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  1. Captain E. T. Sykes and the 10th Mississippi at Shiloh Edward Turner Sykes was born in 1838 in Alabama, but was living in Columbus Mississippi when the Secession Crisis broke out. Joining Doctor Lipscomb’s Southron Avengers early in 1861, that company was soon incorporated into Colonel Seaburne M. Phillip’s 10th Mississippi as Company E and in March arrived in Florida and placed under command of Major General Braxton Bragg (whose expanding force was soon to become known as the Army of Pensacola.) The 10th Mississippi Infantry took part in placing guns in a crescent around the north and west edge of Pensacola Bay, extending from the Navy Yard to Fort McRae; and the men of the regiment were trained in the operation of those artillery pieces (used during the November bombardment of Union-occupied Fort Pickens.) As well as being trained to operate artillery, the men of the 10th Mississippi took part in the October 8/9 Battle of Santa Rosa Island (a successful nighttime raid against Federal forces camped outside Fort Pickens, involving colonels Chalmers, Jackson and Anderson.) During service at Pensacola, Seaburne M. Phillips became incapacited due to illness (he died before October 1861) and 25-year-old Robert A. Smith was elected Colonel in his place. University-educated E. T. Sykes was installed as Adjutant, with the rank of Captain. The 10th Mississippi remained in vicinity of Fort Barrancas and Mobile until after the February 1862 Disaster at Fort Donelson, when the regiment was ordered, along with most of Bragg’s Army, north to Corinth Mississippi. At Corinth the original 12-month term of enlistment expired; and in March the “New” 10th Mississippi was mustered into service (but with only half the 840 men of the original regiment.) What follows is Edward Sykes’ 1873 recollection of his regiment’s part in the Battle of Shiloh: “Having organized his splendid troops, General Albert Sidney Johnston, with General PGT Beauregard as second in command, put in motion on the morning of the 3rd of April, 1862, the “Army of the Mississippi,” to offer battle to the invaders of our soil. The attack was to have been made on the 5th, before Buell, who was marching to the assistance of Grant, at Pittsburg Landing, could possibly reach him, but owing to the bad roads the Confederates were unable to reach the destined point in time. Resting for the night in order of battle, a short distance from the enemy’s camp, with only now and then a picket shot to relieve the suspense, we commenced to advance at early dawn, and by sunrise came fairly upon them. Hardie commanded the front line, with Gladden’s and Chalmer’s brigades of Bragg’s corps on his right; Bragg’s corps, less the two brigades above-mentioned, constituting the second line, followed about 400 yards distant. The corps of General Polk, following the second line at the distance of about 800 yards, in lines of brigades, deployed with their batteries in rear of each, protected by cavalry on their right. The reserves under General Breckinridge followed closely the third line in the same order, its right wing supported by cavalry. Well do I remember, being then Adjutant of the 10th Mississippi infantry, of Chalmer’s brigade, how all were spoiling for their maiden fight, in which, before they were through, they were willing to acknowledge that of choice, they would thereafter exhibit less of reckless anxiety, and more of prudent discretion. As the Tenth Mississippi (Colonel Robert A. Smith, commanding, and who was subsequently killed in the battle at Mumfordsville Kentucky, and than whom no braver spirit or better officer gave up his life during the war,) descended the last hill, in full view of the enemy’s camp, it was discovered by the position of “an Indiana regiment” standing behind an improvised breastwork of knapsacks, a little retired from the crest of the hill beyond, with “arms ready,” that we were too far to the left, and ordered to march by the right flank down the ravine, until our right opposed their extreme left. And now comes the strange part of this sketch: not a gun in our regiment was loaded. In the verdancy of our military career and ardour for fight, we had overlooked one of its most elemental precautions. I heard Colonel Smith, who was sitting upon his horse a few paces in front of his line, and from his elevated position, exposed to the enemy not fifty yards off, give the commands: “Order arms; Load; “Fix bayonets,” Shoulder arms.” Then followed this pertinent language: “Soldiers, we have been ordered to charge those fellows in blue (he pointed with his sword) and I want you when I give the order to forward, to advance steadily to the top of the hill, fire with deliberation, and then give them the bayonet.” “Forward, then,” was the next sound heard, and Smith’s orders, as always, were observed. Both parties fired about the same time with deadly effect, after which the enemy broke and fled in confusion. General Chalmers immediately rode up to Colonel Smith, and after remarking in my presence, that he deserved to be a Major General, commanded him not again to expose himself so recklessly; but it being a personal, and not strictly a military order, was not obeyed, until soon after Smith’s horse was shot from under him. Throughout that day, the right, under Bragg, did not sustain a reverse, but took position after position, in such quick succession as to justify the confident belief that the entire Federal army under General Grant would be annihilated before the close of the day. About 4 p.m., as we were halted in line of battle to reform, while a brigade of prisoners just captured were being escorted by our cavalry to the rear, and preparatory to our final attack on that day, General Bragg, who justly felt proud of his day’s work, was seen riding alone in front of his victorious lines, and rapidly approaching our front. As he reached us, General Chalmers, who was likewise exultant over the action of his brigade, raised up in his stirrups, and shouted, “Pensacola troops, three cheers for our beloved commander!” Recognizing the compliment, and feeling that he had troops to follow where he was prepared to lead, he reined up, faced the brigade, and with head uncovered, looked “the noblest Roman of them all.” The white-plumed Henry of Navarre never inspired his fiery Frenchmen with more ardent enthusiasm than did this scene of Bragg’s awaken the glow of patriotism in the breasts of his Pensacola boys. They – officers and private soldiers – mutually felt that the day’s victory beloged equally to both and all. Soon after this exhilarating scene, we were again put in motion to attack the enemy’s last stronghold, being twenty-two guns massed in a semi-circle on an elongated eminence protecting his center and left, and which proved a bulwark between us and their destruction or surrender. Amidst the confusion of orders, some to “advance,” some to “retreat,” occasioned by the general order of Beauregard to retire for the night, we were in a fated hour repulsed, never again to enjoy the pleasure of having them so near in our grasp. Time, such as Wellington prayed for on the plains of Waterloo, “Oh! For Blucher or for Night!” was given to them, and they profited thereby. Buell crossed the Tennessee, and the next morning, the 7th, was as disastrous to our arms as the day before had been propitious…”
  2. Fifty years after the end of the Civil War, an astute author realized that the men who had made History, and their stories were in imminent danger of being lost forever. So, Mamie Yeary set out across Texas (and had manuscripts sent her) to record as many “average Johnnies” as possible. Their stories, brief and poignant, leave the reader “wishing for more” …which may be possible, because many kept diaries; and almost all wrote letters during the war. And, with a name (and combat unit designation) we now have a starting point… especially for the scores of Confederate Shiloh veterans who made these pages: https://archive.org/details/reminiscencesofbv1year/page/1 Reminiscences of the Boys in Gray (1912) by Mamie Yeary. https://archive.org/details/reminiscencesofb00year/page/n5 Reminiscences (Vol.2) [See pages 428 - 9 William Lee 6th Arkansas; pp.515 - 7 John Middleton 23rd Tennessee, for examples of what is available by searching for "Shiloh." Also, pp. 884 - 890 lists almost every skirmish and battle in Tennessee (and surrounding pages list almost every skirmish, action and battle in every State during the 1861 - 1865 War.)]
