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Sean Chick

Location Unknown (Mostly Confederate Units on April 7)

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For The Maps of Shiloh I am creating a “tactical” order of battle for April 7, as the Confederates and Grant's army had lots of units mixed here and there, and it helps to understand the fighting. In doing so, I have found a few units where it is hard to establish where they were. All but one is Confederate.

 

 

46th Ohio

I have found nothing in Daniel, Smith, or Lanny K. Smith. You can bet if this regiment had so much as marched 100 yards, Thomas Worthington would have mentioned it along with a dig at Sherman. But there is nothing I have seen.

 

 

17th Alabama

Jackson lost his brigade on the night of April 6 except for the Washington Light Artillery. He does mention coming upon the 17th Alabama towards the end of the day. (OR 10 1 555) Should be noted that Dunlop mentions Jackson going into battle and supporting him, although he possibly misidetfied the commander. (OR 10 1 625)

 

25th Alabama

In Loomis' report he only mentions he was not with the brigade (one wing was led by Deas and the other by Moore) and that the regiment was engaged. Otherwise, nothing else is mentioned. Loomis in his second report indicates he was not in command on April 7 and mentions a report by Major George D. Johnston, that is not in the OR. (OR 10 1 540 and 544)

One place to look is Johnston's papers: https://cdm17336.contentdm.oclc.org/digital/collection/p17336coll44

I also found this, but it is vague about the action on April 7: http://vcwsg.com/PDF Files/Wilson P Howell Co I 25th Alabama Regiment .pdf

 

31st Alabama (49th)

The regiment is barely mentioned by Trabue, which is suspicious as his report is very detailed. He does praise them, but indicates their actions on April 7 could be found in their report, which is missing. (OR 10 1 617-619)

 

2nd Arkansas, 6th Arkansas, 7th Arkansas

Shaver went forward with the 2nd and 6th Arkansas on April 7. The 7th Arkansas was left with a battery and the 3rd Confederate moved to Breckinridge's sector, joining with Trabue. Timothy B. Smith has Shaver advancing into Jones Field with Wood, while Daniel does not mention him. Reed places Shaver attacking with Cheatham around noon. Its a mess, made worse by a lack of regiment reports. My gut says, since Shaver mentioned going in with Cheatham and Wood never mentioned Shaver, that Reed is right. (OR 10 1 575 579 593 Daniel 280 Smith 349 Reed 70)

 

11th Louisiana

What this regiment was doing is very hard to ascertain. Russell does not report seeing them. Barrow's report...well its better if I just quote it:

“On Monday morning, April 7, I am informed, and have every reason to believe it to be the case, a portion of our regiment, consisting of about 200 men and the following-named officers, Adjt. J. G. White, Capts. J. H. McCann and J. E. Austin, and Lieuts. Beynon, R. L. Hughes, J. E. Hyams, Davis, A. Le Blanc, and Thomas S. Pierce, all of whom had remained on the field the previous night, formed a battalion, and attached themselves to General Anderson’s brigade, under the command of Capt. J. E. Austin, Captain McCann having turned the command over to him. Why the command was thus transferred to a junior officer I am unable to state. They were immediately ordered with the brigade of General Anderson to our extreme left and to assist General Breckinridge’s command; but, just before meeting the enemy, came up with the brigade of Colonel Russell; was ordered into it'; advanced with it, engaged the enemy, and under the most galling fire fell back with it, where they reformed, and, with General Anderson on their left and Colonel Russell on their right, made a desperate charge, driving the enemy from his position, capturing two of his guns, and driving him inch by inch until he became so strongly re-enforced that they were ordered to fall back. Here Lieutenant Pierce, who had fought so bravely and gallantly throughout the previous day, and who had command of Company F, Continental Guards, fell, it is supposed, mortally wounded, as his body has not been since recovered or heard from. The loss in men was also heavy at this juncture. From that time throughout the whole engagement that portion of our regiment, a part of the time, however, was under the immediate command of General Anderson, as the First Brigade had been greatly cut up and divided, and a portion of General Breckinridge’s command coming in on their right and between them and Colonel Russell’s brigade.”

 

What I infer is they were going to meet with Anderson, only before they were engaged they joined up with Russell. I believe Anderson attacked right after Gibson did at Jones Field around 10:30 a.m. If correct, this report places Anderson in the attack with Wood, yet the reference to captured cannon has more in common with Gibson's attack. I think it possible the 11th Louisiana was involved in both attacks, but Barrow not being there, had to rely on second-hand reports. After that it gets weirder, with Russell being to the right of Breckinridge, although Austin's men being between Anderson and Breckinridge makes sense given Anderson and Trabue's reports.

