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Found 7 results

  1. I am working on a biography of Dr. Patrick Gregg of Rock Island, Illinois. He was Captain of K Company of the 58th Illinois and was captured with Prentiss. His post POW career was with the 23rd Illinois as its Surgeon. The attached file is an attempt to give context to Gregg's Shiloh's personal experience there. Critique and corrections are welcome. Biography of Patrick Gregg p1-9 Context.pdf
  2. Prentiss's Staff In prior posts, we have touched on some of the Staff officers in the employ of Brigadier General Benjamin Prentiss during that commander's truncated Civil War career. As we know, Staff officers can provide insights to their General not available through other means; and some of those details may include the General's more guarded thoughts and beliefs; his drinking habits; minor medical niggles, such as frequent back pain, occasional headaches, or allergy to horses (and how the commander circumvented those weaknesses); expressions of satisfaction (or displeasure) with subordinates and superiors, not to be repeated outside the General's tent... These are the Staff officers already discussed: Division Surgeon Samuel Everett, KIA at Shiloh 6 APR 1862. Colonel Joseph D. Webster, “Paymaster” under Prentiss, with experience in artillery via the Chicago militia; and acknowledged as talented engineer, this veteran of the War with Mexico remained employed at Cairo when BGen Prentiss departed Illinois for assignment in Northern Missouri (and was subsequently incorporated on the staff of General U.S. Grant in SEP 1861) Captain Benjamin Grierson, VADC to Prentiss, this former music teacher discovered his true talent resided with the Cavalry (and he was used on special assignments by U.S. Grant after June 1862) Lieutenant W. F. Brinck, Ordnance officer at Cairo (transferred to staff of U.S. Grant) Captain Henry Binmore, AAG to Prentiss, this former Personal Secretary to Stephen A. Douglas was sent away north by General Prentiss just prior to collapse of the Hornet's Nest and thus evaded capture. Later employed by MGen Stephen Hurlbut as AAG. Lieutenant Edwin Moore, detached from service with 21st Missouri, ADC to Prentiss who acted as courier delivering messages and requests for assistance from General Prentiss (and who avoided capture by being at the Landing delivering a message when the Hornet's Nest collapsed.) Lieutenant Richard Derickson, Division QM for Prentiss' Sixth Division, only taking the role in April 1862. He was aboard steamer Iatan (which was full of ammunition and ordnance and tied up at Pittsburg Landing on 6 April 1862.) Just today, two more members of General Prentiss staff during the Battle of Shiloh were uncovered, hiding in plain sight: both men are listed on the Madison Georgia Prison manifest (so it is obvious that both men were captured on 6 April 1862😞 Robert Porter, described on the Madison Georgia manifest as “servant to General Prentiss.” Edward Jonas, described on the Madison manifest as “Secretary to General Prentiss,” and with additional clarification: “Private in Company C, 50th Illinois.” As revealed this information has only come to light today; but what it offers is potential letters and diaries of men knowledgeable of General Benjamin Prentiss (in particular as regards “what took place in the days prior to Battle of Shiloh,” and “When did General Prentiss REALLY arrive at Pittsburg Landing; and what was he doing from the time he left St. Louis in mid-March until he arrived in-theatre?”) Cheers Ozzy References: http://dlg.galileo.usg.edu/turningpoint/harg/cw/pdfs/harg0455-001-001.pdf Madison Georgia Prison manifest (page 10 lines 1, 2 & 3). various SDG topics
  3. About April 10th the steamer Woodford departed Savannah Tennessee; her passengers were Rebel soldiers (and 35 local civilians, deemed to have been disloyal to the Union) and were under charge of Captain T.J. Newham (staff officer ADC of General C. F. Smith) and his detachment of Union soldiers acting as guards. See https://digital.shsmo.org/digital/collection/dmr/id/15088/rec/3182 and https://digital.shsmo.org/digital/collection/dmr/id/15087/rec/3182 . In all, about 400 passengers, who arrived at St. Louis morning of 14 April 1862. The prisoners were removed to the grounds of McDowell College (temporary Military Prison at St. Louis.) [Details of this transport of prisoners found in The Missouri Republican of Tuesday 15 APR 1862, pages 1 (passenger list) and 2 col.1 (details of voyage) and 3 col.3 (wounded Confederate prisoners carried aboard steamer City of Louisiana: wounded USA and CSA intermixed on manifest) and 4 col.1 “Arrivals at Port of St. Louis (within past 24 hours”).] https://digital.shsmo.org/digital/collection/dmr/id/15106/rec/3185 Missouri Republican of 18 APR 1862 pg.1 cols.9 and 10 (more lists of wounded Rebels, removed north to sites other than St. Louis.) https://digital.shsmo.org/digital/collection/dmr/id/15108/rec/3186 19 APR 1862 edition pg.2 cols. 3 & 4 lists more wounded Confederates, their names interspersed with wounded Federal soldiers on manifest.