  3. Southern Bivouac Monthly (1882 – 1887) Much like the Union Veteran's National Tribune, the Southern Bivouac provided a forum for Southern Veterans wanting to air views on battles and leaders. Published by the Southern Historical Association of Louisville, Kentucky from 1882 until 1887 the monthly magazine benefited from the quality of its editors: Wm. N. McDonald, R. W. Knott and Basil Duke. All six volumes are available at HathiTrust at the below link: https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/002909878 Southern Bivouac Monthly Magazine And for SDG readers, these are some of the most interesting articles: Vol.1 – “General John H. Morgan” (pp.45 – 49; 149 – 151); Island No.10 (pp.55 – 62); Morgan's Men and the Camp Douglas Conspiracy (pp.65 – 67). Vol.2 – “General Joseph Wheeler” (pp.240 – 244); “General Cheatham” (pp.145 – 150); “General N. B. Forrest” (pp.289 – 298; 337 - 345 ); Shiloh by editor (pp. 150 – 162); Shiloh by Basil Duke (pp.201 – 216); “Bagwell vs. Hicks: Two Illinois men meet at Shiloh” (pp.270 – 1.) Vol.3 – “Grant at Shiloh” (pp.305 – 307); “Incident at Shiloh” (pg.418). Vol.4 – “Morgan's Escape” by Thos. Hines (pp.49 – 60); Grant as General (pp.60 – 62). “Liddell's Record of the Civil War – A.S. Johnston vs. President Davis” (pp.411 – 420). Vol.5 – “Grant vs. Lee: a comparison” (pp.279 – 283); A.S. Johnston (pp.320 – 325). Vol.6 – “INDEX” (pp.777 – 1050). N.B. The run of Southern Bivouac ended in 1887 by being sold to Century Magazine. Additional Note: To easily find a subject of interest, select a volume; SEARCH for topic in that volume (i.e. Shiloh, or Morgan, or Bragg); select one of the HITS returned. This will have to be done for each of the six volumes. [Alternatively, an INDEX is included in Volume SIX beginning page 777.]
  4. Available online from the University of Iowa Library are these three diaries (for years 1861, 1862 and 1863) written by 20-year-old schoolteacher, Turner S. Bailey. Working in Epworth, Iowa (about three miles west of Dubuque) at the start of 1861, his diary for that year focuses on teaching classes, the weather, and local issues... until April 15th. "Considerable excitement about war. Fort Sumter taken by the South." Beginning with that entry, Turner indicates growing preoccupation with "war fever" until enlisting in the 3rd Iowa Co. A at Dubuque on May 22nd; travelling with the regiment to Keokuk in June; and duty in Missouri (guarding railroads) beginning in July. In March 1862, it was decided to add the 3rd Iowa to the growing Federal force on the Tennessee River; Private Bailey arrived opposite Pittsburg Landing on the 15th. On the 17th the 3rd Iowa went ashore at Pittsburg Landing and went into camp near "their friends in the 12th Iowa." Each subsequent day is faithfully recorded -- the weather, the skirmish on April 4th -- and of course, the Battle of April 6/7. On the attached link, click on the desired diary... a new page will open... click on the diary again for access to every page. [University of Iowa adds another diary, or collection of Civil War letters, about every 3-6 months, so worthwhile to check back every once in a while to see what's been made available.] http://www.iowaheritage.org/items/browse?advanced[0][element_id]=49&advanced[0][type]=is+exactly&advanced[0][terms]=Infantry Cheers Ozzy
  5. It is always interesting to learn what “outsiders” thought of the internal upheaval that came to be known as the Civil War. And as we know, one of the ways the South could have emerged victorious: gain international recognition of the Confederate States of America as sovereign nation. Coupled with a mutual defense treaty (with France or Great Britain) the North would likely have found continued prosecution of the war too difficult. As foreign powers made up their minds how to come to terms with the CSA, observers from Russia, France, England and one or two German States were noticed in Washington and Richmond. Of most concern were the representatives of France and England: extraordinary efforts were prosecuted in order to attempt persuasion of those powerful nations, by North and South. The Illustrated London News is now available on HathiTrust for the years 1843 - 1875. Of interest to SDG is Volume 40 (Jan – June 1862) which contains: Page 184 [Col.3 bottom] “America: The capture of Fort Henry.”] Page 241 “America: Grant's capture of Fort Donelson.” Page 280 The capture of Nashville; President Davis admits, “Our defenses were stretched too thin.” Page 383 “The war in America seems to be drawing to a close” [19 APR 1862 cover.] Seems to put great faith in McClellan's Expedition... Page 384 News delivered by steamer [current through 5 April.] Page 408 26 APR edition: “News of Pittsburg Landing: the bloodiest battle which ever took place on United States' soil.” Page 409 [top of column 1] “The Western men are proving themselves the heroes of the war...” Page 433 The 3 May edition: “America: more from Pittsburg Landing...” https://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=uc1.c0000066837&view=1up&seq=166&size=125 Illustrated London News volume 40. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/000520935 All editions of Illustrated London News (1843 - 1875).
