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Confederate Firearms by Regiment for Shiloh

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Notes on Firearms used by the different Confederate Regiments and Brigades at the Battle of Shiloh April 6-7th 1862.

Note* The results posted here is a work in progress to be updated when new research is found. The results are not final.

This is a simple compilation of what has been discovered. The footnotes are not included here, but will be part of a final paper or report to be given to the Shiloh NPS.

For the record, sources used were RG 109 Regimental Papers NA., The Wyckoff analysis done by the Shiloh NPS on firearms, Frederick Todd’s book on American Military Equipage, Official Records of the Civil War, and several other State and written sources from Civil War Study Groups, letters, papers, photographic evidence of original Confederate soldiers posing with their issued firearms, Regimental Histories, Confederate Veteran Magazine and memoirs.

1st Corp

Major General Leonidas Polk

Clark’s Division

Russell’s Brigade

11th Louisiana- evidence to the use of cap and ball .69 caliber smoothbores

12th Tennessee-evidence to the use of cap and ball and flintlock .69 caliber smoothbore muskets

13th Tennessee-evidence to the use of flintlock .69 caliber smoothbores, “we had old flintlocks, muzzle loaders with buck and ball.”

22nd Tennessee- initially flintlock .69 caliber smoothbores, early British smoothbores .70 caliber—possible issue of Enfield Rifles, before or picked up during the Battle.

Total—for the Brigade 2,650 smoothbores and a possible 800 with Enfield Rifles—research continues.

 

Stewart’s Brigade

13th Arkansas- evidence to use of cap and ball .69 caliber smoothbores

4th Tennessee-evidence to use of cap and ball .69 caliber smoothbores and an assortment of “old guns.”

5th Tennessee [35th Tennessee]-evidence to the use of cap and ball .69 caliber smoothbores, some Companies with civilian Rifles, Mississippi Rifles or 1855 Rifles, research continues-

33rd Tennessee- initially “shotguns, civilian hunting rifles”-issued flintlock .69 caliber smoothbores prior to Battle.

Total—for the Brigade 1,706 smoothbores, maybe 100 rifles, research continues.

 

Cheatham’s Division

Johnson’s Brigade

Blythe’s Infantry Mississippi, 7 Hall’s Rifles returned after the Battle— Co A. Sharp’s Rifles, Co B. shotguns, Co I. Civilian Rifles .32 caliber, and he rest old flintlock and cap and ball .69 caliber muskets.

2nd Tennessee Infantry, J. Knox Walker—UNKNOWN

15TH Tennessee Infantry, initially 744 men with flintlocks .69 caliber—mixed flintlock and cap and ball .69 caliber muskets during the Battle of Shiloh.

154th Tennessee Senior Infantry, Co. L armed with Maynard Rifles, the rest unknown.

2, 052 men in the Brigade—we know of 500 with smoothbores and 50-100 with Maynard Rifles .32 or .50 caliber.

 

Stephen’s Brigade

7th Kentucky Infantry, evidence to being armed with new Enfield Rifles prior to Battle.

1st Tennessee Infantry Battalion, some Companies with 1855 rifles, and the rest .69 caliber smoothbores

6th Tennessee Infantry, flintlock .69 caliber smoothbores and some cap and ball .69 caliber smoothbores.

9th Tennessee Infantry, flintlock .69 caliber smoothbores

1,620 men in the Brigade, estimated 600 with rifles, Enfield’s and Maynard’s, the rest 1020 with smoothbore muskets.

 

2nd Corp

Major General Braxton Bragg

Ruggle’s Division

Gibson’s Brigade

1st Arkansas Infantry, Fagan’s, Co. B with smoothbores

4th Louisiana, photo evidence to cap and ball .69 caliber smoothbores

13th Louisiana Infantry, evidence to the issue of 700 muskets, smoothbores, type unknown.

19th Louisiana Infantry, photo evidence to cap and ball .69 caliber smoothbores.

2,560 men with most smoothbores.

 

Anderson’s Brigade

1st Florida Infantry, “upon the Regimental formation…the Franklin Rifles received 1855 rifled muskets, [drilled initially with flintlock muskets], Confederate Government issued Model 1842 .69 caliber muskets, Pensacola Guards armed with a mixture of muskets.”

9th Texas Infantry, evidence to .69 caliber smoothbore muskets, some with shotguns.

17th Louisiana Infantry, evidence to some carrying .54 rebored civilian rifles, the rest UNKNOWN

20th Louisiana Infantry, UNKNOWN

Confederate Guards Response Battalion, 1,000 .58 caliber rounds issued- some had 1855 rifles, the rest UNKNOWN

1,633 men, 50-100 1855 rifled muskets, possible civilian rifles bored to .54 caliber, low numbers issued, estimated 426 with smoothbores, the rest UNKNOWN

 

Pond’s Brigade

16th Louisiana Infantry, photo evidence some Companies with Mississippi Rifles, and .69 caliber cap and ball muskets.

18th Louisiana Infantry, flank companies armed with rifles and the rest smoothbore muskets.

38th Tennessee Infantry, “I have armed Looney’s with Shotguns, Country Rifles, and old muskets [flintlocks?].”

