroad; and the 25th Missouri was considered by Union men residing in St. Joseph as “their” regiment. The St. Joseph Herald followed the career of Colonel Peabody with interest, and beginning with the edition published Friday 11 April 1862 contained news of the Colonel and his 25th Missouri in columns 1, 4, 5 & 6 on Page 2; and column one on Page 3. At this time, in the first Shiloh reports received in Western Missouri, and indicated by the multiple reports, Everett Peabody was listed among the “wounded.” https://digital.shsmo.org/digital/collection/stjoemh/id/251/rec/51 The edition of Saturday 12 April contains more details: Page 2 columns 4 and 5 (but still no word on fate of Colonel Peabody.) https://digital.shsmo.org/digital/collection/stjoemh/id/257/rec/52 Sunday 13 April has a third full-length article IRT Battle of Pittsburg Landing on page 3 columns 4 and 5. (But no mention of Peabody or the 25th Missouri.) https://digital.shsmo.org/digital/collection/stjoemh/id/262/rec/53 [There was no regular Monday edition of the St. Joseph Herald.] The Tuesday 15 April edition Page 3 columns 4 and 5 provides details of the wounded being moved north from the battlefield. General Ormsby Mitchel took Huntsville (and cut the M & C R.R.) A Southern version of the Battle of Shiloh is published (from the Richmond WHIG.) https://digital.shsmo.org/digital/collection/stjoemh/id/267/rec/54 Wednesday 16 April finds Pittsburg Landing, and details of Colonel Peabody, Column one page 2. Below Peabody's Obituary is on for Colonel Tyndale, late of the 23rd Missouri (and killed at the Hornet's Nest.) Page 3 columns 4 and 5 presents another full battle depiction; Col. Peabody confirmed killed; and details how General Grant's Shiloh report was hand-delivered to St. Louis. https://digital.shsmo.org/digital/collection/stjoemh/id/271/rec/55 Thursday 17 April page 2 column 5 two articles cover Col. Peabody's death and funeral (and the remaining members of the 25th Missouri gain a mention under “Local Intelligence.”) Page 3 columns 4 and 5 give more details of the battle and its aftermath. https://digital.shsmo.org/digital/collection/stjoemh/id/276/rec/56 and https://digital.shsmo.org/digital/collection/stjoemh/id/276/rec/56 Friday 18 April page 2 column 6 gives details of Peabody, Prentiss and Powell early Sunday morning 6 April 1862. Page 3 columns 4 and 5 gives more details of 25th Missouri in action at Pittsburg Landing. https://digital.shsmo.org/digital/collection/stjoemh/id/281/rec/57 Saturday 19 April page 2 column 2 gives details of Colonel Moore and the 21st Missouri. Page 3 column 5 provides an update on “the 500 soldiers remaining of the 25th Missouri.” https://digital.shsmo.org/digital/collection/stjoemh/id/286/rec/58
  6. Ozzy

    Who am I?

    A member of West Point Class of 1859, I joined Strawbridge's First Louisiana Infantry in 1861 and fought at Shiloh, where I was wounded. Later on the staff of Joseph Wheeler, I got caught while carrying despatches and was imprisoned at Johnson's Island in Lake Erie... but not for long. I made my escape by using a homemade ladder and stealing a skiff, and found safety in Canada, where I made my way to Montreal and renewed acquaintance with another Shiloh veteran, Jacob Thompson. Thompson was part of the Canadian Cabinet, conducting operations on behalf of the South, from the Great White North; and I volunteered to take part in one of his more notorious operations... Who am I?
  7. It appears baseball was played by General Grant's troops, during their abundant leisure time, after the victory at Fort Donelson. The game may have been introduced to regiments undergoing training at Benton Barracks. Alternatively, one or more of the regiments from Milwaukee, Chicago, or Ohio may have imported the game when they arrived at Pittsburg Landing in March 1862. It is confirmed that a baseball was discovered on Shiloh Battlefield, a few days after the carnage, by a civilian working for the Union army. G. F. Hellum was so impressed by his find, he etched details of the location of his discovery into the hide, turning the lemon-peel ball into a trophy. Now, consider the story of Sgt. Edward Spalding, Co. E, 52nd Illinois. In action on Sunday, the 6th of April, he was twice wounded, but refused to be removed from the field. He remained fighting, in open ground, until the close of the battle. Finally taken to Hospital at Pittsburg Landing in time to have wounds to his left arm dressed, he should have made a full recovery. But, days passed, and his condition worsened. Somehow, Ed Spalding's parents found out about their son's predicament; his father, Asa, journeyed to Pittsburg Landing and took him home, to Rockford, Illinois. The improvement in care, furnished in a loving home, probably saved his life. But, it still required time for his wounds to fully heal. While recuperating, he was visited by his 11-year-old cousin, Albert, to whom he introduced the rules of the game of Baseball. Edward returned to his regiment in November 1862, was promoted to second lieutenant, and continued to serve until mustered out in December 1864. Albert Spalding took to his cousin's game so well, that he went on to become a professional baseball player, playing as pitcher, centerfielder, and first baseman, for the Boston Red Stockings, and the Chicago White Stockings. In 1876, he co-founded A. G. Spalding Sporting Goods; he continued to promote 'the National Pastime' for the rest of his life.