 

To make it even weirder, Barrow is mentioned by Henry Allen, who led an ad hoc brigade around Shiloh Church centered around the 11th Louisiana. No other report I have seen mentions Austin's force. (OR 10 1 418 422 490 500-501 617-618)

 

55th Tennessee (McKoin’s)

Hardcastle mentions that he marched back to Shiloh with the 55th Tennessee, but they became separated. There is no report for the 55th Tennessee. Since Hardcastle’s 3rd Mississippi Battalion did not make it, I doubt the 55th Tennessee did. That said, Hardcastle did say he later saw the 55th Tennessee with the 16th Alabama, which went into the attack with Cheatham around noon, so maybe they did make it? Likely not with Cheatham’s attack, but arriving just as the army was preparing its last defense. (OR 10 1 597 603-604)


 

1st Alabama Cavalry

The only lead I have is Chalmers, who praises Clanton and makes it clear he was almost always at Chalmers' side. Without any other evidence, I must conclude Clanton stayed with Chalmers. (OR 10 1 553)

 

Kentucky Cavalry (Morgan’s)

Basil Duke does not mention anything for April 7 save Morgan being in the final rearguard. If Morgan's men had even captured one man, I am 100% certain Duke would have reported it, complete with a colorful anecdote. In the absence of anything else, I think Morgan was like most of the cavalry on April 7, in the rear forwarding stragglers. (Duke 154)

 

Kentucky Cavalry (Thompson’s)

Reed merely says “do not appear to have been engaged.” This unit remains one of Shiloh's little mysteries. (Reed 86)

 

 

Watson Artillery (Beltzhoover’s Louisiana)

There is an entire forum post where this unit's role is debated. I think they were in the final artillery line organized by Shoup. More on that under “Shoups’s Battery.”

 

Pettus Flying Artillery (Hudson’s Mississippi)

Outside of the one April 6 battlefield marker, there is nothing. Reed's wording “No mention in the reports of either Hudson's or Watson's batteries” makes me think those reports are still somewhere. A man can dream.” My guess though is as Martin quickly shifted towards Dill Branch on April 6, Hudson's battery may have fallen in with Shoup. More on that below. (Reed 88)

 

Shoup's Battery

I think one reason a few batteries remain a mystery on April7 is they were with Shoup and the “grand battery” he formed on April 6. I think they remained under his command and due to the confusion were not committed until late on April 7. I do not think its coincidence that these batteries are “missing” and were with Shoup on April 6. In the case of Hudson, he could have joined on the night of April 6 while Watson was in the rear and may have just fallen in. References in Smith also lead me to this conclusion. Among the batteries were: Hubbard’s Battery (Jackson Light Artillery, Arkansas), Trigg’s Battery (Austin Artillery, Arkansas), Robert’s Battery (Clarke County Light Artillery, Arkansas), Lyon Battery (Cobb’s Kentucky) check Smith Warren Light Artillery (Swett’s Mississippi) (Reed 70, Smith 384 390, Shoup “Art of War in ‘62” 12)

 

 

 

Last but not least, these Confederate units were not engaged.

 

18th Alabama, Tennessee Battalion (Crews’)

Both were guarding prisoners. (OR 10 1 555 616 618)

 

6th Mississippi

Cleburne sent them away from the battle, as the regiment was already thoroughly chewed up. (OR 10 1 582-583)

 

3rd Mississippi Battalion

Was marching back to Shiloh only to be informed by fleeing men it was all over. (OR 10 1 603-604)

 

Company E 2nd Battalion Alabama Artillery (Gage’s)

Chalmers says were not on the battlefield on April 7. His report is fairly detailed so I trust him. (OR 10 1 552)

 

Helena Artillery (Calvert’s Arkansas)

This is based on a guess, but they are not included in the April 6 grand battery. Shoup mentions sending men back to Corinth with captured cannon and I suspect it was Calvert’s battery. (Shoup 8-9)

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Confederate Roles

Another way to attempt to determine unit locations is “back to front” ...what roles were accomplished 6/7 April that might require use of a particular unit? These roles come to mind:

  • bodyguard/ escort for body of General Johnston's return to Corinth. [Seven officers – members of Johnston's Staff – were in company; likely Ran Hughes drove the wagon (conjecture). But a company of cavalry was also likely included...]

  • courier/ telegraph message delivery service to/ from Corinth. General Johnston (and after his death, PGT Beauregard) received/ transmitted numerous telegrams during the battle. And a force would have been left at Corinth to direct any of Van Dorn's late-arriving troops north.

  • Prisoner escort south. Units had to remove Federal soldiers to the rear evening of 4 APR/ early 5 APR after Friday Picket skirmish; prisoners taken early 6 APR from vicinity of Prentiss' Camp; prisoners taken early from Sherman's initial lines and pickets; and the 1800 or so captured and removed from the Hornet's Nest/ Hell's Hollow [four distinct operations that reached Corinth at different times]

  • Cavalry operation as “straggler patrol.” At least one cavalry unit would be required in rear of Confederate Army during 6/7 April to “redirect” stragglers;

  • Stragglers. Two States were “notorious” for straggling. Likely at least two regiments “mostly disappeared” to the rear.