Crescent Infantry, “5 Companies with 1819 Hall’s rifles .52 caliber, 2 Companies with smoothbore muskets, and 1 with shotguns.”

Orleans Guards Infantry Battalion, flank Companies with 1855 rifles and the rest Model 1842 .69 caliber cap and ball muskets.

2,644 men, 150-250 with Mississippi rifles, [250 with Hall’s Rifles .52 caliber], 100 with shotguns, and the rest approximately 2,044 with smoothbores.

 

Wither’s Division

Gladden’s Brigade

1st Louisiana Regulars, flank Companies .58 caliber 1855 rifled muskets, the balance .69 caliber smoothbore muskets

21st Alabama Infantry, UNKNOWN

22nd Alabama Infantry, armed with private purchase Enfield two band rifles and sword bayonets.

25th Alabama Infantry, issues of caps 2,000 and photo evidence to cap and ball .69 caliber muskets, and some shotguns.

26th Alabama Infantry, photo evidence to some Companies, flank, Mississippi Rifles and the balance .69 caliber cap and ball muskets smoothbores.

2,156 men, maybe 500-600 with rifles, and the rest approximately 1600 with .69 caliber smoothbore muskets.

 

Chalmer’s Brigade

5th Mississippi, issue evidence, 9,000 musket ball cartridges and 1,000 musket caps, and photo evidence smoothbore musket—Armed with .69 caliber cap and ball smoothbore muskets.

7th Mississippi Infantry, Co. F armed with Hall’s Rifles .52 calibler.

9th Mississippi Infantry, Co. D armed with Mississippi Rifles .54 caliber, other sources list Enfield Rifles issued prior to Shiloh.

10th Mississippi Infantry, evidence to all Rifles, Mississippi’s and 1855 Rifled muskets.

52nd Tennessee Infantry [plus segments of the 51st Tennessee], armed with shotguns and the 51st men, armed with Hall’s .52 caliber rifled muskets.

2,236 men estimated 1,000 Rifles, 400 shotguns, and 700-800 smoothbore muskets and UNKNOWN’s.

 

 

 

Jackson’s Brigade

2nd Texas Infantry, evidence to smoothbore muskets [more research forthcoming]

17th Alabama Infantry, UNKNOWN

18th Alabama, photo evidence to cap and ball conversion .69 caliber smoothbore muskets and Mississippi Rifles.

19th Alabama, photo evidence to Mississippi Rifles and conversion .69 caliber smoothbore muskets.

2,127 men, unknown number of Mississippi Rifles .54 caliber, maybe 200 to 300 and 1,500 smoothbore muskets. The 17th Alabama is an UNKNOWN.

 

3rd Corp

Major General William J. Hardee

Hindman’s Brigade

2nd Arkansas Infantry, initially issued smoothbores and Flintlock Hall’s Rifles .52 caliber. Issued new Enfield Rifles in November of 1861.

3rd Confederate Infantry, [18th Arkansas Infantry], armed with Enfield Rifles.

6th Arkansas Infantry, went into Battle with Model 1819 Hall’s flintlock rifled muskets, .52 caliber.

7th Arkansas Infantry, went into Battle with Model 1819 Hall’s flintlock rifled muskets, .52 caliber.

2,290 men, all armed with Rifles, Hall’s and Enfields, but the Hall’s “flint and steel muskets put the men at a great disadvantage.”

 

Cleburne’s Brigade

2nd Tennessee Provisional Bate’s, mixed civilian rifles and flintlocks initially.

6th Mississippi Infantry, two flank companies Enfield Rifled muskets, and the rest “mixed”

15th Arkansas Infantry, poor arms, but picked up new Enfield Rifles from Peabody’s camps.

23rd Tennessee Infantry, Flintlock .69 caliber smoothbore muskets.

24th Tennessee Infantry, some 1841 Model Mississippi Rifles and the balance flintlock .69 caliber smoothbores.

2,537 men, maybe 500 rifles, and approximately 1,258 smoothbore muskets.

 

Wood’s Brigade

3rd Mississippi Infantry Battalion, UNKNOWN

8th Arkansas Infantry, Conflicting evidence, one source says Enfield Rifles and the original ordnance records show 24,000 Flintlock cartridges issued post Shiloh, April-May, 1862.

9th Arkansas Infantry Battalion, Model 1819 Hall’s Rifled muskets and a mix of civilian guns.

16th Alabama Infantry, cap and ball .69 caliber smoothbore muskets.

27th Tennessee Infantry, issued new Enfield Rifles in December of 1861.

44th Tennessee Infantry, UNKNOWN

55th Tennessee Infantry, only two Companies armed with flintlock .69 caliber smoothbore muskets.

1,996 men, 3rd Mississippi Battalion and 44th Tennessee UNKNOWN- 490 rifles known and 580 smoothbores.

 

Reserve Corp

Brigadier General John C. Breckenridge

Trabue’s Brigade

3rd Kentucky Infantry, evidence to mix cap and ball .69 caliber smoothbores and flintlock .69 caliber smoothbores.

4th Alabama Infantry, evidence to Enfield Rifles and smoothbores

5th Kentucky Infantry, “Ragamuffins’ armed with long-rifles [civilian].”