  8. Issued by the War Department on 14 July 1862 (by order of Secretary of War Stanton, and signed by Adjutant General Thomas) General Orders No.78 begins: “The many evils that arise from giving furloughs to enlisted men, require that the practice shall be discontinued...” What “evils” are these? For those familiar with Henry Halleck's pet peeve, Abuse of the Furlough System, the second sentence in the document provides clarity: “Hospitals, provided with ample medical attendance, nurses, food, and clothing, are established by the Government, at great expense, not only near the scenes of active military operations, but in many of the Northern States...” In explanation, sick soldiers were no longer permitted to be sent home to recuperate from wounds or illness (except for Officers, who were exempt from G.O. No.78). And by force of Law, anyone violating this General Order was subject to Court-marshal. [Coincidentally, the Hill-Dix Cartel, which codified the Prisoner of War exchange and repatriation system, became effective 22 July 1862. General Orders No.78 effectively elevated the diagnoses of Army Surgeons to equate with the decisions taken by Colonels of Regiments in regard to men under their charge: once admitted to Hospital, it was unlawful to leave without receiving the authority of the Head Surgeon.] Note: for those who follow Private Cyrus Ballard's story, this is likely what led to his being recorded as "deserter." He absented himself from a Smallpox Hospital without authority. How does this relate to the Battle of Shiloh? Over 2000 Federal soldiers were taken prisoner during the April 1862 contest; and most of them were still confined in Southern prisons when the Dix-Hill Cartel took effect in July. One of the components of the Exchange system (as promoted by SecWar Stanton) involved the establishment of Camps of Instruction (which became better known as Parole Camps) where Federal soldiers, lately confined in Confederate prisons, and who were granted their departure “on their Parole” to return to the United States, on condition that “they do not take up arms or otherwise support the war effort of the North until properly exchanged” were confined by the Federal Government until “the proper exchange” took place. [It can be argued that Edwin Stanton initiated the Parole Camp system due to the fact he did not trust men allowed to return home “until properly exchanged” to again return to military service when notification arrived at their homes that their Exchange had been effected... without considering that almost all of these men in 1862 were Volunteers – not draftees – who had committed themselves to a Higher Calling.] The effect: All of the Shiloh Federal prisoners released from confinement in the South after Hill-Dix were processed out “on their Parole” at Libby Prison in Richmond; and then transported north. After seven months in confinement, many were dangerously unwell; and most had lost a significant portion of their pre-confinement body weight, some weighed less than half what they had in April 1862. Officers arrived at Annapolis Maryland, were granted thirty days of leave, and departed for homes across the Midwest. The enlisted soldiers arrived at Annapolis (or Portsmouth Grove in Rhode Island) and went into confinement at the Parole Camps in those locations. Sick soldiers were confined in the Parole Camp Hospital (which in the case of Annapolis was a “tent facility” two miles from downtown Annapolis.) Everyone waited until their Exchange came through; or in the case of Hospital patients, they got well and were exchanged... or they died. Portsmouth Grove buried over 100 former POWs (most from Missouri) in the Cemetery adjacent to the Parole Camp. Annapolis National Cemetery recorded over 2000 Federal burials before the end of the war. References: https://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=hvd.hl27qz&view=1up&seq=362 General Orders No.78 of 14 July 1862 https://www.findagrave.com/cemetery/2690755/lovell-general-hospital-cemetery Portsmouth Grove Parole Camp Cemetery https://www.nps.gov/nr/travel/national_cemeteries/Maryland/Annapolis_National_Cemetery.html Annapolis National Cemetery