  6. Let's start with Texas... There were three units from the Lone Star State, engaged at the Battle of Shiloh. The best sites I have uncovered, for beginning research on ancestors: http://www.nps.gov/civilwar/soldiers-and-sailors-database.htm (For all Texas soldiers, but especially those from the 2nd Texas Infantry Regiment: NPS Soldier and Sailor System. Input your ancestor's last name, along with his regiment number, and select <Show Results> ) http://gen.1starnet.com/civilwar/9thmain.htm (For 9th Texas Infantry, Scroll down to roster. Website provided by Ron Brothers and Tim Bell.) http://www.keathleywebs.com/terrysrangers/ (For 8th Texas Cavalry, aka 'Terry's Texas Rangers.' Website provided by keathleywebs.com) Ozzy
  7. On the below Regimental Record for the 72nd Ohio Volunteer Infantry is an entry dated 4 April 1862 titled, “Crumps Landing, Tenn.” Where did this engagement take place? What Confederate force was opposed? [From "Official Roster of the Soldiers of the State of Ohio in the War of the Rebellion" published 1888.] Note: The NPS Soldier and Sailors database also lists this action of the 72nd Ohio (under “Service”) https://www.nps.gov/civilwar/search-battle-units-detail.htm?battleUnitCode=UOH0072RI
  8. One of the speaking phenomenons of the past year or two is Victor Davis Hanson, a university professor from California who possesses vast knowledge of “the classics” of ancient literature; and who also dabbles in farming, and the study of military history. Over the years, Professor Hanson has written a number of books on military engagements, from ancient times to the present day. As an example, “The Ripples of Battle” was published in 2003; and three “historically important contests” were reviewed and examined in order to determine their long-lasting effects on the culture, as well as how they altered the participants. And it turns out that one of the battles discussed is Shiloh. [Hanson indicates he included Shiloh because he has a family connection to Albert Sidney Johnston.] While promoting his book in 2003 Professor Hanson gave a presentation at Santa Cruz, California which devoted nearly the entire hour to Battle of Shiloh and two key men involved (Albert Sidney Johnston and William Tecumseh Sherman). Other participants (U.S. Grant and Lew Wallace) gain an airing. The discussion of Shiloh begins at 13:30 minute mark; Sherman (and Grant) begins at 18 minute mark; 23:20 begins Albert Sidney Johnston; 29:30 begins Lew Wallace: 35:30 begins discussion of Ben-Hur (and how it related to Shiloh, Wallace and Grant); 39:30 begins examination of Nathan Bedford Forrest. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=EvBG-H9XqGo cspan2 presentation "Ripples of Battle" by Victor Davis Hanson (added to YouTube 13 OCT 2018.)
  9. Prentiss's Staff In prior posts, we have touched on some of the Staff officers in the employ of Brigadier General Benjamin Prentiss during that commander's truncated Civil War career. As we know, Staff officers can provide insights to their General not available through other means; and some of those details may include the General's more guarded thoughts and beliefs; his drinking habits; minor medical niggles, such as frequent back pain, occasional headaches, or allergy to horses (and how the commander circumvented those weaknesses); expressions of satisfaction (or displeasure) with subordinates and superiors, not to be repeated outside the General's tent... These are the Staff officers already discussed: Division Surgeon Samuel Everett, KIA at Shiloh 6 APR 1862. Colonel Joseph D. Webster, “Paymaster” under Prentiss, with experience in artillery via the Chicago militia; and acknowledged as talented engineer, this veteran of the War with Mexico remained employed at Cairo when BGen Prentiss departed Illinois for assignment in Northern Missouri (and was subsequently incorporated on the staff of General U.S. Grant in SEP 1861) Captain Benjamin Grierson, VADC to Prentiss, this former music teacher discovered his true talent resided with the Cavalry (and he was used on special assignments by U.S. Grant after June 1862) Lieutenant W. F. Brinck, Ordnance officer at Cairo (transferred to staff of U.S. Grant) Captain Henry Binmore, AAG to Prentiss, this former Personal Secretary to Stephen A. Douglas was sent away north by General Prentiss just prior to collapse of the Hornet's Nest and thus evaded capture. Later employed by MGen Stephen Hurlbut as AAG. Lieutenant Edwin Moore, detached from service with 21st Missouri, ADC to Prentiss who acted as courier delivering messages and requests for assistance from General Prentiss (and who avoided capture by being at the Landing delivering a message when the Hornet's Nest collapsed.) Lieutenant Richard Derickson, Division QM for Prentiss' Sixth Division, only taking the role in April 1862. He was aboard steamer Iatan (which was full of ammunition and ordnance and tied up at Pittsburg Landing on 6 April 1862.) Just today, two more members of General Prentiss staff during the Battle of Shiloh were uncovered, hiding in plain sight: both men are listed on the Madison Georgia Prison manifest (so it is obvious that both men were captured on 6 April 1862😞 Robert Porter, described on the Madison Georgia manifest as “servant to General Prentiss.” Edward Jonas, described on the Madison manifest as “Secretary to General Prentiss,” and with additional clarification: “Private in Company C, 50th Illinois.” As revealed this information has only come to light today; but what it offers is potential letters and diaries of men knowledgeable of General Benjamin Prentiss (in particular as regards “what took place in the days prior to Battle of Shiloh,” and “When did General Prentiss REALLY arrive at Pittsburg Landing; and what was he doing from the time he left St. Louis in mid-March until he arrived in-theatre?”) Cheers Ozzy References: http://dlg.galileo.usg.edu/turningpoint/harg/cw/pdfs/harg0455-001-001.pdf Madison Georgia Prison manifest (page 10 lines 1, 2 & 3). various SDG topics