  4. Issued by the War Department on 14 July 1862 (by order of Secretary of War Stanton, and signed by Adjutant General Thomas) General Orders No.78 begins: “The many evils that arise from giving furloughs to enlisted men, require that the practice shall be discontinued...” What “evils” are these? For those familiar with Henry Halleck's pet peeve, Abuse of the Furlough System, the second sentence in the document provides clarity: “Hospitals, provided with ample medical attendance, nurses, food, and clothing, are established by the Government, at great expense, not only near the scenes of active military operations, but in many of the Northern States...” In explanation, sick soldiers were no longer permitted to be sent home to recuperate from wounds or illness (except for Officers, who were exempt from G.O. No.78). And by force of Law, anyone violating this General Order was subject to Court-marshal. [Coincidentally, the Hill-Dix Cartel, which codified the Prisoner of War exchange and repatriation system, became effective 22 July 1862. General Orders No.78 effectively elevated the diagnoses of Army Surgeons to equate with the decisions taken by Colonels of Regiments in regard to men under their charge: once admitted to Hospital, it was unlawful to leave without receiving the authority of the Head Surgeon.] Note: for those who follow Private Cyrus Ballard's story, this is likely what led to his being recorded as "deserter." He absented himself from a Smallpox Hospital without authority. How does this relate to the Battle of Shiloh? Over 2000 Federal soldiers were taken prisoner during the April 1862 contest; and most of them were still confined in Southern prisons when the Dix-Hill Cartel took effect in July. One of the components of the Exchange system (as promoted by SecWar Stanton) involved the establishment of Camps of Instruction (which became better known as Parole Camps) where Federal soldiers, lately confined in Confederate prisons, and who were granted their departure “on their Parole” to return to the United States, on condition that “they do not take up arms or otherwise support the war effort of the North until properly exchanged” were confined by the Federal Government until “the proper exchange” took place. [It can be argued that Edwin Stanton initiated the Parole Camp system due to the fact he did not trust men allowed to return home “until properly exchanged” to again return to military service when notification arrived at their homes that their Exchange had been effected... without considering that almost all of these men in 1862 were Volunteers – not draftees – who had committed themselves to a Higher Calling.] The effect: All of the Shiloh Federal prisoners released from confinement in the South after Hill-Dix were processed out “on their Parole” at Libby Prison in Richmond; and then transported north. After seven months in confinement, many were dangerously unwell; and most had lost a significant portion of their pre-confinement body weight, some weighed less than half what they had in April 1862. Officers arrived at Annapolis Maryland, were granted thirty days of leave, and departed for homes across the Midwest. The enlisted soldiers arrived at Annapolis (or Portsmouth Grove in Rhode Island) and went into confinement at the Parole Camps in those locations. Sick soldiers were confined in the Parole Camp Hospital (which in the case of Annapolis was a “tent facility” two miles from downtown Annapolis.) Everyone waited until their Exchange came through; or in the case of Hospital patients, they got well and were exchanged... or they died. Portsmouth Grove buried over 100 former POWs (most from Missouri) in the Cemetery adjacent to the Parole Camp. Annapolis National Cemetery recorded over 2000 Federal burials before the end of the war. References: https://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=hvd.hl27qz&view=1up&seq=362 General Orders No.78 of 14 July 1862 https://www.findagrave.com/cemetery/2690755/lovell-general-hospital-cemetery Portsmouth Grove Parole Camp Cemetery https://www.nps.gov/nr/travel/national_cemeteries/Maryland/Annapolis_National_Cemetery.html Annapolis National Cemetery
  5. Ozzy

    Patrick Gregg

    Captain Patrick Gregg of the 58th Illinois was one of the two hundred members of his regiment, taken prisoner at Shiloh. Along with the other 2200 Federal prisoners, he experienced the deprivations of 'half-rations,' inadequate shelter, and abundant vermin (lice). Before the end of April 1862, men began to die in the Southern prisons, due to lack of proper care. While confined as a prisoner at Selma, Alabama, Captain Gregg was appointed to a committee, with the authority to correspond with General Beauregard, in order to advocate for a 'special exchange,' of Shiloh prisoners for Fort Donelson prisoners. The correspondence was successful: General Beauregard authorized a 3-man commission, to be sent north via Richmond to Washington, D.C. to negotiate the special exchange. Patrick Gregg was one of the three selected to go. As Captain John Stibbs of the 12th Iowa noted in his diary: 'Time passed. Those of us at Selma were moved to a new prison at Madison, Georgia. We began to believe the mission had been fruitless.' Meanwhile, the commissioners were attempting to negotiate the special exchange, without luck. It is acknowledged, however, that these three men helped bring about the general program of prisoner exchange, known as the Dix-Hill Cartel of July 1862. Believing this outcome to be the best they could do, two commissioners ceased their efforts, and accepted their own 'special' exchanges. Captain Gregg pressed ahead, and eventually met President Lincoln, face to face. He told his story, and explained that he was acting on behalf of others; and demanded that he be allowed to 'complete his mission.' The President sent him on his way, with one month's pay, for every officer in captivity, and a safe-conduct pass. As Captain Stibbs relates: 'One day, we espied the tall form of Captain Gregg, marching up to our prison gate; [he was in possession of] a bag of gold, and boxes filled with clothing. God bless old Captain Gregg!' Patrick Gregg remained in custody until the general release of Shiloh prisoners, in October 1862. From the book: A Perfect Picture of Hell: eyewitness accounts by Civil War Prisoners from the 12th Iowa, edited by Ted Genoways and Hugh H. Genoways, University of Iowa Press, Iowa City, 2001, pp. 113-115.