  9. Review of To Rescue My Native Land by Wm. T. Shepherd It is not often that letters and diaries compiled by artillerymen during the Civil War are encountered, and this collection is a gem: the “Civil War Letters of William T. Shepherd.” Native of Wisconsin, who enlisted in Chicago as Private in Taylor’s Battery B, 1st Illinois Light Artillery 16 July 1861, Private Shepherd (sometimes spelled Shepard) is a gifted, intelligent writer who sent letters to friends and family back in Illinois on a daily basis. Encountered in the many letters: · Camp life (and looking forward to letters, newspapers and parcels from home) · Details of duty (and October 1861 Skirmish at Fredericktown) in Missouri · Description of duty (and Christmas) at Bird’s Point, Missouri. Letter of 10 NOV 1861 describes participation in Battle of Belmont. Letter of 9 JAN 1862 reveals “everyone at Cairo, Fort Holt and Bird’s Point is under Marching Orders” (which everyone believes is for “somewhere down the Mississippi River…”) Instead, a feint is conducted to the east of Fort Columbus, which “confuses everyone”). Letter of 1 FEB 1862: under Marching Orders, again… 8 FEB 1862: describes “how easily their Fort Henry became ours.” 16 FEB: Letter begins “while besieging Fort Donelson” and describes previous four days of activity, and ends abruptly when orders arrive to “reposition the Battery.” (See 21 FEB letter.) 28 FEB: “Our Captain Taylor has just returned from a visit to Nashville…” 12 MAR: aboard steamer Silver Moon, going up the Tennessee River… 21 MAR: at Savannah, returning to steamer for move up river… 23 MAR letter written from Pitsburg Landing. “Arrived aboard John J. Roe. There are 75000 men at this place, and more arriving constantly…” 25 MAR: “Captain Taylor has been promoted, and Lieutenant Barrett is now in command of the Battery.” Letters of 8 APR and 14 APR 1862: aftermath of Battle of Shiloh. And more good news: Private William Shepherd (who was promoted to Sergeant Major by the end of the War) also kept a Diary… Cheers Ozzy To Rescue My Native Land: the Civil War Letters of William T. Shepherd (edited by Kurt H. Hakemer) Tennessee University Press 2005 (365 pages) is available at amazon.con and better libraries. [Limited access: https://books.google.com.au/books?id=a6HQRB6UimYC&pg=PA331&lpg=PA331&dq=israel+p.+rumsey+letter&source=bl&ots=JG_cwqaoUX&sig=dQa8blZoWwiMXVAQGfu3JkaSAHE&hl=en&sa=X&ved=2ahUKEwiIg5yUx4nfAhUF448KHReGDdcQ6AEwBXoECAkQAQ#v=onepage&q=israel p. rumsey letter&f=false And for those able to visit Kenosha, Wisconsin: https://museums.kenosha.org/civilwar/wp-content/uploads/sites/4/2018/05/Wisconsin-Resources-for-Website.pdf Civil War letters and diaries on file
  10. Tennessee River Valley in April 1862. The above map of the Tennessee River appeared in the 12 April 1862 edition of Harper's Weekly, before word of the Battle of Shiloh reached the New York editor of that illustrated publication. The map is interesting for what is included: Paducah and Smithland at the far north, with Cairo, Bird's Point, Columbus, Belmont and Island No.10 away to the west. Proceeding south up the Tennessee River, Fort Henry, the crossing of the MC & L R.R. at Danville, and the sites of Savannah, Hamburg and Florence are indicated. Not marked: the line of the Mobile & Ohio R.R. north of Corinth; Cerro Gordo (site of capture of CSS Eastport); Pittsburg Landing; Crump's Landing. Although brief report of the Battle of Pittsburg Landing would find its way into the April 19th edition, the map would not be updated until the 26 April edition.
  11. This YouTube video of 36 minutes was published on 2 May 2019 by Misesmedia, a publication of Mises Institute at Auburn, Alabama. It relies heavily on the Diary of young Elsie Duncan to describe life for civilians of Hardin County after the Battle of Shiloh, after the Union Army mostly moved south to besiege Corinth, Mississippi. The Horrors of War are fully described, including mass graves, the number of wounded overwhelming available surgeons, “raiders” (roaming bands of Union deserters), “guerrillas” (roaming bands of Southern supporters), avoiding “summary justice,” and the increasing difficulty over time to avoid starvation. In addition, mention is made of Duncan's Cave, and Hoker's Bend. "Life After Shiloh: Tory Rule" is narrated by Chris Calton, and is part of the Historical Controversies series. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qITGlHH0iW8 "Life after Shiloh" [Other titles in the Historical Controversies series at https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLALopHfWkFlGOn0oxjgp5gGzj-pnqeY0G ].