  10. Ozzy

    Value of the POWs

    Sixteen hundred Federal prisoners commenced their slow march to Corinth on Monday morning, April 7th and soon began to realize things had not gone well militarily for their Southern captors. Many witnessed the body of General Albert Sidney Johnston (under escort of six officers) passing, enroute for the train to New Orleans via Memphis [Genoways p.56]. As the POWs trudged towards Corinth, there was no ignoring the makeshift hospitals -- one after another after another -- on both sides of the road, tending the Rebel wounded [Genoways p.96]. But the singular event that gave the captured men hope was the unexpected appearance of a squad of Confederate cavalry, obviously in a panic, that flew past -- heading South -- in the early afternoon [Genoways p.89 and 129]. Those mounted stragglers provided proof that their Federal comrades had reversed the tide of the battle; and offered hope that they would overtake the marching men before they reached Corinth, and re-capture them. Alas... not to be. Ozzy Reference: A Perfect Picture of Hell, Genoways & Genoways, University of Iowa Press (2001)
  11. A few years ago I visited Estonia for the first time (an easy ferry ride south from Sweden) and was pleasantly surprised by the medieval historic charm and friendly people of Tallinn. Once this COVID-19 emergency is over and we're out and about travelling once more, I can highly recommend adding Tallinn to your European travel itinerary. Anyway... Have you ever wondered what Europeans think of the American Civil War? Artur Rehi of Estonia presents a video evaluating the Battle of Shiloh. Prior to this introduction to the War in the West, Artur had only ever heard of Gettysburg and Antietam (the danger of too much condensing of History.) It is entertaining and enlightening to hear the “accepted wisdom” espoused even in Europe as upon introduction of Ulysses S. Grant, Artur brightens up and announces... you'll have to listen to one of many evaluations of General Grant for yourself. The video runs just over twenty minutes, and is aided by simultaneous running of “Kings and Generals: The Battle of Shiloh.” Beginning with an introduction to Forts Henry and Donelson, and Union possession of Nashville, the move down the Tennessee River (with Buell anticipated to join at Savannah before offensive action takes place) sets the stage for the North; as Albert Sidney Johnston and PGT Beauregard unite their armies for the pending strike at Corinth. Have a viewing: see what Artur Rehi gets right; and what he gets wrong. And along the way you will find out what you really know about the Battle of Shiloh. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cU3XsW6vcn4 The Battle of Shiloh was Insane! by Artur Rehi (2020).
  12. Ozzy

    Lloyd's Map

    Lloyd's Map of Southern States (1861) As was soon discovered by the newspaper reading public during the Secession Crisis, the maps and sketches provided by newspapers lacked detail and accurate scale. And the precise maps provided by Frank Leslie's Illustrated News and Harper's Weekly were not generally available until 1862. Before Rand – McNally it was James T. Lloyd that furnished the maps the travelling public demanded. Available from early 1861 and produced by J. T. Lloyd & Company of Cincinnati “Lloyd's Map of the Southern States” was the primary reference tool available to members of the public for use in tracking the location of Civil War battles and troop movements. Sold for 25 cents (and with free postage) Lloyd's Map was available via mail order by Jonathan R. Walsh of Chicago. https://www.loc.gov/resource/g3860.cw0014300r Lloyd's Map of the Southern States (1861) https://chroniclingamerica.loc.gov/lccn/sn84031490/1862-04-10/ed-1/seq-4/ Advertisement page 4 col.1 for "Lloyd's Map" N.B. From 1856 Lloyd's also provided a “Steamboat Directory” https://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=hvd.32044024217887&view=1up&seq=5 and from July 1861 “Lloyd's American Railroad Map – North and South” https://digital.library.illinois.edu/items/59d8ab00-82d5-0134-1f08-0050569601ca-a#?cv=1&xywh=-1%2C-822%2C15015%2C7587
  13. The Picket Skirmish of Friday, April 4th 1862 has been discussed “in passing” on the way to the more interesting and important Battle of Shiloh (which erupted Sunday morning, April 6th.) In many ways, this Picket Skirmish was a “dry run” for the Big Show on Sunday. We at SDG believe we are familiar with this skirmish, but are we? Here are a series of questions: What was the weather on 4 April 1862? What Federal forces were involved that Friday (actually engaged?) What Confederate forces were involved (actually engaged or fired rounds?) At what time on Friday did the first exchange of gunfire occur (to nearest half hour)? Who was the most senior Federal leader involved? Who was the most senior Federal leader to survey the ground on Friday? Who was the most senior Confederate leader involved (either at scene of action, or directing that action from the rear)? At what time did the “engagement” end (to nearest half hour)? At what time did Major General Grant meet with BGen W.T. Sherman on Friday? What action did Major General Grant order as result of the Picket Skirmish? How many total casualties resulted (USA and CSA)? Which of the Confederate prisoners taken on April 4th were interviewed by Grant? What happened to these “ten” Confederate prisoners? [Grant records 8 prisoners.] How many Federal prisoners were taken on April 4th? What happened to them? Can you answer them all?