6th Kentucky Infantry, went into the Battle armed with smoothbores, traded them for Enfield Rifles on the 6th.

31st Alabama Infantry, evidence to part Enfield Rifles and smoothbore muskets.

Crew’s Infantry Battalion, “poorly armed.”

2,678 men.

 

Second Brigade

Brig. Gen. JOHN S. BOWEN (wounded)

Col. JOHN D. MARTIN

9th Arkansas, mix of Hall’s Rifles, cap and ball .69 caliber muskets and civilian rifles and shotguns.

Col. Isaac L. Dunlop

10th Arkansas, Model 1819 Hall’s flintlock Rifles .52 caliber

Col. Thomas H. Merrick

2d Confederate Infantry [25th Mississippi Infantry], UNKNOWN

Col. John d. Martin

Maj. Thomas H. Mangum

1st Missouri Infantry, evidence to Enfield Rifles

 

Third Brigade

Col. WINFIELD S. STATHAM, 15th Mississippi

15th Mississippi Infantry, Co. G Maynard Rifles and Mississippi Rifles, the rest flintlock .69 caliber smoothbores.

22d Mississippi Infantry, evidence to all Enfield Rifles.

19th Tennessee Infantry, initially flintlock .69 caliber smoothbore muskets, days before Shiloh, cap and ball .69 caliber smoothbore muskets and 97 Mississippi Rifles .54 caliber.

Col. David H. Cummings

20th Tennessee Infantry, initially with flintlock .69 caliber smoothbore muskets, in March of 1862, all new Enfield Rifles and accoutrements.

Col. Joel A. Battle (captured)

28th Tennessee Infantry, “615 flintlock smoothbore muskets for 915 men October of 1861.” Possibility of Enfield Rifles for the balance.

45th Tennessee, Mix of cap and ball .69 caliber smoothbore muskets, some Enfield Rifles and Mississippi Rifles.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Notes on Firearms used by the different Confederate Regiments and Brigades at the Battle of Shiloh April 6-7th 1862.

Note* The results posted here is a work in progress to be updated when new research is found. The results are not final.

This is a simple compilation of what has been discovered. The footnotes are not included here, but will be part of a final paper or report to be given to the Shiloh NPS.

For the record, sources used were RG 109 Regimental Papers NA., The Wyckoff analysis done by the Shiloh NPS on firearms, Frederick Todd’s book on American Military Equipage, Official Records of the Civil War, and several other State and written sources from Civil War Study Groups, letters, papers, photographic evidence of original Confederate soldiers posing with their issued firearms, Regimental Histories, Confederate Veteran Magazine and memoirs.

1st Corp

Major General Leonidas Polk

Clark’s Division

Russell’s Brigade

11th Louisiana- evidence to the use of cap and ball .69 caliber smoothbores

12th Tennessee-evidence to the use of cap and ball and flintlock .69 caliber smoothbore muskets

13th Tennessee-evidence to the use of flintlock .69 caliber smoothbores, “we had old flintlocks, muzzle loaders with buck and ball.”

22nd Tennessee- initially flintlock .69 caliber smoothbores, early British smoothbores .70 caliber—possible issue of Enfield Rifles, before or picked up during the Battle.

Total—for the Brigade 2,650 smoothbores and a possible 800 with Enfield Rifles—research continues.

 

Stewart’s Brigade

13th Arkansas- evidence to use of cap and ball .69 caliber smoothbores

4th Tennessee-evidence to use of cap and ball .69 caliber smoothbores and an assortment of “old guns.”

5th Tennessee [35th Tennessee]-evidence to the use of cap and ball .69 caliber smoothbores, some Companies with civilian Rifles, Mississippi Rifles or 1855 Rifles, research continues-

33rd Tennessee- initially “shotguns, civilian hunting rifles”-issued flintlock .69 caliber smoothbores prior to Battle.

Total—for the Brigade 1,706 smoothbores, maybe 100 rifles, research continues.

 

Cheatham’s Division

Johnson’s Brigade

Blythe’s Infantry Mississippi, 7 Hall’s Rifles returned after the Battle— Co A. Sharp’s Rifles, Co B. shotguns, Co I. Civilian Rifles .32 caliber, and he rest old flintlock and cap and ball .69 caliber muskets.

2nd Tennessee Infantry, J. Knox Walker—UNKNOWN

15TH Tennessee Infantry, initially 744 men with flintlocks .69 caliber—mixed flintlock and cap and ball .69 caliber muskets during the Battle of Shiloh.

154th Tennessee Senior Infantry, Co. L armed with Maynard Rifles, the rest unknown.

2, 052 men in the Brigade—we know of 500 with smoothbores and 50-100 with Maynard Rifles .32 or .50 caliber.

 

Stephen’s Brigade

7th Kentucky Infantry, evidence to being armed with new Enfield Rifles prior to Battle.

1st Tennessee Infantry Battalion, some Companies with 1855 rifles, and the rest .69 caliber smoothbores

6th Tennessee Infantry, flintlock .69 caliber smoothbores and some cap and ball .69 caliber smoothbores.

