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Despite the mammoth Federal success at Fort Donelson, the war did not come to an end (though some acted as if it had.) General U.S. Grant looked to push the next objective, which appeared to be Nashville. And he requested guidance from St. Louis. In meantime, Clarksville (about fifty miles up the Cumberland River, in the direction of Nashville) was deemed a suitable target: a reconnaissance conducted by U.S. Navy gunboats Conestoga and Cairo on February 18th discovered that Confederate Clarksville was practically a ghost town; the Rebels and most of the citizens had fled. So, General C.F. Smith was dispatched with a suitable force pulled from his Second Division and occupied Clarksville on about February 23rd. Early the next day, U.S. Grant, in company with Surgeon Brinton, , BGen McClernand, Captain Taylor (of Taylor's Battery), Colonel Lauman and Colonel WHL Wallace, departed Fort Donelson aboard steamer W.H.B. for an inspection of Union-occupied Clarksville. But, it does not appear that an inspection took place at Clarksville that day: General Grant caught wind that General William Nelson's Division (which was known to have been promised to assist Grant at Fort Donelson) had arrived at Paducah; reported to General Sherman; and departed Paducah aboard a small fleet on February 23rd, bound for the Cumberland River. The seven steamers, under gunboat escort, continued to the ordered destination of Clarksville (arrival recorded as 8 a.m. February 24th) and General Nelson met with General Smith. At about noon (in accordance with orders relayed from General Grant to General Nelson) General Nelson returned to his steamer, Diana, and in company with six other steamers (led by USS Carondelet) the force proceeded up the Cumberland (with U.S. Grant aboard steamer W.H.B, in company with USS Cairo, well in advance of the fleet.) Bull Nelson arrived at the "open city" of Nashville on February 25th, stepped ashore... and became the first Federal General Officer to enter Nashville following Rebel occupation; (General Buell was just across the river at Edgefield: today's East Nashville); and U.S. Grant appears to have waited aboard the W.H.B., at least, for a little while. Nelson made contact with Buell; and Grant escorted his party from Fort Donelson into Union-occupied Nashville for two days of what can best be described as relaxation and diversion. On February 27th, U.S. Grant met with Don Carlos Buell aboard the W.H.B. and exchanged pleasantries; and then Grant and his party departed Nashville, and arrived back at Fort Donelson late on 28 FEB 1862. Cheers Ozzy References: OR 7 pages 661, 662- 3, 668, 670- 1, 674. OR (Navy) vol.22, pages 315, 587, 616, 617, 625. Memoirs of U.S. Grant page 318. Adam Badeau's Military Career of U.S. Grant, pages 58 - 9. Diary of Jacob Ammen for dates February 23, 24 and 25 (found in OR 7 page 659 - 660. Hoppin's Life of Andrew Hull Foote, pages 230 - 236. Memoirs of Surgeon John Brinton, page 139. Life of General WHL Wallace, pages 166 (Letter of 20 FEB 1862) and page 171 (Letter of 28 FEB 1862).