  14. "Colonel Peabody and our 25th Missouri" As we know, the Engineer Everett Peabody was based at St. Joseph Missouri while building the Hannibal & St. Joseph Railroad; and the 25th Missouri was considered by Union men residing in St. Joseph as “their” regiment. The St. Joseph Herald followed the career of Colonel Peabody with interest, and beginning with the edition published Friday 11 April 1862 contained news of the Colonel and his 25th Missouri in columns 1, 4, 5 & 6 on Page 2; and column one on Page 3. At this time, in the first Shiloh reports received in Western Missouri, and indicated by the multiple reports, Everett Peabody was listed among the “wounded.” https://digital.shsmo.org/digital/collection/stjoemh/id/251/rec/51 The edition of Saturday 12 April contains more details: Page 2 columns 4 and 5 (but still no word on fate of Colonel Peabody.) https://digital.shsmo.org/digital/collection/stjoemh/id/257/rec/52 Sunday 13 April has a third full-length article IRT Battle of Pittsburg Landing on page 3 columns 4 and 5. (But no mention of Peabody or the 25th Missouri.) https://digital.shsmo.org/digital/collection/stjoemh/id/262/rec/53 [There was no regular Monday edition of the St. Joseph Herald.] The Tuesday 15 April edition Page 3 columns 4 and 5 provides details of the wounded being moved north from the battlefield. General Ormsby Mitchel took Huntsville (and cut the M & C R.R.) A Southern version of the Battle of Shiloh is published (from the Richmond WHIG.) https://digital.shsmo.org/digital/collection/stjoemh/id/267/rec/54 Wednesday 16 April finds Pittsburg Landing, and details of Colonel Peabody, Column one page 2. Below Peabody's Obituary is on for Colonel Tyndale, late of the 23rd Missouri (and killed at the Hornet's Nest.) Page 3 columns 4 and 5 presents another full battle depiction; Col. Peabody confirmed killed; and details how General Grant's Shiloh report was hand-delivered to St. Louis. https://digital.shsmo.org/digital/collection/stjoemh/id/271/rec/55 Thursday 17 April page 2 column 5 two articles cover Col. Peabody's death and funeral (and the remaining members of the 25th Missouri gain a mention under “Local Intelligence.”) Page 3 columns 4 and 5 give more details of the battle and its aftermath. https://digital.shsmo.org/digital/collection/stjoemh/id/276/rec/56 and https://digital.shsmo.org/digital/collection/stjoemh/id/276/rec/56 Friday 18 April page 2 column 6 gives details of Peabody, Prentiss and Powell early Sunday morning 6 April 1862. Page 3 columns 4 and 5 gives more details of 25th Missouri in action at Pittsburg Landing. https://digital.shsmo.org/digital/collection/stjoemh/id/281/rec/57 Saturday 19 April page 2 column 2 gives details of Colonel Moore and the 21st Missouri. Page 3 column 5 provides an update on “the 500 soldiers remaining of the 25th Missouri.” https://digital.shsmo.org/digital/collection/stjoemh/id/286/rec/58
  15. Another day, another master’s thesis… and this one, submitted by William J. McCaffrey in 1970 is revealing, compelling, shocking. Although 140 pages long, this work grips the student of Battle of Shiloh by the throat, and does not let go. It examines “whether or not there was surprise at Pittsburg Landing on April 6th 1862”…and just who was surprised. On page three, a list of six items is posted: flawed conditions of readiness, at least one of which must be present to allow a Defender to get surprised by an Attacker. William McCaffrey devotes the remainder of his thesis to providing evidence of the presence of many of those six conditions of “un-readiness” at Pittsburg Landing in the days, hours and minutes leading up to General Albert Sidney Johnston’s attack. This report contains maps, an excellent list of references, and is constructed by a man concerned about “the lessons of History, and how to avoid the mistakes of History.” Have a read, and decide for yourself how close William McCaffrey, West Point Class of 1958, comes to the mark. Masters Thesis by William J. McCaffrey (1970) “Shiloh: a case study in Surprise” submitted to U.S. Army Command and General Staff College at Fort Leavenworth, KS and on file with National Technical Information Service: https://apps.dtic.mil/dtic/tr/fulltext/u2/733391.pdf
  16. The Stand of Stuart's Brigade, revisited On Sunday morning 6 April 1862 David Stuart's 2nd Brigade, separated from the remainder of Sherman's Fifth Division by the breadth of the Pittsburg Campground, found itself without organic artillery, and with only three assigned regiments of infantry. Called into line upon hearing the roar of battle away to the southwest, the 2nd Brigade stood and waited... while artillery support provided by Wallace's Second Division arrived, then disappeared; and reinforcements provided by McArthur's Brigade of Wallace's Division came in close proximity, only to be shifted well away from view of Stuart's Brigade. When Stuart's Brigade came under fire at approximately 11am most of the 71st Ohio disappeared; and the 55th Illinois and 54th Ohio were forced to abandon control of the ford over Lick Creek they were tasked with defending; and instead move progressively east and north, firing at the advancing Rebels from behind trees and beneath the brow of ravines. Occasionally, the Swedish-military trained Oscar Malmborg ordered his 55th Illinois into Hollow Square formations, in the midst of clearings while removing north to the next ravine; the formation designed for defense against cavalry so befuddled the Rebel attackers, convinced the technique was precursor to a trap of some sort, that Malmborg's men were mostly left alone each time the Hollow Square was actuated. Meanwhile the 54th Ohio was divided into two components, which independently harassed the steady advance of Chalmers and Jackson from different directions. Along the way, Colonel Stuart was wounded and removed to the rear; T. Kilby Smith of the 54th Ohio took nominal command; but LtCol Malmborg continued to exert authority over the 55th Illinois. After a particularly disastrous crossing of a deep ravine, during which Stuart's 2nd Brigade was badly shot up, the fighting withdrawal came to an end; and at about 2pm the survivors of the 2nd Brigade