  12. Shiloh video by gaming guy The void being left by the inadequate teaching of History in public schools is being filled, in part, by an unexpected history advocate: the online gaming community. Dedicated to “authenticity” in recreating historic Battle Games, the school-age generation is being taught history, unawares, through participation in online games. With the above in mind... ran across this interesting video while searching for recent releases on Battle of Shiloh: “History Guy Gaming” has done other battlefield videos (Gettysburg, Antietam, Bull Run), and provided a review of the Battle of Shiloh game (Ultimate General) in 2017. His description of the events of April 1862 reflects the understanding of someone who was educated during the 1980 – 2000 period (with the summary of events and condensing of outcomes “necessary” to get through Civil War History in the least amount of time evident), but with obvious individual study undertaken. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=syQ6wKjcFzE "The Battle of Shiloh" by History Guy Gaming (published on YouTube 6 SEP 2019.) Following a brief introduction, the tour of Shiloh NMP begins at 3 minute mark, with the undeniable truth: “Visiting a battlefield results in better perspective and greater understanding.” At 3:55 mark the battle begins with Peabody's unauthorized patrol (conducted by Major Powell.) 6:00 The Union defense of Duncan Field. Unfortunately, the narrator uses a modern map, and is further led astray by the location of General WHL Wallace's mortal wounding. Now that a key Union defensive line is re-named as “The Thicket,” he comes to the wrong conclusion (that the Hornet's Nest was co-located with the site of Wallace's wounding.) Since all histories of the Battle of Shiloh prior to 2010 make mention of the Hornet's Nest, those seeking the location of that site during visits to the park will struggle just that little bit, from now on. 9:00 Sherman's experience with repelling Rebel attacks. [CSA mass grave visited.] 10:50 Shiloh Church. 13:30 The mistake of General Albert Sidney Johnston. 16:15 Hornet's Nest (part 2) 18:30 Ruggles Battery a.k.a. “Thunder in the Thicket” 18:45 General Johnston's mortal wound. 23:30 Albert Sidney Johnston's loss; and relevance to War in the West. 24:00 Indian mounds. 24:50 Union retreat to heights above Pittsburg Landing: Grant's Last Line (Buell arrives.) 27:10 Dill Branch: Union gunboats versus Rebel advance. 28:30 “Lick 'em tomorrow, though” – U.S. Grant. 28:40 Day Two (and Fallen Timbers) 30:00 Shiloh National Cemetery. 32:30 Visitor Center (and review). [The review of online game "Ultimate General: Battle of Shiloh" https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Vj9sQKBu9U0 by History Guy Gaming on 30 DEC 2016.]
  13. Inspired by Tom's admonition to "find and post more Shiloh references," I stumbled upon a previously overlooked Staff Ride... Compiled by the U.S. Army Space and Missile Defense Command, this Staff Ride Handbook of 68 pages records the visit to Shiloh NMP that took place early in 2000, and contains many maps and illustrations, as well as biographies of key leaders and a timeline [ and is available at <https://www.smdc.army.mil> ]. Key takeaways: It was the intention of Major General Henry Halleck to “mount an offensive against the Confederate Army at Corinth” (page 3). “Grant made his base at Pittsburg Landing, a position in enemy territory with its back to the Tennessee River. Grant neglected, however, to fortify the encampment” (p. 3). “Johnston originally intended to attack Grant on April 4, but muddy terrain, green troops, and poor coordination slowed the Confederate advance and postponed the assault for two days. The delay would prove costly. On the morning of April 6, thousands of screaming Confederates poured out of the woods near Shiloh and routed many of the slumbering northern troops. Many dispirited soldiers broke for the rear and fled to the banks of the Tennessee, refusing to fight. Severely battered and facing disaster, other Federal troops rallied and began making fierce, determined stands. By the afternoon, they had established a formidable battle line at a sunken road, named the “Hornets Nest” by Confederates because of the stinging hail of bullets and shell they faced. Repeated frontal assaults failed to take the stronghold. Finally, a massive artillery barrage and flanking attacks turned the tide and the rebels overwhelmed the northerners, capturing, wounding, or killing most of the stalwart defenders” (page 3). General Johnston's battle plan was too complex (for implementation by inexperienced junior commanders); and its initiation was delayed at least one day by flooding rain (page 6). “Fraley Field: the battle begins...” (page 9). [Staff Ride Stop No. One.] Stop Two: invasion of the Union camps. Stop 3: Sherman's front crumbles. Stop 5: The Hamburg – Purdy Road (the Union Right collapses). Page 21: “Just after 10 am General Grant met BGen Prentiss and ordered him to hold his position at all hazards.” Stop 9: Grant's Last Line. Although this Staff Ride provides a good summary of the Battle of Shiloh, and pinpoints crucial moments during the contest, it suffers from the following faults and errors: Map of Shiloh Battlefield on page 10. Repeating the mistake of earlier writers, this map attempts to combine TWO DAYS of conflict on a single map, which leads to unnecessary confusion. Biography of Don Carlos Buell (page 36) contains many errors. Union Order of Battle (page 52) WHL Wallace should be recorded as [mw] mortally wounded, instead of [k]. Page 60 – Appendix F – Timeline. Smith (vice Grant) leads Union Army south up the Tennessee River after the victories at Fort Henry and Fort Donelson. https://www.smdc.army.mil/Portals/38/Documents/Publications/History/Staff%20Rid 2000 Army Staff Ride for Shiloh Gudmen's Staff Ride of 2003 (for comparison) http://usacac.army.mil/cac2/cgsc/carl/download/csipubs/gudmens.pdf
  14. It can be safely assumed that the battle exploits of successful leaders are studied at the United States Military Academy at West Point in order to identify positive traits, skills and attributes as deserving of emulation by future leaders. What traits and skills do you believe Ulysses S. Grant possessed that should be taught to cadets and officer-candidates? To start the conversation, here is one that I believe we can all agree upon: Persistence. Because there is no failure until one gives up the attempt. U.S. Grant was noted for aggressive, dogged, determined pursuit of goals. And if a roadblock was encountered in his chosen path, General Grant quickly scrutinized the situation and determined upon greater exertion; a detour; or an entirely new route, to reach his goal.