Just a thought...

Ozzy

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As for Colonel Worthington's 46th Ohio: that officer had a “personality clash” with fellow Ohian William T. Sherman. And Worthington ultimately was subjected to Court Martial AUG 1862. I would not be surprised that Worthington submitted a report... that was never submitted by General Sherman (or which was presented at the Court Martial, and suppressed, by being included in the Court Martial file.) Also, Sherman wrote his official Shiloh report extremely quickly; finished it before Halleck arrived 11 April 1862, despite being actively engaged in the field thru 8 April. But, as regards the 46th Ohio:

After the war, Colonel Thomas Worthington was able to provide a detailed account of Shiloh due to the fact he kept a detailed diary. See https://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=hvd.hx4u5n&view=1up&seq=40 "History of 46th OVI" by Col. T. Worthington.

Worthington indicates on 39th page of above work [marked as 11] that at 3 p.m. on 6 April he was ordered to deliver a report to General Grant, and found him at dinner aboard the Tigress.

On the 40th page [marked as 12] Colonel Worthington indicates he was back at the Landing 5 p.m. and was ordered by General Grant to “return to the battle-line, and keep the troops well up in front.”

There is no report from Worthington concerning location or action of 46th Ohio on Day Two; and McDowell's report indicates “fragments of regiments assigned to his brigade joined other commands on Day Two (April 7).” Atwell Thompson's 1900 map does not indicate location of the 46th Ohio on Day Two. None of the 46th Ohio killed, wounded or captured at Shiloh are indicated as anything besides “6 April 1862” in Adjutant General records for Ohio: https://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=uiug.30112047586000&view=1up&seq=366&size=125 

Other Thomas Worthington references: https://onlinebooks.library.upenn.edu/webbin/book/lookupname?key=Worthington%2C Thomas%2C 1807-1884

The definite location of 46th OVI on Day Two remains undetermined. Likely locations: company-sized groups served in support of other regiments; shirkers hiding at Pittsburg Landing; battalion-sized unit acting as support for artillery on Grant's Last Line...

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That makes sense, as the 46th Ohio pretty much disintegrated after the afternoon fight in Crescent Field.

 

I do have an update...

In volume of Reminiscences of the Boys in Gray, page 764, a veteran of the 17th Alabama mentions guarding prisoners on April 7. Jackson in his report (555) says the regiment fell back to its starting line, but he saw it later. Seems the regiment was a cross purposes on April 7, hence its absence most of the day.

 

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23 hours ago, Ozzy said:

 

  • Stragglers. Two States were “notorious” for straggling. Likely at least two regiments “mostly disappeared” to the rear.

Which two states would those be?

I know Tennessee is often accused, but for the rest it seems very much like a regiment to regiment deal, even for Tennessee.

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As for shirkers at Shiloh, the two States besmirched: Tennessee and Ohio.

Tennessee was pointedly mentioned in a Letter from Mrs. Bragg to General Bragg (and in a subsequent letter, he agreed with her observation.) Tennessee also suffered from “that regiment” that even Breckinridge and Isham Harris could not control... leading to General Johnston trying his hand... leading to the General's death.

On the Federal side, Ohio was the one that had to overcome the bad reputation: EVERYONE knew about the 53rd Ohio and their Colonel, who told them to, “Run and save yourselves.” And in front of Brigadier General Hurlbut, Myer's 13th Ohio Light Artillery deserted its six guns immediately after a lucky hit from Rebel Artillery (thought to be Robertson's) exploded their ammunition chest. And there was the 71st Ohio (Rodney Mason), which was supposed to be with Stuart on the far left... but no one could recall seeing them. And of course, Buell's Army of the Ohio received bad press outside of Ohio for arriving at Savannah DAYS later than he should have... [This caused unexpected enmity, because many soldiers from Ohio claimed it was IOWA soldiers who were at the waterfront in their thousands; and that IOWA regiments had been captured at sunrise in Prentiss' Camp.]

It is wrong to paint “everyone from there” with the same brush, but it is human nature. [In the case of “Prentiss was captured early in the day,” it took him many months to retrieve his reputation – and the reputations of soldiers captured with him – after the incorrect reports in newspapers circulated... everywhere. And he and 2000 others were stuck in POW camps until OCT/ NOV 1862, without ability to address those charges.]

[Also interesting to note: both William T. Sherman and Ulysses S. Grant were originally from Ohio; yet both avoided the "Ohio Tar Brush" that appeared at Shiloh.]

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Maybe Grant sustained Mason to help out a fellow from Ohio? Just a thought as he might have smarted at the accusations against the state. At any rate, it is very much human nature to blame a whole group, even if the 1st, 4th, and 20th Tennessee did not conform to the stereotype about Tennessee troops at Shiloh.

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