9th Tennessee Infantry, flintlock .69 caliber smoothbores

1,620 men in the Brigade, estimated 600 with rifles, Enfield’s and Maynard’s, the rest 1020 with smoothbore muskets.

 

2nd Corp

Major General Braxton Bragg

Ruggle’s Division

Gibson’s Brigade

1st Arkansas Infantry, Fagan’s, Co. B with smoothbores

4th Louisiana, photo evidence to cap and ball .69 caliber smoothbores

13th Louisiana Infantry, evidence to the issue of 700 muskets, smoothbores, type unknown.

19th Louisiana Infantry, photo evidence to cap and ball .69 caliber smoothbores.

2,560 men with most smoothbores.

 

Anderson’s Brigade

1st Florida Infantry, “upon the Regimental formation…the Franklin Rifles received 1855 rifled muskets, [drilled initially with flintlock muskets], Confederate Government issued Model 1842 .69 caliber muskets, Pensacola Guards armed with a mixture of muskets.”

9th Texas Infantry, evidence to .69 caliber smoothbore muskets, some with shotguns.

17th Louisiana Infantry, evidence to some carrying .54 rebored civilian rifles, the rest UNKNOWN

20th Louisiana Infantry, UNKNOWN

Confederate Guards Response Battalion, 1,000 .58 caliber rounds issued- some had 1855 rifles, the rest UNKNOWN

1,633 men, 50-100 1855 rifled muskets, possible civilian rifles bored to .54 caliber, low numbers issued, estimated 426 with smoothbores, the rest UNKNOWN

 

Pond’s Brigade

16th Louisiana Infantry, photo evidence some Companies with Mississippi Rifles, and .69 caliber cap and ball muskets.

18th Louisiana Infantry, flank companies armed with rifles and the rest smoothbore muskets.

38th Tennessee Infantry, “I have armed Looney’s with Shotguns, Country Rifles, and old muskets [flintlocks?].”

Crescent Infantry, “5 Companies with 1819 Hall’s rifles .52 caliber, 2 Companies with smoothbore muskets, and 1 with shotguns.”

Orleans Guards Infantry Battalion, flank Companies with 1855 rifles and the rest Model 1842 .69 caliber cap and ball muskets.

2,644 men, 150-250 with Mississippi rifles, [250 with Hall’s Rifles .52 caliber], 100 with shotguns, and the rest approximately 2,044 with smoothbores.

 

Wither’s Division

Gladden’s Brigade

1st Louisiana Regulars, flank Companies .58 caliber 1855 rifled muskets, the balance .69 caliber smoothbore muskets

21st Alabama Infantry, UNKNOWN

22nd Alabama Infantry, armed with private purchase Enfield two band rifles and sword bayonets.

25th Alabama Infantry, issues of caps 2,000 and photo evidence to cap and ball .69 caliber muskets, and some shotguns.

26th Alabama Infantry, photo evidence to some Companies, flank, Mississippi Rifles and the balance .69 caliber cap and ball muskets smoothbores.

2,156 men, maybe 500-600 with rifles, and the rest approximately 1600 with .69 caliber smoothbore muskets.

 

Chalmer’s Brigade

5th Mississippi, issue evidence, 9,000 musket ball cartridges and 1,000 musket caps, and photo evidence smoothbore musket—Armed with .69 caliber cap and ball smoothbore muskets.

7th Mississippi Infantry, Co. F armed with Hall’s Rifles .52 calibler.

9th Mississippi Infantry, Co. D armed with Mississippi Rifles .54 caliber, other sources list Enfield Rifles issued prior to Shiloh.

10th Mississippi Infantry, evidence to all Rifles, Mississippi’s and 1855 Rifled muskets.

52nd Tennessee Infantry [plus segments of the 51st Tennessee], armed with shotguns and the 51st men, armed with Hall’s .52 caliber rifled muskets.

2,236 men estimated 1,000 Rifles, 400 shotguns, and 700-800 smoothbore muskets and UNKNOWN’s.

 

 

 

Jackson’s Brigade

2nd Texas Infantry, evidence to smoothbore muskets [more research forthcoming]

17th Alabama Infantry, UNKNOWN

18th Alabama, photo evidence to cap and ball conversion .69 caliber smoothbore muskets and Mississippi Rifles.

19th Alabama, photo evidence to Mississippi Rifles and conversion .69 caliber smoothbore muskets.

2,127 men, unknown number of Mississippi Rifles .54 caliber, maybe 200 to 300 and 1,500 smoothbore muskets. The 17th Alabama is an UNKNOWN.

 

3rd Corp

Major General William J. Hardee

Hindman’s Brigade

2nd Arkansas Infantry, initially issued smoothbores and Flintlock Hall’s Rifles .52 caliber. Issued new Enfield Rifles in November of 1861.

3rd Confederate Infantry, [18th Arkansas Infantry], armed with Enfield Rifles.

6th Arkansas Infantry, went into Battle with Model 1819 Hall’s flintlock rifled muskets, .52 caliber.

7th Arkansas Infantry, went into Battle with Model 1819 Hall’s flintlock rifled muskets, .52 caliber.