  15. While helping a friend on another website search for information about their ancestor (and Shiloh veteran), I ran across the following online site, run by the State of Illinois. It lists 'descriptive features' (age, height, hair color, eye color, occupation, etc) of all the Civil War soldiers enlisted in Illinois. Start by pressing [search]. In new window, in the 'Search Box,' place the soldier's name as such [Gregg, Patrick] or [Grant, U ] with 'comma' and 'space' separating last name from first name... and ignore boxes for 'Company' and 'Unit' as the search works fine without those entries. For those with ancestors from Illinois regiments... Cheers Ozzy http://www.cyberdriveillinois.com/departments/archives/databases/datcivil.html (Illinois Civil War soldiers)
  16. Over 900 pages long (including photographs and maps and “additional references”) this library desk reference with Forward written by James M. McPherson is designed to “quickly answer basic questions regarding people and places involved with the Civil War,” and for those interested in Battle of Shiloh, the most significant pages: 401 U. S. Grant 415 Albert Sidney Johnston 405 Braxton Bragg 402 Henry Halleck 251 Shiloh (included in segment, “Federal Penetration up the Cumberland and Tennessee Rivers” The Library of Congress Civil War Desk Reference (2002) edited by M. E. Wagner, Gary Gallagher and Paul Finkelman (Simon & Schuster of New York) is available on Google Books at https://books.google.com.au/books?id=7svFnyOLknUC&pg=PA572&lpg=PA572&dq=lieutenant+cash+u.+s.+marine+corps+civil+war&source=bl&ots=ZLcfgsyDxk&sig=ACfU3U2rgUb2yg9q-jI0RHlaj-RvnDTqzw&hl=en&sa=X&ved=2ahUKEwj68fHphKLmAhWYIbcAHUo3Ai4Q6AEwDXoECAoQAQ#v=onepage&q=Shiloh&f=false
  17. Ran across an extremely interesting 250 page Doctorate Dissertation on the Life of McPherson. Produced in 2016 this work by Eric Dudley sheds light on West Point Graduate McPherson that many of us either take for granted, or ignore. Some highlights: Born in 1828 Jimmy McPherson just “made the cut” before becoming too old for admission to the U.S. Military Academy. Graduating in 1853, Lieutenant McPherson was 24 years old and ranked Number One in his West Point Class. Initially assigned to Instructor duty at West Point, McPherson put his Engineer training to use at Fort Delaware (south of Philadelphia) improving that facility; then went to San Francisco in 1857 to complete the fort on Alcatraz Island. Still a Lieutenant in the Army Corps of Engineers during most of his stay in California, McPherson followed with interest the deterioration of the Nation taking place “Back East” via slow mail from New York – Panama – San Francisco (six weeks delayed.) With initiation of the Pony Express the delay in receiving news diminished to 8 – 12 days (with no telegraph to San Francisco during McPherson's stay.) Captain McPherson did not depart California (via steamer to Panama; then steamer to New York) until last week of July/ first week of August 1861. During McPherson's stay in California, he would have met Henry Halleck; become re-acquainted with William Tecumseh Sherman; and served under Albert Sidney Johnston. https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/c6a4/98c03e2ee2cc70f6fe249be693588b0bb37a.pdf The Memory & Memorialization of James B. McPherson (2016)
  18. Lieutenant Israel Parsons Rumsey Chicago Light Artillery Battery B Born in 1836 in Genesee County, New York and product of a comfortable, loving home and efficient school system, Israel P. Rumsey heeded the call to “Go West,” and in early 1857 made his way to Iowa, where he intended to set himself up in the new State Capital, then building at Fort Des Moines. Unfortunately, young Rumsey crossed the Mississippi River as farm produce prices hit the skids (precursor to Panic of 1857, which gripped the Northern States a few months later) and hearing sad tales of other hopefuls returning east from Des Moines – “No work” – I.P. Rumsey altered course; he decided to try his luck in Keokuk, instead. Having experience as a clerk in wholesale and retail back East, the young man soon found employment in a local store (on a wage of $20 per month.) After a few months, he used that experience to acquire a newspaper route; and when his original Keokuk employer pleaded that he return (at nearly double his original wage) Rumsey sold the newspaper route to another man for $50 and a compass, and spent his remaining time in Keokuk working for Hitchcock’s… until learning that “Chicago was the place to be.” In 1858 I.P. Rumsey