made for the Bluff overlooking Pittsburg Landing. Oscar Malmborg appears to have arrived with his 55th Illinois ahead of Kilby Smith's 54th Ohio: LtCol Malmborg was immediately tasked with organizing the returning infantrymen into a defensive line. And he continued in that role until replaced by the retiring General Stephen Hurlbut and his Fourth Division about 90 minutes later. But the big job had been accomplished: Rebel access to the Bluff above Pittsburg Landing had been denied until Grant's Last Line was sufficiently in place. The delay provided by Stuart's fighting withdrawal had contributed in large measure to that defensive line's creation. References: Reed, David W. Battle of Shiloh and the Organizations Engaged (1909) pp.14-15, 17, 27 (Order of Battle), 50, 53, 56-57, 73, 74, 130 map, 134 map. https://archive.org/details/battleofshilohor00unit/page/n133/mode/2up/search/Stuart OR 10 page 257 Report of Colonel Stuart. The Life and Letters of Thomas Kilby Smith, by his son, Walter G. Smith (1898) especially letters pp.191-200. https://archive.org/details/lifelettersoftho00smit/page/190/mode/2up Eisenschiml, Otto, The Story of Shiloh (1946) has one chapter specifically dedicated to 55th Illinois http://onlinebooks.library.upenn.edu/webbin/book/lookupname?key=Eisenschiml%2C Otto%2C 1880-1963 [As a member of the Chicago Civil War Round Table, Eisenschiml published many articles through that organization.] [Video] “Alone on the Left: the Desperate Stand of Stuart's Brigade” (2015) produced by Tony Willoughby: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WyPbKJJ9F5A Part one. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qAjgGCHw5zA Part two.
  17. About April 10th the steamer Woodford departed Savannah Tennessee; her passengers were Rebel soldiers (and 35 local civilians, deemed to have been disloyal to the Union) and were under charge of Captain T.J. Newham (staff officer ADC of General C. F. Smith) and his detachment of Union soldiers acting as guards. See https://digital.shsmo.org/digital/collection/dmr/id/15088/rec/3182 and https://digital.shsmo.org/digital/collection/dmr/id/15087/rec/3182 . In all, about 400 passengers, who arrived at St. Louis morning of 14 April 1862. The prisoners were removed to the grounds of McDowell College (temporary Military Prison at St. Louis.) [Details of this transport of prisoners found in The Missouri Republican of Tuesday 15 APR 1862, pages 1 (passenger list) and 2 col.1 (details of voyage) and 3 col.3 (wounded Confederate prisoners carried aboard steamer City of Louisiana: wounded USA and CSA intermixed on manifest) and 4 col.1 “Arrivals at Port of St. Louis (within past 24 hours”).] https://digital.shsmo.org/digital/collection/dmr/id/15106/rec/3185 Missouri Republican of 18 APR 1862 pg.1 cols.9 and 10 (more lists of wounded Rebels, removed north to sites other than St. Louis.) https://digital.shsmo.org/digital/collection/dmr/id/15108/rec/3186 19 APR 1862 edition pg.2 cols. 3 & 4 lists more wounded Confederates, their names interspersed with wounded Federal soldiers on manifest.
  18. General John H. Meeks Said to have been “twelve miles east of Falcon, Tennessee” ...what significance was “General Meek's Place” to the Picket Skirmish of April 4th 1862? Bonus: Where was General Meek's Place in rough cardinal direction and distance from Shiloh Church? Added Bonus: Why was John Henderson Meeks called "General" Meeks? Note: Above likeness found on Google Images.
  19. Ozzy

    Who am I?

    A member of West Point Class of 1859, I joined Strawbridge's First Louisiana Infantry in 1861 and fought at Shiloh, where I was wounded. Later on the staff of Joseph Wheeler, I got caught while carrying despatches and was imprisoned at Johnson's Island in Lake Erie... but not for long. I made my escape by using a homemade ladder and stealing a skiff, and found safety in Canada, where I made my way to Montreal and renewed acquaintance with another Shiloh veteran, Jacob Thompson. Thompson was part of the Canadian Cabinet, conducting operations on behalf of the South, from the Great White North; and I volunteered to take part in one of his more notorious operations... Who am I?
  20. It appears baseball was played by General Grant's troops, during their abundant leisure time, after the victory at Fort Donelson. The game may have been introduced to regiments undergoing training at Benton Barracks. Alternatively, one or more of the regiments from Milwaukee, Chicago, or Ohio may have imported the game when they arrived at Pittsburg Landing in March 1862. It is confirmed that a baseball was discovered on Shiloh Battlefield, a few days after the carnage, by a civilian working for the Union army. G. F. Hellum was so impressed by his find, he etched details of the location of his discovery into the hide, turning the lemon-peel ball into a trophy. Now, consider the story of Sgt. Edward Spalding, Co. E, 52nd Illinois. In action on Sunday, the 6th of April, he was twice wounded, but refused to be removed from the field. He remained fighting, in open ground, until the close of the battle. Finally taken to Hospital at Pittsburg Landing in time to have wounds to his left arm dressed, he should have made a full recovery. But, days passed, and his condition worsened. Somehow, Ed Spalding's parents found out about their son's predicament; his father, Asa, journeyed to Pittsburg Landing and took him home, to Rockford, Illinois. The improvement in care, furnished in a loving home, probably saved his life. But, it still required time for his wounds to fully heal. While recuperating, he was visited by his 11-year-old cousin, Albert, to whom he introduced the rules of the game of Baseball. Edward returned to his regiment in November 1862, was promoted to second lieutenant, and continued to serve until mustered out in December 1864. Albert Spalding took to his cousin's game so well, that he went on to become a professional baseball player, playing as pitcher, centerfielder, and first baseman, for the Boston Red Stockings, and the Chicago White Stockings. In 1876, he co-founded A. G. Spalding Sporting Goods; he continued to promote 'the National Pastime' for the rest of his life.
