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We’re all familiar with Hardee’s Light Infantry Tactics, the 86-page guide that became the handbook for Volunteer Infantry Regiments – on both sides -- during the Civil War. But, what if yours was a Cavalry regiment… or an Artillery battery?

The 1836 publication, A Concise System of Instructions and Regulations for the Militia and Volunteers written by Samuel Cooper was the latest handbook available for Calvary (pages 129 – 176) and Artillery (pages 177 – 213). In the Preface, Brevet-Captain Cooper describes the role of Volunteer Militia as, “responsible for repelling sudden invasion, and suppressing domestic insurrection.” And his handbook of nearly 300 pages provided every bit of knowledge necessary to assemble a cavalry or artillery unit, drill it in proper execution of duties, and most importantly, how to “interface with Infantry, in order to avoid embarrassment.” The Regulations mentioned in the title are not Army Legal Statutes, but “drum and bugle calls established for regulating troop movements” (pages 215 – 225). And, in case you are wondering, “Why does this Handbook begin on Page 129” …it doesn’t. The first hundred pages are Infantry and Rifle Tactics (subsequently updated by Hardee.) But Cooper’s guidebook includes diagrams, and Hardee’s does not: diagrams for infantry movements, cavalry movements and artillery operations are to be found pages 56 – 59 and 99 - 108 (Infantry); 174 – 177 (Cavalry); 208 – 213 (Artillery).

Who was Samuel Cooper?  Graduate of West Point (Class of 1815) this officer, trained in artillery and adjutant general functions, served in the U. S. Army until March 7th 1861. He resigned, and offered his services to the Confederate States of America (and became the senior General in the Confederate States Army.)

References:  https://archive.org/stream/hardeesrifleligh01hard#page/n1/mode/2up  Hardee's Light Infantry Tactics

https://archive.org/details/concisesystemof00coop/page/n6  Samuel Cooper's Concise System ...for Militia and Volunteers

 

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Samuel Cooper  After graduation commisioned Lt in Army light Artillery until 1837.Then he was appt. Chief Clerk of the US War Dept which he held until 1842 he was promoted to Col. and served in the Seminole War.he also saw action in the Mexican war.In 1852 he was promoted to Adj. General.He resigned his position in March 1861 to join the Confederate Army in Brigadier General;.He was asigned Adjutant and Inspector general of the Confederate Army directly under Jefferson Davis the entire war. 1862 he was promoted to full general..His final act was to preserve all records of the Confederate Army and turn them over to the US Govt.He retired to his plantation in VA until his death in 12-3-1876.He is buried in Christ Church Episcopol Cemetery in Alexandria VA..

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Mona

Thanks for providing the additional information on Samuel Cooper (whose last act with the U.S. Government, before resigning, is said to have been the Dismissal of Twiggs.) The ranking of Cooper as General Number One also led to animosity in the Confederate Army... Joseph Johnston, in particular, who considered everyone ranked above him as "undeserving."

Some additional links of interest, added because until running across Cooper's Militia Tactics, the number of different bugle calls and drum rolls for "regulating" soldiers in battle, and day-to-day activities, was assumed to be far fewer than turns out:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PXC5BktPnWM   Boots and Saddles (cavalry readiness alert)

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0fvkihdRV5g   A variety of Civil War drum alerts.

 

 

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i do not knowhow to put a link here but yall can go to find a grave to see his headstone..the original is somewhat unique--at least to me--under his name has  US and CSA

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