left Iowa, never to return. Following on two years of relative success in the commission business in Chicago, Rumsey got caught up in War Fever following the attack on Fort Sumter, left his business, and helped raise a company of men for the Chicago Light Artillery. Mustered into service on May 2nd 1861, the new unit was designated Battery B (and for his assistance in recruiting, Rumsey was appointed Second Lieutenant.) The new unit, under Captain Ezra Taylor, was soon sent south and helped defend Cairo and Bird’s Point, Missouri. In January 1862 Battery B became part of the buildup for an operation on the Tennessee River, assigned to McClernand’s Division. Following success at Fort Henry, the Battery followed McClernand’s Division east, and got caught up fighting against the Rebel breakout on February 15th. In the after-action report, McClernand gives Taylor’s Battery a glowing review; and in Colonel WHL Wallace’s Fort Donelson report, Lieutenant Rumsey, on Wallace’s staff, serving as AAG and ADC, receives favourable mention. In the buildup of Federal forces at Pittsburg Landing, Taylor’s Battery remained with McClernand’s First Division until the first week of April (when Battery B was transferred to the 5th Division; Ezra Taylor was promoted to Major and assigned as Sherman’s Chief of Artillery; and Samuel Barrett was promoted Captain and took command of Battery B.) And I.P. Rumsey remained with WHL Wallace when he was promoted to Brigadier General; and transferred with him to Smith’s Second Division (where Captain William McMichael was found established as Assistant Adjutant General). During the Battle of Shiloh, Lieutenant Rumsey acted as courier and ADC for General Wallace. (It was Rumsey who went in search of the fugitive Colonel Thomas Sweeny; requested, unsuccessfully, for General McClernand to “close the gap” and reconnect to WHL Wallace’s right; and found “McArthur’s force had been moved by someone, from where it was supposed to act in support of Colonel Stuart.”) After the war, back home in Chicago, Israel Rumsey revealed in his writings that, “the compass he acquired in Keokuk served him faithfully on the many battlefields where he found himself.” References: OR 7 pages 170 and 197 – 8. Life and Letters of General WHL Wallace by Isabel Wallace, pages 152, 160 – 3, 190 – 3. “Young Man on his Way Up” by Lida L. Greene, Annals of Iowa, vol.39 pp.546 – 550 (1969) Israel Parsons Rumsey Papers SDG "Epic Day of Hiking" post by Hank of 28 NOV 2012. SDG "Barrett's Battery B" created 6 DEC 2018. https://www.lflbhistory.org/media-gallery/detail/55/60 Lake Forest History Center bio of Israel P. Rumsey (with photo) http://taylors-battery.com/2nd Lt. Israel Rumsey.htm https://civilwar.illinoisgenweb.org/acm/art-1b.html Roster of 1st Illinois Light Artillery Battery B https://www.findagrave.com/memorial/133931276/israel-parsons-rumsey https://www.chipublib.org/fa-american-civil-war-photographs-and-images-and-grand-army-of-the-republic-photographs-and-images/
  19. J.J. Little was a Private in the 10th Mississippi Infantry, Company H who fought at Shiloh (and wrote a Letter home, dated 13 April 1862.) He describes seeing the “2000 Union prisoners from Shiloh pass through Corinth” and indicates that he saw General Prentiss, too. The 4-page letter is one of five letters written by Sergeant Little, available at University of Mississippi Digital Collection. Available at http://clio.lib.olemiss.edu/cdm/search/searchterm/J.J. Little Collection/mode/exact .
  20. “What significant experience in support of the Confederacy do the following men, present at Battle of Shiloh, have in common?” LtCol Richard H. Brewer (Brewer's Battalion of Mississippi and Alabama Cavalry) Capt Alonzo Ridley (Ridley's Scouts, sometimes called “Ridley's Bodyguard”) Capt Nathaniel W. Wickliffe (Staff officer) Major Aaron Hardcastle (3rd Mississippi Battalion)
  21. Besides staff officers, there was another man present who accompanied General A.S. Johnston from Corinth to the Battlefield of Shiloh. This man had also ridden across the desert with Johnston in June/ July 1861 from California to Texas (one of the thirty-five stalwarts, along with Ridley, Frazee, Wickliffe and Hardcastle) and General Johnston described this man in a letter to his wife as, “sans peur – without fear.” But, because this man's name is often abbreviated, or misspelled, he often gets missed in official records (and there is no record of him on this SDG site, until now.) What was this man's name? Bonus: What was his role? [Hint: not a slave.]
