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Major General Grant had only just returned to Fort Donelson (from Nashville, late on February 28th), when he received: [from Sherman's Memoirs, page 224.] A bit tongue-in-cheek, because there were no orders to Shiloh; and the above directive to MGen U.S. Grant (a telegram sent from Halleck at St. Louis on March 1st 1862) does not contain an "Orders Number." Yet, this is the communication that started it all, and it reads more as "a collection of thoughts," than an actual set of orders (perhaps sent to alert General Grant to what General Halleck intended Grant to do next -- a sort of "pre-orders orders" -- which may be why the telegram does not contain an Orders Number.) The March 1st "directive" could not have come at a worse time: Sherman, in his Memoirs (page 224) indicates that, "the telegraph line was rickety" and may have resulted in a February 25th telegram from Halleck not being received. [The 25 FEB 1862 telegram directed General Grant to move across from Fort Donelson to Fort Henry and establish his HQ ...(notice where the March 1st telegram is sent to).] General Halleck was in process of the delicate negotiation to expand his Department (and absorb Don Carlos Buell into that new Department; while remaining on cordial terms with Buell.) [If Buell complained or raised a fuss (as he did about "Rebel wounded from Fort Donelson being dumped in his hospitals"), or suddenly decided to "take care of that pesky East Tennessee Problem that President Lincoln so urgently desired," it could have upset Halleck's Grand Plan.] Shortly after sending the telegram of March 1st, General Halleck discovered, "something unusual had taken place at Nashville." First came word that C.F. Smith had gone over there [and Halleck ordered him back.] Then, Halleck learned that U.S. Grant, himself, had gone over there -- to Nashville -- and General Halleck knew that he had sent a directive (via what Halleck considered to be a reliable telegraph line) on February 25th, ordering Grant to set up HQ at Fort Henry. Soon as Grant's unauthorized visit to Nashville became apparent, the ball was set in motion for Grant "to set up those HQ at Fort Henry, and stay there." And C.F. Smith (also mentioned in the March 1st telegram) was directed to take command of the Tennessee River Expedition. Provided for a bit of clarity... Ozzy References: http://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=yale.39002009162026;view=1up;seq=230 Sherman's Memoirs N.B. The 1 MAR 1862 telegram, Halleck to Grant, is also to be found OR 7 page 674 and Papers of US Grant, vol.4, page 310 (note at bottom of page.) "Danville" was the site of the MC & L Railroad Bridge, a few miles south of Fort Henry, destroyed by Curtis Horse Federal cavalry in February 1862.
Available on the Internet since 2011, over 1000 pages of documents briefly describing over 700 Court Martial proceedings in Major General Henry Halleck's Department of the Missouri during 1861, 1862 and 1863 ...nearly one per day, beginning December 1861 and includes accused men (officers and enlisted) from 8th Illinois, 2nd Iowa, 35th Illinois, 18th Indiana, 23rd Indiana, 6th Iowa, 8th Missouri, 41st Illinois, 11th Indiana, 40th Illinois, 1st Nebraska, 17th Illinois, 77th OVI, 25th Missouri (and many other regiments ultimately connected with Army of the Tennessee.) The Military Court proceedings were conducted in St. Louis; in the field in Missouri; at Paducah; and elsewhere. Some of the names you may recognize (acting as President of the Court) include Colonel James Tuttle (2nd Iowa); Colonel Morgan Smith (8th Missouri); Brigadier General Ben Loan (replaced Benjamin Prentiss in District of Northern Missouri in March 1862); Colonel E. P. Wood (17th Illinois); and Colonel David Stuart (55th Illinois). The offences charged are varied, and include: disobeying orders; assaulting an officer; falling asleep on guard duty; horse theft; theft of civilian property (often pigs and chickens, but sometimes more valuable items); absent-without-leave; desertion. Surprisingly, many civilians were caught up in the Military Justice System (members of unrecognized guerrilla bands; assisting the Rebel Cause, without