2,290 men, all armed with Rifles, Hall’s and Enfields, but the Hall’s “flint and steel muskets put the men at a great disadvantage.”

 

Cleburne’s Brigade

2nd Tennessee Provisional Bate’s, mixed civilian rifles and flintlocks initially.

6th Mississippi Infantry, two flank companies Enfield Rifled muskets, and the rest “mixed”

15th Arkansas Infantry, poor arms, but picked up new Enfield Rifles from Peabody’s camps.

23rd Tennessee Infantry, Flintlock .69 caliber smoothbore muskets.

24th Tennessee Infantry, some 1841 Model Mississippi Rifles and the balance flintlock .69 caliber smoothbores.

2,537 men, maybe 500 rifles, and approximately 1,258 smoothbore muskets.

 

Wood’s Brigade

3rd Mississippi Infantry Battalion, UNKNOWN

8th Arkansas Infantry, Conflicting evidence, one source says Enfield Rifles and the original ordnance records show 24,000 Flintlock cartridges issued post Shiloh, April-May, 1862.

9th Arkansas Infantry Battalion, Model 1819 Hall’s Rifled muskets and a mix of civilian guns.

16th Alabama Infantry, cap and ball .69 caliber smoothbore muskets.

27th Tennessee Infantry, issued new Enfield Rifles in December of 1861.

44th Tennessee Infantry, UNKNOWN

55th Tennessee Infantry, only two Companies armed with flintlock .69 caliber smoothbore muskets.

1,996 men, 3rd Mississippi Battalion and 44th Tennessee UNKNOWN- 490 rifles known and 580 smoothbores.

 

Reserve Corp

Brigadier General John C. Breckenridge

Trabue’s Brigade

3rd Kentucky Infantry, evidence to mix cap and ball .69 caliber smoothbores and flintlock .69 caliber smoothbores.

4th Alabama Infantry, evidence to Enfield Rifles and smoothbores

5th Kentucky Infantry, “Ragamuffins’ armed with long-rifles [civilian].”

6th Kentucky Infantry, went into the Battle armed with smoothbores, traded them for Enfield Rifles on the 6th.

31st Alabama Infantry, evidence to part Enfield Rifles and smoothbore muskets.

Crew’s Infantry Battalion, “poorly armed.”

2,678 men.

 

Second Brigade

Brig. Gen. JOHN S. BOWEN (wounded)

Col. JOHN D. MARTIN

9th Arkansas, mix of Hall’s Rifles, cap and ball .69 caliber muskets and civilian rifles and shotguns.

Col. Isaac L. Dunlop

10th Arkansas, Model 1819 Hall’s flintlock Rifles .52 caliber

Col. Thomas H. Merrick

2d Confederate Infantry [25th Mississippi Infantry], UNKNOWN

Col. John d. Martin

Maj. Thomas H. Mangum

1st Missouri Infantry, evidence to Enfield Rifles

 

Third Brigade

Col. WINFIELD S. STATHAM, 15th Mississippi

15th Mississippi Infantry, Co. G Maynard Rifles and Mississippi Rifles, the rest flintlock .69 caliber smoothbores.

22d Mississippi Infantry, evidence to all Enfield Rifles.

19th Tennessee Infantry, initially flintlock .69 caliber smoothbore muskets, days before Shiloh, cap and ball .69 caliber smoothbore muskets and 97 Mississippi Rifles .54 caliber.

Col. David H. Cummings

20th Tennessee Infantry, initially with flintlock .69 caliber smoothbore muskets, in March of 1862, all new Enfield Rifles and accoutrements.

Col. Joel A. Battle (captured)

28th Tennessee Infantry, “615 flintlock smoothbore muskets for 915 men October of 1861.” Possibility of Enfield Rifles for the balance.

45th Tennessee, Mix of cap and ball .69 caliber smoothbore muskets, some Enfield Rifles and Mississippi Rifles.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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Thomas

Excellent accumulation of data... and it cannot be helped noticing that, "There were a lot of Rebel .69 calibre weapons."

Implication: as long as a man in Confederate service, armed with .69 calibre weapon continued to move forward (and had a substantial quantity of caps on hand) he could make use of any ammunition found and fire it from his smoothbore. In the close-quarters fighting that took place at Shiloh, undersized slugs fired from fifty feet will do the job just as effectively as "proper sized" ammunition. (And this could also help explain the "delays in Union camps to eat breakfast" ...perhaps ammunition and caps were also being snatched up?)

Thoughts?

Ozzy

 

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5 hours ago, Ozzy said:

Thomas

Excellent accumulation of data... and it cannot be helped noticing that, "There were a lot of Rebel .69 calibre weapons."

Implication: as long as a man in Confederate service, armed with .69 calibre weapon continued to move forward (and had a substantial quantity of caps on hand) he could make use of any ammunition found and fire it from his smoothbore. In the close-quarters fighting that took place at Shiloh, undersized slugs fired from fifty feet will do the job just as effectively as "proper sized" ammunition. (And this could also help explain the "delays in Union camps to eat breakfast" ...perhaps ammunition and caps were also being snatched up?)

Thoughts?