  22. One of the leaders in the Confederate Army of the Mississippi that we think we know enough about, but fail to fully appreciate (perhaps because he was a late entry, put in charge of the Reserve Corps after General Crittenden was removed): John C. Breckinridge. As everyone knows, Breckinridge was VP under Buchanan; but he was Senator from Kentucky when war broke out in April 1861... How did that come about? Born in Lexington Kentucky into a political family, Breckinridge studied law and graduated from Transylvania College in 1841, aged 20. Moving to Iowa Territory, John Breckinridge set up a Law Office at Burlington; but returned home to Kentucky to visit relatives Summer of 1843, and met and married a cousin of his law partner, Mary Cyrene Burch. The Burlington Law Office was closed, and the young couple settled in Georgetown Kentucky. The Mexican War erupted in 1846, and John Breckinridge attempted to join a Kentucky regiment, but was disallowed. So, instead of serving in Mexico, Breckenridge built up his law practice (now established in Lexington) until the decision preventing him from serving in the Army was reversed. In August 1847, the 3rd Kentucky Volunteers, along with Major Breckinridge, set off for the war; and arrived in time to help garrison newly captured Mexico City. [There is dispute whether John Breckinridge became a member of the prestigious Aztec Club, as his name is not listed among the Original Members. However, a grandson, James C. Breckinridge, became a Hereditary Member in 1887 and this was only possible if Major Breckinridge was eligible.] One fallout from duty in Mexico was the Gideon Pillow case, resulting in Court-Martial in 1848. Major Breckinridge acted as Defence for Brigadier General Pillow, with the result of No Verdict. A subsequent Court of Inquiry exonerated General Pillow (but he was never made a Member of the Aztec Club.) John Breckinridge entered politics and won election to the U.S. House of Representatives in 1850, was reelected in 1852 and served until 1855. He was subsequently installed on the ticket as James Buchanan's running mate during the 1856 election, and subsequently served as Vice President until March 4th 1861 (when Hannibal Hamlin was sworn in as VP under President Lincoln.) When Vice President Hamlin swore in newly elected Senators a few days later, John Breckinridge was sworn in as Senator from Kentucky (filling a vacancy.) [And while serving as VP John Breckinridge was on the ballot as Southern Democrat candidate for President in the 1860 election. As result of the NOV 1860 election, Breckinridge gained the second highest number of electoral votes in the 4-way race, and lost to Republican Abraham Lincoln.] Senator Breckinridge managed to hold onto his seat, and vote on crucial measures, until December 1861, when a vote of the Senate declared him a Traitor, and expelled him. (Breckinridge had joined the Confederate Army in November. His expulsion followed those of ten other Southern Senators expelled in July.) Commissioned Brigadier General with effect from 2 NOV 1861, two weeks later he was given command of the 1st Kentucky Brigade, under overall command of General Albert Sidney Johnston, and organized that collection of Kentucky units at Bowling Green. With the loss of Fort Donelson in FEB 1862 Breckinridge led his brigade south through Nashville and eventually took up the line of the Memphis & Charleston R.R. west to Corinth. With the removal of Brigadier General George Crittenden end of March 1862, John Breckinridge gained elevation to command of the Reserve Corps, just in time for Shiloh. Following the Battle of Shiloh, General Breckinridge was Mentioned in Despatches by General PGT Beauregard and is noted for his impressive rear-guard action during Confederate withdrawal to Corinth. During the Siege of Corinth Major General Breckinridge continued in command of the Reserve Corps; he continued to serve in the field (Stones River, Chickamauga, Missionary Ridge, and New Market most noteworthy) and in 1865 was called from active duty and installed as the last Confederate Secretary of War. With the pending loss of the Capital at Richmond in April 1865, John Breckinridge fled south with President Davis and the Cabinet; and Breckinridge was one of the few to evade capture, reaching safety in Canada. References: https://www.neh.gov/humanities/2011/novemberdecember/feature/the-man-who-came-in-second John C. Breckinridge https://chroniclingamerica.loc.gov/lccn/sn84024738/1862-05-10/ed-1/seq-2/#date1=1862&sort=relevance&rows=20&words=Peyton&searchType=basic&sequence=0&index=19&state=Virginia&date2=1862&proxtext=Peyton&y=0&x=0&dateFilterType=yearRange&page=6 The Daily Dispatch (Richmond Virginia) 10 MAY 1862 page 2 col. 5 "Shiloh Report of General Beauregard" https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7GGmFkl-bzw [Just an interesting John C. Breckinridge relic or two...]