  21. Issued by the War Department on 14 July 1862 (by order of Secretary of War Stanton, and signed by Adjutant General Thomas) General Orders No.78 begins: “The many evils that arise from giving furloughs to enlisted men, require that the practice shall be discontinued...” What “evils” are these? For those familiar with Henry Halleck's pet peeve, Abuse of the Furlough System, the second sentence in the document provides clarity: “Hospitals, provided with ample medical attendance, nurses, food, and clothing, are established by the Government, at great expense, not only near the scenes of active military operations, but in many of the Northern States...” In explanation, sick soldiers were no longer permitted to be sent home to recuperate from wounds or illness (except for Officers, who were exempt from G.O. No.78). And by force of Law, anyone violating this General Order was subject to Court-marshal. [Coincidentally, the Hill-Dix Cartel, which codified the Prisoner of War exchange and repatriation system, became effective 22 July 1862. General Orders No.78 effectively elevated the diagnoses of Army Surgeons to equate with the decisions taken by Colonels of Regiments in regard to men under their charge: once admitted to Hospital, it was unlawful to leave without receiving the authority of the Head Surgeon.] Note: for those who follow Private Cyrus Ballard's story, this is likely what led to his being recorded as "deserter." He absented himself from a Smallpox Hospital without authority. How does this relate to the Battle of Shiloh? Over 2000 Federal soldiers were taken prisoner during the April 1862 contest; and most of them were still confined in Southern prisons when the Dix-Hill Cartel took effect in July. One of the components of the Exchange system (as promoted by SecWar Stanton) involved the establishment of Camps of Instruction (which became better known as Parole Camps) where Federal soldiers, lately confined in Confederate prisons, and who were granted their departure “on their Parole” to return to the United States, on condition that “they do not take up arms or otherwise support the war effort of the North until properly exchanged” were confined by the Federal Government until “the proper exchange” took place. [It can be argued that Edwin Stanton initiated the Parole Camp system due to the fact he did not trust men allowed to return home “until properly exchanged” to again return to military service when notification arrived at their homes that their Exchange had been effected... without considering that almost all of these men in 1862 were Volunteers – not draftees – who had committed themselves to a Higher Calling.] The effect: All of the Shiloh Federal prisoners released from confinement in the South after Hill-Dix were processed out “on their Parole” at Libby Prison in Richmond; and then transported north. After seven months in confinement, many were dangerously unwell; and most had lost a significant portion of their pre-confinement body weight, some weighed less than half what they had in April 1862. Officers arrived at Annapolis Maryland, were granted thirty days of leave, and departed for homes across the Midwest. The enlisted soldiers arrived at Annapolis (or Portsmouth Grove in Rhode Island) and went into confinement at the Parole Camps in those locations. Sick soldiers were confined in the Parole Camp Hospital (which in the case of Annapolis was a “tent facility” two miles from downtown Annapolis.) Everyone waited until their Exchange came through; or in the case of Hospital patients, they got well and were exchanged... or they died. Portsmouth Grove buried over 100 former POWs (most from Missouri) in the Cemetery adjacent to the Parole Camp. Annapolis National Cemetery recorded over 2000 Federal burials before the end of the war. References: https://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=hvd.hl27qz&view=1up&seq=362 General Orders No.78 of 14 July 1862 https://www.findagrave.com/cemetery/2690755/lovell-general-hospital-cemetery Portsmouth Grove Parole Camp Cemetery https://www.nps.gov/nr/travel/national_cemeteries/Maryland/Annapolis_National_Cemetery.html Annapolis National Cemetery
  22. Review of To Rescue My Native Land by Wm. T. Shepherd It is not often that letters and diaries compiled by artillerymen during the Civil War are encountered, and this collection is a gem: the “Civil War Letters of William T. Shepherd.” Native of Wisconsin, who enlisted in Chicago as Private in Taylor’s Battery B, 1st Illinois Light Artillery 16 July 1861, Private Shepherd (sometimes spelled Shepard) is a gifted, intelligent writer who sent letters to friends and family back in Illinois on a daily basis. Encountered in the many letters: · Camp life (and looking forward to letters, newspapers and parcels from home) · Details of duty (and October 1861 Skirmish at Fredericktown) in Missouri · Description of duty (and Christmas) at Bird’s Point, Missouri. Letter of 10 NOV 1861 describes participation in Battle of Belmont. Letter of 9 JAN 1862 reveals “everyone at Cairo, Fort Holt and Bird’s Point is under Marching Orders” (which everyone believes is for “somewhere down the Mississippi River…”) Instead, a feint is conducted to the east of Fort Columbus, which “confuses everyone”). Letter of 1 FEB 1862: under Marching Orders, again… 8 FEB 1862: describes “how easily their Fort Henry became ours.” 16 FEB: Letter begins “while besieging Fort Donelson” and describes previous four days of activity, and ends abruptly when orders arrive to “reposition the Battery.” (See 21 FEB letter.) 