( Confederate Veteran Magazine, March 1895.) Much deserving credit is accorded Major D. W. Reed in helping make Shiloh NMP what it is today. But, "unrecognized others" were just as necessary to the creation of, "the wondrous preserve that is Shiloh NMP and Cemetery" (including the survey team, pictured above.) In Confederate Veteran (volume 3, edition of March 1895, pages 75 - 77) begins an extensive article that details work of some of the other men (and provides photographs): Colonel E T. Lee and Captain J. W. Irwin, just two mentioned. Others include Colonel Cornelius Cadle (Park Commissioner), General Don Carlos Buell (Park Commissioner -- page 104), and Captain James Williams (Assistant Secretary of Shiloh Battlefield Association, former member of Brewer's Cavalry Battalion, then living in Savannah Tennessee.) The article begins with an "invitation to attend the Second Reunion at Shiloh, to be held April 5 and 6 1895 at Pittsburg Landing," and flows into a description of the work done by Colonel E. T. Lee of Monticello Illinois (Secretary of the Shiloh Battlefield Association.) E. T. Lee also wrote a four column article on Battle of Shiloh (included in references at bottom.) On page 77 the details of Captain J. W. Irwin are revealed (former member of Confederate Cavalry that was absorbed into N. B. Forrest's command.) A two-page article detailing service with General Forrest is included. Much additional information is to be found in volumes 3 and 4 of Confederate Veteran, but the Index does not allow effective searching. [Best to click on the "Catalog Record," below; select the desired volume; and in Search Box at top of that volume, insert "Shiloh" for references IRT the creation of the Military Park.] Regards Ozzy References: http://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=hvd.32044035882372;view=1up;seq=104 Confederate Veteran, volume 3. http://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/000528187 Catalog Record for Confederate Veteran Magazine (all issues, 1893 - 1922.) http://newspapers.library.in.gov/cgi-bin/indiana?a=d&d=INN18950302-01.1.11 Indianapolis News of 2 MAR 1895, page 11, "Shiloh Memorial Park" by E. T. Lee. N.B. Did anyone else notice the steamboat in the background? Might be the Edgar Cherry.
The result of much research has determined there was "bad blood" between Don Carlos Buell and Ulysses S. Grant. This may have been the result of Grant sending wounded Confederate soldiers to Hospitals in Buell's jurisdiction after Fort Donelson. Or it may have resulted from Grant sending Nelson to take possession of Nashville (just hours ahead of Buell.) Possibly, there was some pre-war animosity that simply festered, exacerbated by the above incidents... One thing that becomes evident upon a close read of the Official Records and Papers of US Grant vol.4: when Buell began the march of his Army of the Ohio from Nashville on March 15th, he believed he was to go to the support of Charles F. Smith [see OR 11 pages 38 and 44.] Upon Buell's arrival at Savannah (where he was told by Halleck that Smith was established) Brigadier General Smith would have been junior to Major General Buell... so Buell would assume de facto command of the operation (pending the arrival of Major General Halleck.) Buell was aware of the removal from "command in the field" of Major General U. S. Grant: as late as March 14th, Buell received a telegram from Grant -- sent from Fort Henry -- in which Grant requested a gunboat on the Cumberland River be sent to him [see Papers of US Grant vol.4 page 361.] And Halleck kept up the deception -- as late as March 17th -- directing Buell: "Move on as ordered, to re enforce Smith." [Grant had been restored to command on March 15th and arrived at Savannah March 17th -- OR 11 page 44 and 38.] In Shiloh Revisited, page 490, Buell expresses dissatisfaction with the arrangement: "US Grant was restored to command, and arrived at Savannah March 17th, and he converted the encampment of Pittsburg Landing into the point of rendezvous." It is obvious that Buell felt the sting of the "bait and switch" pulled on him: he was expecting Smith; but sometime after the march commenced, he found out that Grant was in command. This could help explain: the excessive delay of Buell's arrival at Savannah; the attempt by Buell to camp his Army at Waynesboro (and await the arrival of Halleck at Savannah) the convenient delay Sunday, April 6th to make his way to Pittsburg Landing (by whatever means necessary). But most unsettling: a close read of Buell and Grant's interactions, beginning Sunday afternoon and continuing through April 7th, are not especially inspiring. In fact, the only real coordination between Grant and Buell appears to be, "You take the left, and I'll take the right." The important, "We'll move forward in the morning," seems to have been unspoken, merely assumed. No way to run a railroad... Ozzy
