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Ozzy

Pinhook Expedition

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In the lead-up to Battle of Shiloh, a number of raids and reconnaissances were conducted by Federal commanders: General William Tecumseh Sherman launched the Expedition to Yellow Creek on March 14th; and conducted the Expedition to Eastport and Chickasaw Bluff on April 1st. General Lew Wallace sent an Expedition against the Mobile & Ohio Railroad on March 12th that tore up the trestle at Beach Creek, north of Bethel.

Who led the Pinhook Expedition? What units were involved? What did it accomplish?

Ozzy

 

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5th ohio calvary under major charles s hayes was sent to find and destroy  the rr at bethel stantion 3-12-62 while wallace and ml smith,s men waited at stoney lonesome and thayer's troops march a little more west and stopped at adamsville.they returned late 3-13-62 having torn up the trestle over the low land north of purdy,tn. the confederate troops came back in a rebuilt the trestle pretty quick.

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Mona

Thanks for the more thorough examination of General Lew Wallace's Expedition against the Mobile & Ohio R.R. (destruction of trestle work between Bethel and Brown Station accomplished March 12th 1862.) It is evident from the tone of General Wallace's report that he was pretty pleased with the result achieved by Major Hayes and his 5th Ohio Cavalry. Unfortunately for the wrecking party, Southern railroad navvies were skilled and innovative at repairing damaged rail lines: it is reported that trains were running over that "section of torn up trestle" by March 16th [see March 16th 1862 Letter of Lieutenant Benjamin J. Gaston, 1st Alabama Battalion (Letter No.35 page 3)  http://acumen.lib.ua.edu/u0003/0003915?page=1 ].

Part of the reason for quick repair: the repair workshops for the M & O Railroad were just to the north at Jackson. The other reason: it appears when Major Hayes removed the steel rails, they were simply tossed off the embankment, into the swamp. Enterprising workers, after restoring the trestle, simply retrieved those rails and put them back into place... which is why subsequent railroad raids involved bonfires and steel "bow-ties."

Cheers

Ozzy

 

 

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Mona

Another place to look for reaction to the raid is in Cartmell's Diary http://teva.contentdm.oclc.org/cdm/compoundobject/collection/p15138coll39/id/268/rec/302 . Reports arrived at Jackson from the south on the 13th of March, indicating Federal cavalry "had burned a bridge beyond Henderson Station." Next day, Cartmell reports "a train heading south, carrying troops to Iuka." [See page 157 of diary.] But, in all likelihood, this train carried rails, connectors, sleepers and timber for the repair of the trestle destroyed by Major Hayes.

Ozzy

 

N.B.  A hint in regard to the Pinhook Expedition: Pinhook of 1862 is today's Lutts, Tennessee.

 

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i was going to ask...why did they call it pinhook?? but really lutts is way over in hardin county across the river

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Mona

That is correct: Lutts (called Pinhook 156 years ago) is "way over there" near the eastern edge of Hardin County. And the Pinhook Expedition was launched from Savannah in March 1862.

Cheers

Ozzy

 

N.B.  Concerning the origin of the name, the watercourse in vicinity was called Pinhook River (today called Pinhook Branch.) Perhaps the name was derived from Native American identification; perhaps it referred to a sharp bend or other feature in the watercourse?

 

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Interesting. The 16th WI was in a little battle called Pinhook, LA during the Vicksburg campaign. I wasn't aware there were two civil war battles of that name.

 

Jim

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correct..but how did the troops even know about that area,,,i dont think any of wallace's troops had course through that region had they?

 

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Mona and Jim

First, here is what may be the derivation of "pinhook"    http://www.waywordradio.org/pinhook/  

As regards, "How did the Federal troops even know about that area...?"   In Navy Lieutenant Shirks' report of March 15th 1862 is recorded:  "On March 6th I received on board [USS Lexington] twenty armed men, refugees from Wayne County Tennessee, who asked my protection from Rebel marauding cavalry..." [from OR (Navy) Serial 1 Vol.22 pages 666 - 8.]

Shirk and Gwin were in frequent contact with General Grant while he was based at Fort Henry in early March; and after he established himself at Savannah.