28 FEB: “Our Captain Taylor has just returned from a visit to Nashville…” 12 MAR: aboard steamer Silver Moon, going up the Tennessee River… 21 MAR: at Savannah, returning to steamer for move up river… 23 MAR letter written from Pitsburg Landing. “Arrived aboard John J. Roe. There are 75000 men at this place, and more arriving constantly…” 25 MAR: “Captain Taylor has been promoted, and Lieutenant Barrett is now in command of the Battery.” Letters of 8 APR and 14 APR 1862: aftermath of Battle of Shiloh. And more good news: Private William Shepherd (who was promoted to Sergeant Major by the end of the War) also kept a Diary… Cheers Ozzy To Rescue My Native Land: the Civil War Letters of William T. Shepherd (edited by Kurt H. Hakemer) Tennessee University Press 2005 (365 pages) is available at amazon.con and better libraries. [Limited access: https://books.google.com.au/books?id=a6HQRB6UimYC&amp;pg=PA331&amp;lpg=PA331&amp;dq=israel+p.+rumsey+letter&amp;source=bl&amp;ots=JG_cwqaoUX&amp;sig=dQa8blZoWwiMXVAQGfu3JkaSAHE&amp;hl=en&amp;sa=X&amp;ved=2ahUKEwiIg5yUx4nfAhUF448KHReGDdcQ6AEwBXoECAkQAQ#v=onepage&amp;q=israel p. rumsey letter&amp;f=false And for those able to visit Kenosha, Wisconsin: https://museums.kenosha.org/civilwar/wp-content/uploads/sites/4/2018/05/Wisconsin-Resources-for-Website.pdf Civil War letters and diaries on file
  23. Tennessee River Valley in April 1862. The above map of the Tennessee River appeared in the 12 April 1862 edition of Harper's Weekly, before word of the Battle of Shiloh reached the New York editor of that illustrated publication. The map is interesting for what is included: Paducah and Smithland at the far north, with Cairo, Bird's Point, Columbus, Belmont and Island No.10 away to the west. Proceeding south up the Tennessee River, Fort Henry, the crossing of the MC & L R.R. at Danville, and the sites of Savannah, Hamburg and Florence are indicated. Not marked: the line of the Mobile & Ohio R.R. north of Corinth; Cerro Gordo (site of capture of CSS Eastport); Pittsburg Landing; Crump's Landing. Although brief report of the Battle of Pittsburg Landing would find its way into the April 19th edition, the map would not be updated until the 26 April edition.
  24. This YouTube video of 36 minutes was published on 2 May 2019 by Misesmedia, a publication of Mises Institute at Auburn, Alabama. It relies heavily on the Diary of young Elsie Duncan to describe life for civilians of Hardin County after the Battle of Shiloh, after the Union Army mostly moved south to besiege Corinth, Mississippi. The Horrors of War are fully described, including mass graves, the number of wounded overwhelming available surgeons, “raiders” (roaming bands of Union deserters), “guerrillas” (roaming bands of Southern supporters), avoiding “summary justice,” and the increasing difficulty over time to avoid starvation. In addition, mention is made of Duncan's Cave, and Hoker's Bend. "Life After Shiloh: Tory Rule" is narrated by Chris Calton, and is part of the Historical Controversies series. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qITGlHH0iW8 "Life after Shiloh" [Other titles in the Historical Controversies series at https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLALopHfWkFlGOn0oxjgp5gGzj-pnqeY0G ].
  25. Shiloh video by gaming guy The void being left by the inadequate teaching of History in public schools is being filled, in part, by an unexpected history advocate: the online gaming community. Dedicated to “authenticity” in recreating historic Battle Games, the school-age generation is being taught history, unawares, through participation in online games. With the above in mind... ran across this interesting video while searching for recent releases on Battle of Shiloh: “History Guy Gaming” has done other battlefield videos (Gettysburg, Antietam, Bull Run), and provided a review of the Battle of Shiloh game (Ultimate General) in 2017. His description of the events of April 1862 reflects the understanding of someone who was educated during the 1980 – 2000 period (with the summary of events and condensing of outcomes “necessary” to get through Civil War History in the least amount of time evident), but with obvious individual study undertaken. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=syQ6wKjcFzE "The Battle of Shiloh" by History Guy Gaming (published on YouTube 6 SEP 2019.) Following a brief introduction, the tour of Shiloh NMP begins at 3 minute mark, with the undeniable truth: “Visiting a battlefield results in better perspective and greater understanding.” At 3:55 mark the battle begins with Peabody's unauthorized patrol (conducted by Major Powell.) 6:00 The Union defense of Duncan Field. Unfortunately, the narrator uses a modern map, and is further led astray by the location of General WHL Wallace's mortal wounding. Now that a key Union defensive line is re-named as “The Thicket,” he comes to the wrong conclusion (that the Hornet's Nest was co-located with the site of Wallace's wounding.) Since all histories of the Battle of Shiloh prior to 2010 make mention of the Hornet's Nest, those seeking the location of that site during visits to the park will struggle just that little bit, from now on. 9:00 Sherman's experience with repelling Rebel attacks. [CSA mass grave visited.] 10:50 Shiloh Church. 13:30 The mistake of General Albert Sidney Johnston. 16:15 Hornet's Nest (part 2) 18:30 Ruggles Battery a.k.a. “Thunder in the Thicket” 18:45 General Johnston's mortal wound. 23:30 Albert Sidney Johnston's loss; and relevance to War in the West. 24:00 Indian mounds. 24:50 Union retreat to heights above Pittsburg Landing: Grant's Last Line (Buell arrives.) 27:10 Dill Branch: Union gunboats versus Rebel advance. 28:30 “Lick 'em tomorrow, though” – U.S. Grant. 28:40 Day Two (and Fallen Timbers) 30:00 Shiloh National Cemetery. 32:30 Visitor Center (and review). [The review of online game "Ultimate General: Battle of Shiloh" https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Vj9sQKBu9U0 by History Guy Gaming on 30 DEC 2016.]
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