Ozzy

 

Picking up any ammunition on the Battlefield, .54 or .577, or .58 pr .52 minnie balls would be like firing marbles out of a 1 inch pipe-- ZERO ACCURACY-- your smoothbore was good with the proper .69 issued buck and ball cartridge to only 50 to 75 yards at best... with an undersized slug you might get away with 25 to 40 yards and your percent of hits would be less than 30%. The whole idea with smoothbores was the use of Napoleonic tactics in Battle. Move forward to 50 to 80 yards- firing a volley or volleys, charge bayonets and push the enemy back-- at the risk of tremendous casualties to your side. Rifles negated Napoleonic tactics. They were effective at 150 yards up to 300 yards with a trained marksman.  They could shoot you down before you could get in reach of your bayonets-- Cannons would help silence a position and stealth and courage on your side. The casualties at Shiloh were horrific for the CSA. Smoothbores and their lack of range contributed to that outcome.

 

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14 hours ago, Stan Hutson said:

Great stuff!  More comments after I read all this!

Stan, still having trouble finding arms issued to the different Alabama units. I have scanned the Alabama files and found nothing. Can you help. Tom

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Thomas

Astute description of a 12-gauge shotgun loaded with 00 slugs: "a one-inch pipe firing marbles."

One aspect of the Confederate operation at Shiloh remains puzzling: "How effective was the ammunition re-supply?" If John K. Jackson's experience in the final attempt against Grant's Last Line is any indication.... 

Regards

Ozzy

Reference:  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Combat_shotgun  

OR 10 page 555 (Jackson's report: indicates his men were out of ammunition)

OR 10 page 550 (Chalmers' report: indicates he "distributed ammunition to his men before advancing for the final assault of Day One")

 

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8 hours ago, CSuniforms said:

Stan, still having trouble finding arms issued to the different Alabama units. I have scanned the Alabama files and found nothing. Can you help. Tom

25th Alabama Infantry account by Cpt. William P. Howell, Company I, 25th Alabama Infantry.  He is referring to Pvt. Burton Jackson Waddell, Company I, 25th Alabama Infantry.  I know this is just one account, but, pretty neat.

 

I will here relate a little incident of a man in my company. In the summer of ’61 when the company was being raised at Oak Level one B.J. Waddell who had just returned from Texas joined our company and had a fine rifle gun which he had secured in the west and insisted that he must carry it to shoot yankees and in our first engagement which I have already described, having shot his rifle a few rounds and while on his knees trying to reload, a yankee bullet struck him in the heel, which disabled him in the balance of the war and while he is still living and resides near Anniston, Alabama. I don’t think he has ever recovered from that gun shot.

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8 hours ago, CSuniforms said:

Stan, still having trouble finding arms issued to the different Alabama units. I have scanned the Alabama files and found nothing. Can you help. Tom

Will look through my files and see what I can find as well.

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On 7/17/2018 at 5:38 PM, Ozzy said:

Thomas

Astute description of a 12-gauge shotgun loaded with 00 slugs: "a one-inch pipe firing marbles."

One aspect of the Confederate operation at Shiloh remains puzzling: "How effective was the ammunition re-supply?" If John K. Jackson's experience in the final attempt against Grant's Last Line is any indication.... 

Regards

Ozzy

Reference:  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Combat_shotgun  

OR 10 page 555 (Jackson's report: indicates his men were out of ammunition)

OR 10 page 550 (Chalmers' report: indicates he "distributed ammunition to his men before advancing for the final assault of Day One")

 

OZZY-- Thank You for your input. You are correct that entire Regiments fell out of line for lack of ammunition. Federal and Confederate! The Confederates were each given 40 rounds of ammunition for their particular firearm and another 100? per man were carried in the ordnance trains that followed the Army as they advanced. These wagons, many were lost or abandoned by their teamsters throughout the day. There are some accounts of the Confederates finding ammunition stacks in the abandoned Federal Camps too! Ammunition was a problem-- even Grant and Sherman acknowledged the difficulty of supplying ammunition to the Army of different calibres. Tom 

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On 7/17/2018 at 12:52 PM, CSuniforms said:

Stan, still having trouble finding arms issued to the different Alabama units. I have scanned the Alabama files and found nothing. Can you help. Tom

Tom,

As you know, to say that regimental armament at Shiloh is confusing is an understatement.  My buddy, who studies Statham's brigade and the 15th Mississippi in particular, had this to say about that regiment and its weaponry at Shiloh:

"Col. Statham's request for 900 enfields for the 15th Miss Rgt is approved days before Adj. Binford requested 8,000 .69 cartridges and 2,000 Mississippi cartridges for Shiloh.  There isn't a surviving munitions request for enfield cartridges and oddly the enlisted men talk about having Belgian and Austrian weapons at Shiloh, some of the accounts written less than a week afterwards. So they are certainly not conclusive at any rate."

I consulted my buddy about doing Shiloh weapons research and trying to determine what unit carried what weapons.  He said lots of this information does not exist on a large scale.  We may know what "some members" of a regiment were carrying at Shiloh, but as for the rest, it is unknown.  He said that one would have to look at requisition forms, like in Fold3, for the regimental adjutant, Major, Lt. Col., or Colonel.  And those appear to be scarce or non-existent in most cases.  