Cheers

Ozzy

 

N.B.  Pea Ridge is another over-used term, describing a battle in Arkansas, and a skirmish (or two) in Tennessee.

 

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i was wondering yesterday when fed troops . had first contact with any local men...these wayne co men fill that answer.

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Mona

Without giving the answer to the quiz question away, here is an interesting link: http://www.tngenweb.org/wayne/civilwar.htm

Also, WI16thJim started a topic in 2013, "A Revelation of War: Civilians in Hardin County" containing an extensive article by Vicki Betts, which supports much of what is contained in the Wayne County tngenweb link.

Regards

Ozzy

 

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its taken me a while but...heres the answer...Mcclerndand was station at Savannah in arch 1862...he sent Col Leonard F Ross of the 3rd Brigade of McClerndand's 1st Division.down that way for the purpose of cjlearing that section of the county of marauders and destroy rebel supplies.march 18th-20th 1862.The expedition left on the 18th with  3 reg of infantry,7 comp of calvary and 2 12# howitzers .they encamped that evening at plantations of me gould and a mr carter. the morning of the 19th they traveled on muddy roads to the town of pin-hook.there they confiscated a flour mill that was providing flour for the rebel troops..then they returned to in to Savannah on the 20th.

'in the previous post your link to the origin of pin-hook is very interesting...it read that it referred to to do with race horses...well not too far from this pinhook/lutts area is florence alabama..and back in the early 1800's it was a mecca for thoroughbred breding and racing.there is a road in florence named jackson rd--after andrew jackson who traveled down that road often from nashville for racehorse business.  i will have to looking to this more but i dont recall any thoroughbred farms in SW hardin county..but...??the pinhook area was pretty much a farming community.kinda still is.

p.s. i have to give stay allen credit ..he is my source of research on the expedition part of this answer. the horse part i know from jackson research.

 

 

 

 

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Mona

Well Done! Not only is your answer correct, but I managed to learn something, as well.

When I first heard of the Pinhook Expedition (sometimes referred to as Pin Hook Expedition) and realized it was sent East (while the railroads needing attention were to the South and to the West) and wondered, "Why venture over there?" To the rescue... I stumbled upon a couple of 20th Century resources (I won't embarrass the authors) that claimed, "Pin Hook was a meaningless operation concocted by General John McClernand, that accomplished almost nothing." Still, I wondered why I had not heard of it (until stumbling upon the reference in the back of Papers of US Grant, volume 4.) 

As you suggest, the expedition was initiated by General McClernand, who sent a force east "to clear the area of marauding cavalry, and deny foodstuffs and other supplies to the enemy." the units involved: 43rd Illinois Infantry, 45th Illinois Infantry, 17th Illinois Infantry, two howitzers belonging to Taylor's Battery, and seven companies from Stewart's Independent Illinois Cavalry. (I believe a guide -- resident to Wayne County, possibly one of the men that "joined the crew" of USS Lexington -- accompanied the expedition, but have not found verification as yet.) Starting in the direction of Waynesboro, the force eventually ended up well to the southeast in vicinity of Lutts, in Wayne County, and learned of a mill operator, grinding and storing flour (corn flour?) for use of the Rebels. The mill was sited north of Lutts, probably at Martin Mills: the stockpile of ground meal was taken (some sources indicate the mill was destroyed, too) and Ross's expedition returned to Savannah on March 20th.

Besides eliminating the stockpile of flour, these are other accomplishments of the Pinhook Expedition:

  • Confirmed no significant Rebel presence immediately east or southeast of Savannah (for benefit of Buell and the telegraph)
  • Verified significant Union feeling to the east of Savannah;
  • A few days afterwards, elements of Curtis Horse began stringing the telegraph wire east from Savannah;
  • Buell's uneasiness (claimed in March 17th telegram that "the Confederates intended to attack Smith at Savannah") was put to rest;
  • It is estimated over 200 Wayne County men joined the Union cause (and the 10th Tennessee Infantry (USA) was enrolled just after Shiloh).

Once again, Well Done to Mona!

Ozzy

 

References:  Papers of US Grant Vol.4 pages 490 - 1

http://www.tngenweb.org/wayne/civilwar.htm   (click on "Union" for details of 10th Tennessee Infantry (USA) and scroll down)

 

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