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Ozzy

Grant's Shiloh Maps

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I have long searched for these two maps, and only just discovered the method to access them online: they were either commissioned or drawn by MGen US Grant in March 1862, and were sent to General Halleck (along with a brief report) on March 25th 1862 [OR 52 (part 1) page 230].

To be found in the Atlas of the Official Records (mislabelled as Plate 75) they are Maps 3 and 6 of Plate 78 (Plate LXXVIII). They should open through this link:

http://ehistory.osu.edu/books/official-records/atlas-plates-61-120    (General Grant's maps of Shiloh/Pittsburg Landing: maps 3 and 6)

 

Ozzy

 

N.B.   Just tried it... click on Plate 75's Image, and on the expanded image, the two maps are at top right corner, and bottom right corner. (Otherwise click on written heading "Plate 78" for the same result: headings do not match images, as listed in Atlas -- Ozzy.)

 

 

 

 

 

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Grant's Shiloh maps are of interest for a number of reasons: first, because they are so dissimilar... The top right corner map [Map No.3] is professionally done (unfortunately the creator's name is omitted) and is of value because it records Eastport, Mississippi (and its relation to Chickasaw Bluff, Alabama); "Shiloh" is marked in bold; Tyler's Landing and Burnsville (mentioned in Sherman's reports following his expeditions up the Tennessee River in attempts to cut the M & C RR) are identified.

Map No.6 [bottom right corner] is what is termed as a "mud map" ...a rough sketch designed to remind a user of relative positions, but lacking fine detail. Of the two maps, this is the one most likely created by MGen US Grant (because I would find it difficult to believe Grant sent this poor-quality map along to Halleck, unless he designed it himself.) Map No.6 illustrates how US Grant believed his camps in vicinity of Pittsburg Landing were laid out; key roads run parallel to each other and run north-south; key bridges are marked (note the flooded River Road, and its over-long Wallace Bridge). Even without a label, the Shunpike is easily identified; key fields are shown; key batteries are in place; and a number of civilian houses and out-buildings are marked (as solid black squares._

These two maps, sent to St. Louis with a communication dated March 25th 1862 should have done the trick to convince MGen Halleck that Grant's camps were well ordered, and arranged with security of the Landing at Pittsburg as the primary focus.

Ozzy

 

plate number 078

[From the Atlas of the Official Records of the Civil War, on file with Ohio State University. Top right map is Map No.3 and bottom right map is Map No.6. See the original post (above) for information how to find expanded version of these maps.]

 

 

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Map 6 is interesting.  My understanding is that the Confederate plan was predicated on the understanding that the Federal camps were oriented in facing east / west rather than north / south, so that an attack from the southwest would roll up the Federal flank and allow the Army of the Mississippi to get between the Federal forces and the Tennessee River.  Of course, the camps were actually facing in more of north / south direction.  Map 6 shows McClernand's camps facing east / west and extending into Rhea field (perhaps).  This placement of the camps looks to be in accord with the Confederate understanding of the situation.

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Just for the sake of comparison, here is Grant's 1867 Map of Shiloh:

Shiloh map Grant (2).jpg  [Badeau's Military History of Grant, page 72.]

The confusion of road networks and creeks found on maps during the war, the ground occupied by men without time to construct properly surveyed and measured maps, is understandable. But one would expect, after the war, that maps would tend towards more accuracy, not be less accurate...

Ozzy

 

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In reference to the above image, was trying to sort out why this map, published in 1867, was so full of errors. And it appears that the answer is linked to the following question: "What was the purpose of this map?"

First, the errors:

  • No bridge indicated at Owl Creek (near Sherman's 5th Division.) Instead, the crossing there is indicated in the same manner as the crossing of Lick Creek, just south of Stuart's Brigade (where a ford was utilized when travelling the road to Hamburg)
  • Snake Creek Bridge is shown too far east (which results in Sherman's Line after 5 p.m. being illustrated too far east of Tilghman Branch Ravine)
  • Incorrect identification of 2nd Division (Smith's) as "WHL Wallace." (During the Battle of Shiloh, and in the weeks leading up to that battle, the Second Division was always referred to as Smith's Division; (or "Smith's Division, under temporary command of Brigadier General Wallace.")
  • "WHL Wallace" is boldly positioned on the map, with the right of the 2nd Division adjacent to Snake Creek Bridge.
  • No swamps. There are no visual indications of swamp, marsh or bottom land on the map, (which affected Major General Lew Wallace for half a mile, and Brigadier General William Nelson for five miles.) For comparison, refer to Grant's 1862 Map of Pittsburg Landing, at top.

Based on the above errors, and other descriptors on the 1867 map, the purpose of this map is to provide visual evidence that supports General Grant's claim that Lew Wallace took the wrong road on April 6th 1862.

Ozzy

 

 

 

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Similar topic, but off topic.  The huge maps in the Shiloh visitor center, showing Day 1 and Day 2.  They have numerous errors on them.  The positioning of certain bridges across creeks, and even the mention of the "20th Ala", meaning the 20th Alabama Infantry, which was not even AT the Battle of Shiloh.  

As far as maps, look at the map used in Ken Burns "Civil War", about Shiloh.  Not sure why so many omissions in it?

shiloh-map-lg.jpg

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I realize the map used by Burns is not nearly as "scholarly" and precise, but, still, I often wondered why such a simplistic map was used.

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Stan

Prior to creation of the Atwell Thompson Map of 1900, no two maps of Shiloh/Pittsburg Landing matched. The sketches constructed in the days and weeks prior to April 6th 1862 were especially disparate; and with the exception of Albert Sidney Johnston's "Confederate Battle Map," most sketches of vicinity of Pittsburg Landing were constructed with "other agendas" in mind. Sherman's Map of late March 1862 was drawn as a guide for Sherman -- Boss of the Campground -- to keep track of regimental placements in the Pittsburg Landing campground; Grant's Map of late March illustrates a stylized view of Pittsburg Landing and its Division placements, seemingly all linked in and mutually supporting (complete with a seriously flooded Snake Creek at top of map, acting as "moat" to defend against possibility of attack from the north.) This map was sent to St. Louis by Grant to keep Henry Halleck off his back, as he waited impatiently to commence the march on Corinth. Grant's 1867 Map highlighted particular features, while diminishing others, in order to visually portray "the stupidity of Lew Wallace in attempting to reach Pittsburg Landing by marching to the southwest."

Your map (attributed to Ken Burns, 1990 and The Civil War) portrays Shiloh at its simplest: Johnston vs. Grant. Iconic features are included (for benefit of those viewers who pause the video, in order to examine fine detail mentioned in "The Very Bloody Affair" segment.) When it is recognized that Bjorn Skaptason and Tim Smith can spend hours revealing details of specific aspects of the two-day battle, the fact Ken Burns presents a compact, yet descriptive Shiloh segment -- in under 13 minutes -- is pretty impressive.

Just a few ideas...

Ozzy

 

N.B.  All maps mentioned in this post available for view at SDG. Atwell Thompson map contained in D.W. Reed's Battle of Shiloh and the Organizations Engaged.

 

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