belonging to a recognized Rebel fighting unit; Violating Oath of Allegiance). Punishment (for those found guilty) included forfeiture of pay and reduction in rank; dismissal from the service. If confinement was awarded, the sentence (from six months to "duration of the War") was served at Military Prison, Alton, Illinois. It appears Courts Martial consisted of three or four members (officers, of equal or higher rank than the accused.) But, in a capital case, the minimum was five members. The General Court Martial Orders from the HQ of Department of the Missouri, 1861 - 1863 is arranged chronologically; and there is no index (so it requires approximate knowledge of date of offense in order to find it in this resource.) The main case I was hoping to uncover -- details of the March/April 1862 Court Martial at Savannah Tennessee of Colonel David Moore, 21st Missouri -- I have yet to find. But if it is included, I will attach the page numbers in a later post. A resource with a difference... Ozzy http://lcweb2.loc.gov/service/lawlib/law0001/2012/20120020399879A/20120020399879A.pdf Record of Courts Martial, DEPT of MO, from Library of Congress http://blogs.loc.gov/law/2012/11/civil-war-military-trials/ Civil War courts martial records from other Departments
It pains me to suggest this -- after all, I had relatives fighting at the Battle of Shiloh -- but... What if Shiloh wasn't the main event we assume it to be? Could it be, that the concentration of Union Forces in vicinity of Pittsburg Landing, initiated by intent to 'cut the Memphis & Charleston Railroad' had evolved... into a diversion ? Consider these points: the 'slowness' of Buell to complete his march from Nashville;the 'abundantly clear directive,' overriding everything else: Do not bring on an engagement;the almost criminal neglect of intelligence/reconnaissance/area surveillance by the on-scene Union Commander;the focus, by that same Commander, on minutia... (a Purge; pursuing and punishing minor infractions with vigor);the reluctance to send desperately sick soldiers 'out of area,' (despite no medicines and insufficient facilities), merely to 'keep the number of troops present' at a maximum [my belief].So, if the Siege of Corinth (and its build-up) wasn't the main game, what was? Opening the Mississippi River to Federal control, and thereby cutting the Confederacy in two. By late March 1862, Halleck found himself in a fortuitous position: the Rebels were fleeing towards Corinth from every direction, seemingly in response to the Federal build-up at Pittsburg [eventually that 'flight' had structure and purpose];the Gibraltar of the West -- Fort Columbus -- had been simply abandoned;Curtis' Army of the Southwest had secured Halleck's base in Missouri by driving the main Confederate threat south, into Arkansas (Battle of Pea Ridge, March 6-7);Halleck's Department had been expanded to include Buell's Army of the Cumberland and Mitchel's Army of the Ohio (aka 3rd Division);Flag-Officer Foote had finally received his armored barges -- all sixteen of them -- carrying 13-inch mortars that fired 215 pound shells;and Halleck was given the services of John Steiner, flying the 'Eagle.'In order to open the Mississippi south from now-Union Columbus, Kentucky, Halleck's force (commanded by General John Pope, in conjunction with Flag-Officer Andrew Foote) had to reduce, in order: New Madrid (done March 14)Island Number 10Fort PillowFort RandolphFort Harris......leaving Memphis, a site important for manufacturing Confederate gunboats and torpedoes; and a key Southern distribution center -- open to attack. By 'encouraging' Confederate forces to consolidate at Corinth, those forces were not available to fight Pope and Foote as they pushed south. And, once a significant portion of the work was done (perhaps the reduction of Island No. 10), Halleck could move his headquarters to Pittsburg Landing, put in place the pontoon bridge that arrived there April 5th, join Buell's Army to Grant's, take the build-up of forces off the back burner, and march on Corinth. And accomplish 'that final engagement that crushed out the Rebellion.' Of course, Albert Sidney Johnston's move in early April wasn't part of the plan... Just a thought Ozzy