  6. As described in the 'Record of CSA Prisoners,' identities of the Confederate prisoners taken at Shiloh, and held at Camp Douglas, Chicago can be viewed, following the instructions provided on that post. For Union prisoner information, the best site I have encountered on the Internet is <www.civilwarprisoners.com> In your favorite search engine, type 'Civil War Prisoners' [enter] Select the option 'Civil War Prisons <www.civilwarprisoners.com> [enter] On the new webpage, titled 'Civil War Prisons,' from the column on the left, select Cahaba Prison [enter] New page is titled 'Search for records from Cahaba Prison,' and has three empty boxes, allowing you to conduct your search. For example, I type: G McKinnis 12th Iowa [search], and the result comes back on a new page. If you are interested in all the men taken from one regiment, complete only the third box, for example: 12th Iowa [search] and the result returns over 350 men recorded as captured. There are two failings to this site: not every prisoner is recorded (officers seem to be missing); and the last name must be spelled 'correctly,' as recorded on their data base. '0 results found' is returned until the 'correct' spelling is used. (This can be overcome by searching only for the regiment, and scanning through the results.) Although Cahaba Prison is the access point, the results return information for prisoners held at any site, except Andersonville. For Andersonville, a separate access point is provided. Also, all of the 2200 men involved in the Sultana disaster are listed. Cheers Ozzy http://www.civilwarprisoners.com/
  7. On April 5th, 1862 Colonel R. P. Buckland, commander of the 4th Brigade, sent a daily report concerning the activity of his pickets, to his boss, General W. T. Sherman. In it, he confirmed that, 'Lieutenant Geer, my acting aide, is missing...' Beyond the Lines, or a Yankee prisoner loose in Dixie, by Captain J. J. Geer, published by J. W. Daughaday of Philadelphia, 1863. The true story of what happened to the 'acting aide,' after he was captured while investigating an attack on Union pickets, on April 4th, 1862. Taken straight away to Confederate Headquarters, Geer recounts meeting, in succession, General Bragg, General Hardee, and General Beauregard, all of whom are intent on getting him to reveal all he knows concerning Grant's strength and unit locations. After battle commenced, and no longer of potential use for intelligence, the prisoner was sent to the rear, to Corinth; where he remained until just before the arrival of General Prentiss and his 2200 fellow captives. Lieutenant Geer was sent south on the Mobile and Ohio to a brief incarceration at Columbus, Mississippi. From there, he was sent even further south, to Mobile. Eventually, six hundred captives taken at Hell's Hollow were incarcerated in a disused cotton shed in Montgomery, Alabama. J. J. Geer joined them there in late April, in time to witness 'the first reported war crime' of the Rebellion: the shooting of Lieutenant William S. Bliss, 1st Michigan Light Artillery, Company B (sometimes indicated as 'Battery B' and Ross' Battery.) Sent next to Camp Oglethorpe, 28-year-old Geer stayed only briefly, before he made his escape; he remained in hiding in Georgia swamps for three weeks, until recaptured, and sent to join General Prentiss and the other 200 Federal officers, held as prisoners at Madison, Georgia. Here he remained, along with hundreds of political prisoners from East Tennessee; and witnessed the return of Captain Patrick Gregg from his errand as commissioner to Washington, D.C. Finally, in October 1862, the general exchange was approved; and the prisons at Madison and Macon were emptied, Lieutenant Geer was sent north with the other prisoners, and continued to record his experiences: the stop at Libby Prison in Richmond; the first view in six months of 'that Glorious Flag' as they boarded the flag-of-truce boat at Aiken's Landing; the eventual arrival (of the officers) in Washington, D.C. (The enlisted men were incarcerated at Annapolis, Maryland.) John J. Geer's experience, (recorded as this book, and published June 1863), was deemed to have been of such value, that he was promoted to Captain, and sent on a 'lecture and recruiting tour' of the United States, in company with William Pittenger, one of the Medal of Honor winners from Andrew's Raid into Georgia, Beyond the Lines: a Yankee prisoner loose in Dixie is available on the internet. The Library of Congress website offers free access <archive.org/details/beyondlinesory00geer> (Sometimes, this man's name is misspelled 'Greer') Alternatively, all 300 pages of the book are again available in print, since 2010, from Kessinger Legacy Reprints, Whitefish, Montana. Ozzy http://archive.org/details/beyondlinesory00geer
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