  23. The website <docsouth.unc.edu> "Documenting the American South" presents a list of perhaps 200 diaries and journals compiled during the War Between the States. Most are not Shiloh related, but some make mention of Fort Donelson and Shiloh (Mary Chesnut, for example.) Just about every diary has a link allowing online viewing: https://docsouth.unc.edu/fpn/texts.html Documenting the American South.
  24. Following on the Confederate evacuation from Corinth end of May 1862, many in the Government at Richmond became quite unhappy with the performance of General PGT Beauregard. President Jefferson Davis, in particular, harbored a grudge that stemmed from Beauregard's publication of his Manassas report in newspapers (criticizing Davis' role in not promoting pursuit of the retreating Federals as they fled pell- mell towards Washington.) The grudge festered with the death of Davis' friend, Albert Sidney Johnston at Shiloh, and Beauregard's cavalier report of that man's death, tacked into a telegram claiming Complete Victory on April 6th. The final straw that broke the camel's back was Beauregard's "unauthorized" evacuation from Corinth, without first engaging Federal forces in battle. It appears President Davis merely bided his time... and when Braxton Bragg reported that Beauregard had departed on sick leave (for a health spa near Mobile) the opportunity presented, and Davis struck, replacing Beauregard on 17 June 1862 with Bragg as commander of what would now be called the Army of Tennessee. Stephen R. Mallory, Confederate Secretary of the Navy, was one of the few Cabinet officers to keep a diary. His entry for 21 June 1862: "Interesting Cabinet meeting yesterday. President had ordered Bragg, who was second in command at Corinth, to proceed to Mississippi and assume command. Beauregard would not permit Bragg to go, but left Bragg in command, and goes himself to Mobile for his health. Beauregard, with the finest army ever found upon this continent, about 100,000 strong, remained about six weeks after the battle of Shiloh inactive, with the enemy in his front, and then retreated without notice to the President or War Department. And up to this time no reason for his retreat is known, and now he abandons his army without leave or notice. My own idea is that his mind has given way under the weight of his command; and that finding Bragg about to leave him, he ran away from an army he could not manage. If a soldier were thus to go off without leave he would be tried for desertion and be probably shot, and an officer would be shot or cashiered. Beauregard has never voluntarily fought a battle... and never will. Bragg is left in command, and he may do better." https://finding-aids.lib.unc.edu/02229/#folder_4#1 Diary of S.R. Mallory, Secretary of Navy (CSA) at Uni North Carolina Library.
  25. As a rule, I am not a fan of audio presentations, without video to enhance it. But while doing some sorting and rearranging in the office, put this American Military History Podcast – Shiloh on… and was pleasantly surprised. The Story of Shiloh, as told by the narrator, is not far off from how I believe a fair telling of the Battle of Shiloh should run. The full presentation requires just over an hour, so in the interest of allowing “bits of most interest” to be accessed (begin at 4 minute mark): 4 minutes PGT Beauregard, upon receiving a report on 2 APR that, “Lew Wallace is moving his Division west, thus dividing Grant’s army,” initiates the Rebel move from Corinth; 23 mins General Sherman in the days prior to Battle of Shiloh: 26:30 Jesse Appler and the 53rd Ohio annoy Sherman; 29:30 U.S. Grant hears the guns of battle; 29:30 Beauregard believes surprise has been lost, and attempts to abort attack; 31:40 Peabody 39:00 Grant meets Sherman at 10 a.m. 45:30 Rebel attack plan of “driving the Union northwest, into the swamp” is inadvertently altered to “driving the Federals northeast, towards the Landing” 47:30 Prentiss frustrates the Rebels by holding on in the Thicket. 52:30 The death of Albert Sidney Johnston; 55:00 Prentiss surrenders. 57:30 The last assault, against Grant’s Last Line. 58:00 Beauregard ends Day One operations. 61:00 Lew Wallace… 64:00 Grant’s errors… 65:00 Nathan Bedford Forrest 66:30 Colonel Helm’s bad intelligence, advising, “Buell is moving south…” The podcast finishes with a brief description of Fallen Timbers, and summary of casualties. Overall, I found the presentation impressive, and mostly accurate. Most errors were due to editing (errors of omission) as opposed to Fact errors. But, have a listen, and tell me what you think. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NVVYl_dAB4c Shiloh podcast of 4 July 2018 by American Military History Podcast on YouTube. [Fourteen other Civil War battle narratives by the same organization available on YouTube, including Fort Sumter, Bull Run, Wilson's Creek and Second Manassas https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MI6-GfRVbPA&list=PLZ487KCnJN833w3UKDCSNZGYkkAC9_kF6 ]
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