Just for the exercise, and sparked by a recent exchange with Darryl, I thought it might be of benefit to present a list of Don Carlos Buell's noteworthy experiences during the War Between the States. You may find some of the revelations surprising... May 20, 1861 Assigned to Department of the Pacific based at San Francisco, as Asst Adj General on the staff of General E.V. Sumner (the man who replaced Albert Sidney Johnston as Commander of that Department) September 14 Assigned to the Defenses of Washington, D.C. (and promoted to Brigadier General) November 15 Took over Department of the Ohio (replaced W.T. Sherman) Jan 18, 1862 A force belonging to Buell's Department [George Thomas] achieves victory at Mill Springs February Provided "distant support" for Fort Henry/Fort Donelson operations February 9 A force belonging to Buell's Department [Ormsby Mitchel] occupies Bowling Green, KY February 23 A force belonging to Buell [William "Bull" Nelson] occupies Nashville March 11 Buell's Department is absorbed, becoming part of Henry Halleck's Department of the Mississippi March 21 Buell promoted to Major General (but now junior to US Grant, promoted February 16) March/April While leading most of the Army of the Ohio to the support of US Grant at Pittsburg Landing, Buell's focus appears to be concentrated on the rebuilding of bridges and roadways, and the establishment of a telegraph line... not timely arrival. April 6 Buell's Army of the Ohio provides support near close of the First Day at Shiloh April 7 Buell provides a major Federal force of fresh troops and helps drive Beauregard from the field at Shiloh, Day 2 Aprill 11 A force belonging to Buell [Ormsby Mitchel] occupies Huntsville and cuts the vital M&C R.R. April/May Buell engages in Crawl to Corinth in command of Army of the Center June Following occupation of Corinth, Buell provides support to Federal forces under Pope pushing south towards Beauregard's cantonment at Tupelo, Mississippi. Satisfied that the Rebel Army is dissolving before his very eyes, Henry Halleck calls Buell away mid-June and sends his Army of the Ohio east, with instructions to occupy Chattanooga (but the main focus, as directed by Halleck involves the rebuilding of rail lines and bridges.) Buell is afterwards seen as "responsible" for the escape of Braxton Bragg from Chattanooga. July 4 Confederate John Hunt Morgan commences an ambitious cavalry raid lasting several weeks through Kentucky (which happens to be Buell's area of responsibility.) Buell is embarrassed; leaders in Washington express growing concern about Buell's competence. August 29-30 A force under Bull Nelson is routed at Battle of Richmond by Kirby Smith (who is in process of joining forces with Braxton Bragg for a planned campaign through Kentucky and Tennessee) September Following Confederate success at Richmond, Buell is uncertain where Rebels intend to attack next. Louisville, Lexington, Nashville and Cincinnati are hastily defended; Sept 29 About the same day Bull Nelson is gunned down by a brother officer in Louisville, Buell is ordered relieved of command of the Army of the Ohio. However, George Thomas (the designated replacement) refuses to carry out the order; Buell continues as Commander of that Army. October 8 Battle of Perryville is not seen as correctly fought: although the Confederates under Bragg withdraw south from Kentucky, providing a strategic victory for the North, the focus of leaders in Washington is on the tactical victory won by the Rebels. October 29 William Rosecrans relieves Don Carlos Buell; the Army of the Ohio renamed Army of the Cumberland. October Buell ordered to Indianapolis to await further instructions. For the rest of the war (until his resignation in 1864) Buell is a Major General without a Department. Ozzy References: http://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=loc.ark:/13960/t6tx3qs9p;view=2up;seq=8 12 Decisive Battles of the War, by William Swinton (especially pages 124, 179, and 190-192) wikipedia (various) Autobiography of Lew Wallace, part 2 pages 562-564, 603-627 http://archive.org/stream/lewwallaceautobi00wall#page/628/mode/2up http://penelope.uchicago.edu/Thayer/E/Gazetteer/Places/America/United_States/Army/USMA/Cullums_Register/1090*.html http://civilwardailygazette.com/the-assassination-of-bull-nelson-the-firing-and-rehiring-of-don-carlos-buell/ http://civilwardailygazette.com/how-don-carlos-buell-learned-he-was-fired/