Long story short, it seems like one heck of a research mountain to climb :)

Stan

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Yes, My notes say Co. G, had 4 Maynard Rifles and the balance Mississippi Rifles, so the 2,000 Mississippi cartridges for Shiloh. The rest of the Companies carried flintlock .69 calibre muskets. I have the Will McDonald notes that says they carried Enfields! Maybe? So you post both-- and hope someone who has the correct factual info offers to share his or her findings. 

I also use photos. I try to locate photos of soldiers carrying firearms and go from there. All of it has to be included. You are correct in that a lot of this information has disappeared or the Veterans never wrote it down for us. I have discovered a lot of information from CS Regiments who were never at Shiloh-- with massive requisitions, ordnance reports, and letters, diaries and memoirs!! But not at Shiloh!!!! I will stand behind my research until someone proves me wrong. And so far, not a lot of folks have come forward to contest it, which is good. I stated I want folks to challenge it or change it with factual research. 

I just finished the Federal Army at Shiloh!!!! Their arms!!! A lot of Rifles especially in Buell's Army!!!

Tom Arliskas

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On 7/24/2018 at 8:43 AM, CSuniforms said:

Yes, My notes say Co. G, had 4 Maynard Rifles and the balance Mississippi Rifles, so the 2,000 Mississippi cartridges for Shiloh. The rest of the Companies carried flintlock .69 calibre muskets. I have the Will McDonald notes that says they carried Enfields! Maybe? So you post both-- and hope someone who has the correct factual info offers to share his or her findings. 

I also use photos. I try to locate photos of soldiers carrying firearms and go from there. All of it has to be included. You are correct in that a lot of this information has disappeared or the Veterans never wrote it down for us. I have discovered a lot of information from CS Regiments who were never at Shiloh-- with massive requisitions, ordnance reports, and letters, diaries and memoirs!! But not at Shiloh!!!! I will stand behind my research until someone proves me wrong. And so far, not a lot of folks have come forward to contest it, which is good. I stated I want folks to challenge it or change it with factual research. 

I just finished the Federal Army at Shiloh!!!! Their arms!!! A lot of Rifles especially in Buell's Army!!!

Tom Arliskas

Look forward to seeing the Federal information for sure.

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How reliable are photographs for identifying firearms?  I agree that if one has a photograph in the field then it should be reliable (but rare, especially in the Spring of 1862).  My impression is that of the studio photographs used the photographer's "props" in the pictures.  If a field studio was being used, then I suppose that a soldier might be allowed to take his weapon to it, but I doubt that he would be allowed to take his weapon into town to a "formal" studio.  I am not trying to discredit your work, which is very exciting, but am wondering how you address this issue. 

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7 hours ago, Transylvania said:

How reliable are photographs for identifying firearms?  I agree that if one has a photograph in the field then it should be reliable (but rare, especially in the Spring of 1862).  My impression is that of the studio photographs used the photographer's "props" in the pictures.  If a field studio was being used, then I suppose that a soldier might be allowed to take his weapon to it, but I doubt that he would be allowed to take his weapon into town to a "formal" studio.  I am not trying to discredit your work, which is very exciting, but am wondering how you address this issue. 

I know this was addressed to Tom, but I will chime in, seeing as how photographs is "my thing".  I love to study period photography, portraits in particular.  The issue of "photographers prop" versus the soldiers actual issued weapon in a photograph.  This is a doozie that IMHO will never be answered.  In many photographs it is obvious what you are seeing is a photographers prop.  How do we know?  Same pistol, same knife, BUT, saying it is the same long arm, that to me is impossible to determine.  I would argue that you see more photographers prop weapons in Confederate images.  I think, in respect to your statement, that Federal soldiers did indeed carry their own weapon to the photograph studio.  Soldiers would not leave camp and leave their weapon behind.  They carried it with them.  It then gets into well, was the photograph made in a town at a studio, was it made by a traveling photographer who set up a studio setting in the field, or what.  Sometimes we can tell the difference, other times, not so easy to decipher.    

There are a lot of rabbit holes still left untouched as far as research is concerned about this.  There are just tons of mind boggling variables.  Just take a random Confederate photograph for example.  You would have to research to see if the weapon the soldier is holding is the same style weapon that was issued to the unit, at least close to the time.  I have seen photographs, and actually own one, where, down to the T, the soldier is wearing his issued uniform and holding his issued musket.  Samuel Rickey, 7th Iowa Infantry.  I would argue that photographers, mainly in the South, did not have access to THAT many military grade weapons to use as props.  Those weapons were needed in the field.  At a time when the South was buying shotguns, of all things, from private individuals to arm the military, photographers would have a hard time holding on to an actual military grade weapon under such circumstances.  They did have them though.

As you can tell, this topic could get extremely long winded and go on for infinity.  Copying something I posted earlier, this is just the confusion in ONE unit, the 15th Mississippi Infantry at the time of Shiloh.  "Col. Statham's request for 900 enfields for the 15th Miss Rgt is approved days before Adj. Binford requested 8,000 .69 cartridges and 2,000 Mississippi cartridges for Shiloh.  There isn't a surviving munitions request for enfield cartridges and oddly the enlisted men talk about having Belgian and Austrian weapons at Shiloh, some of the accounts written less than a week afterwards. So they are certainly not conclusive at any rate."

