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[Soldier holding Lorenz Model 1854, from Civil War Guns, page 259.] Because several infantry units (North and South) are believed to have been equipt with this weapon at Battle of Shiloh: Lorenz Model 1854. George F. L. Schuyler replaced John Fremont in Summer 1861 as purchasing agent in Europe, acting on behalf of the U.S. Government to acquire whatever arms were to be had. One of the places visited was Vienna: the Arsenal at that place held a large stockpile of Lorenz Rifles, and Schuyler was able to purchase over seventy thousand complete units at $15.10/each [Civil War Guns, pp.69 - 70]. The barrels of these guns were deemed thick enough and adequately robust to permit rebore from original .54 calibre to Springfield-standard .58 calibre, if desired. (The Lorenz became the third most available rifle-musket used during the Civil War, after Springfield and Enfield.) The Lorenz Model 1854 is a muzzle-loading rifle-musket, fired by percussion cap; it weighs about 9 pounds, is 53 inches long, with a barrel 37 1/2 inches long. Walnut or beech are the primary materials used for stocks; the bayonet is clasp-type, 19 1/2 inches long. Manufactured in Vienna and other State arsenals in Austria, the weapon first saw service during the Second Italian War of Independence (also known as Austro - Sardinian War of 1859.) Depending on sights attached, the effective range of the Lorenz was 200 yards (block sites) to in excess of 600 yards (leaf sights). For probable listing of Units at Shiloh equipt with the Lorenz Rifle: http://www.n-ssa.net/vbforum/archive/index.php/t-301.html (compiled by Don Dixon.) Excellent video showcasing Lorenz Rifle http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mPVrXiUwzC4 (Professor Balasz at capandball, 21 FEB 2018.) Ozzy References: http://archive.org/stream/Civil_War_Guns#page/n270/mode/1up/search/Lorenz Civil War Guns (1962) by William B. Edwards wikipedia
At first glance, the Model 1861 Richmond looks almost identical to the Model 1861 Springfield: Model 1861 Springfield rifle-musket (from wikipedia) Model 1861 Richmond rifle-musket (from wikipedia) [Note: Both weapons are the same length, 56 inches, in real life. Both are a little over 9 pounds, have 40 inch long barrels, are of .58 calibre, and use individually placed percussion caps (placed on a nipple and struck by the hammer) to initiate the firing of a minie ball out the rifled barrel. Effective range is 400 yards on the Springfield; perhaps 100 yards better on the Richmond, due to the sights. Rates of fire for both at 3-4 aimed shots per minute.] The main difference is found when comparing the firing mechanisms, close up: [Model 1861 Richmond firing mechanism, from gunauction.com] [Model 1861 Springfield firing mechanism, from rockislandauctions.com ...1862 indicates year of manufacture, of this particular weapon.] The reason for the similarity in appearance: both weapons share the same pedigree, derived from the Model 1855 Springfield. However, while the 1861 Springfield was 'purpose-built' to have clean lines, while improving on the design of the Model 1855; the 1861 Richmond was manufactured using the milling machines, lathes and dies taken from the Harpers Ferry Arsenal in April 1861... hence 'the hump,' between the hammer and the percussion cap nipple. Some believe that the hump (which gives the 1861 Richmond its iconic appearance) was an intentional feature, designed to provide the shooter with an 'eye shield' from a sparking cap; in actuality, it was merely a hold-over from the Model 1855 'red cap system' that was deemed best left alone, to allow quick production of the 1861 Richmond... which commenced in October 1861, at Richmond, Virginia, in the Old State Armory building. In four years, some 31000 Model 1861 Richmonds were manufactured (with some produced at Macon, Georgia when the machinery was relocated there.) Later versions of the Richmond rifle-musket sported brass butt plate and brass nose cap. Although several Confederate regiments at Shiloh were provided with Model 1861 Richmonds after the battle, I have yet to determine whether any regiments used them on April 6 and 7. The Model 1861 Springfield was one of the most highly sought-after weapons during the Civil War. Primarily produced at Springfield Arsenal in Massachusetts (where 300,000 units per year were turned out), there were an additional 15-20 contractors, mostly in Massachusetts and Connecticut, that contributed thousands more units. With an effective range of 400 yards (not as accurate as the 1853 Enfield because of the nature of the sights), the 1861 Springfield was used by both sides at Shiloh (the 15th Iowa is known to have been issued with the Springfield; and the 47th Tennessee is known to have 'picked theirs up in the Hornets Nest,' after Prentiss' surrender.) Ozzy References: encyclopediavirginia.org rockislandauctions.com gunauction.com wikipedia