Weapons carried at Shiloh by Federal soldiers at Shiloh would be MUCH easier to ascertain and determine with a huge deal of confidence.  The Confederate Army, much harder and in some cases I would say dang near impossible without documented proof coming to light.  To make a long story short, using images is a good reference, but ammunition requisitions and other documents to back it up is required.  Photos are a good tool to use, but far from solid evidence if taken alone without any other supporting documentation.  If a soldier is holding an 1816 converted flintlock in an image, but you know for fact based on documents that his regiment was largely carrying Enfields at Shiloh, well, you know the 1816 is either a photographers prop, or that weapon was later turned in and the soldier issued his new Enfield.  

Having said all this, I applaud Tom's work, it is no easy undertaking and gives us a further glimpse into the events at Shiloh.

Stan

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OK---- On making a determination about how a Confederate Regiment was armed using photographs as a back-up in the majority of the cases-- depends on how many photos you have.. If you have only one or two showing a particular arm, then all you can do is state, "two soldiers are carrying X"- BUT- When you have 10 or 12, like the 19th Alabama showing alternating Mississippi Rifles and Smoothbores-- Then you state, "19 members are carrying X"- and the photos were taken at Camp so and so-- when first mustered, they were issued these type of firearms.  You can make that determination and state it until you have Ordnance records or diaries to show otherwise. So far, no one has come forward to disagree... Yes, Some firearms are props-- and you can prove it by looking up the Ordnance Records. What is happening is that the pictures are backing up the reports-- which is a good thing for research. I have been doing this for many many years-- and have looked at hundreds of CS photos.-- I would state that the Federal Army was more guilty in having its soldiers posed with props.-- especially in the big city's. Louisiana is one State where the Ordnance Records are buried somewhere. We know that in general the State issued a lot of cap and ball smoothbores. The photos show this... so we can make a statement that Regiment so and so was issued smoothbore muskets from the State, backed by Ammunition issues and records. Research continues.

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On 8/2/2018 at 8:43 AM, CSuniforms said:

OK---- On making a determination about how a Confederate Regiment was armed using photographs as a back-up in the majority of the cases-- depends on how many photos you have.. If you have only one or two showing a particular arm, then all you can do is state, "two soldiers are carrying X"- BUT- When you have 10 or 12, like the 19th Alabama showing alternating Mississippi Rifles and Smoothbores-- Then you state, "19 members are carrying X"- and the photos were taken at Camp so and so-- when first mustered, they were issued these type of firearms.  You can make that determination and state it until you have Ordnance records or diaries to show otherwise. So far, no one has come forward to disagree... Yes, Some firearms are props-- and you can prove it by looking up the Ordnance Records. What is happening is that the pictures are backing up the reports-- which is a good thing for research. I have been doing this for many many years-- and have looked at hundreds of CS photos.-- I would state that the Federal Army was more guilty in having its soldiers posed with props.-- especially in the big city's. Louisiana is one State where the Ordnance Records are buried somewhere. We know that in general the State issued a lot of cap and ball smoothbores. The photos show this... so we can make a statement that Regiment so and so was issued smoothbore muskets from the State, backed by Ammunition issues and records. Research continues.

When will your Federals at Shiloh information be posted?  Inquiring minds want to know.

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Yeah well----- I have been working on my presentation for the Battle of Shiloh Seminar to be held this Fall at the Kenosha Civil War Museum September 15th. I will be sharing the stage with Professor Tim Smith-- Larry J. Daniel, Army of the Tennessee specialist and Bjorn Skaparsan of Ranger Shiloh fame! So I have to do a good job! It took me weeks to do the Confederates and that is not done. I will provide the list when I can after I get my talk on paper and a powerpoint-- You need a powerpoint for uniforms and flags. Here is a total for all, Grants Army of the Tennessee, 30, 759 Rifles and 11, 907 smoothbores. Buells Army 17, 921 and only 2,476 smoothbores. I am still working on this.--- These are close approximates.--- I have it all in my notes--- Maybe I will write a book about it???????????? Tom

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3 hours ago, CSuniforms said:

Yeah well----- I have been working on my presentation for the Battle of Shiloh Seminar to be held this Fall at the Kenosha Civil War Museum September 15th. I will be sharing the stage with Professor Tim Smith-- Larry J. Daniel, Army of the Tennessee specialist and Bjorn Skaparsan of Ranger Shiloh fame! So I have to do a good job! It took me weeks to do the Confederates and that is not done. I will provide the list when I can after I get my talk on paper and a powerpoint-- You need a powerpoint for uniforms and flags. Here is a total for all, Grants Army of the Tennessee, 30, 759 Rifles and 11, 907 smoothbores. Buells Army 17, 921 and only 2,476 smoothbores. I am still working on this.--- These are close approximates.--- I have it all in my notes--- Maybe I will write a book about it???????????? Tom

If you ever do Tom, let me know, I would be willing to lend a hand.

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